scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question

Showing papers in "International Review of the Red Cross in 2013"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In view of the challenges frequently encountered in providing assistance to civilians in opposition-held territories, consideration is sometimes given to cross-border relief operations as discussed by the authors, which raise numerous legal questions, including whose consent is required; what constitutes arbitrary withholding of consent; what the consequences of withholding of consents are, both for those wishing to provide assistance and for the parties withholding consent; and what alternatives exist for providing assistance in such circumstances.
Abstract: In view of the challenges frequently encountered in providing assistance to civilians in opposition-held territories, consideration is sometimes given to cross-border relief operations. Such operations raise numerous legal questions, including whose consent is required; what constitutes arbitrary withholding of consent; what the consequences of withholding of consent are, both for those wishing to provide assistance and for the parties withholding consent; and what alternatives exist for providing assistance in such circumstances.

53 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors take the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights General Comment No. 14 as a normative framework from which states' obligations to respect, protect and fulfil the right to health across all conflict settings can be further developed.
Abstract: Attacks on and interference with health care services, providers, facilities, transports, and patients in situations of armed conflict, civil disturbance, and state repression pose enormous challenges to health care delivery in circumstances where it is most needed. In times of armed conflict, international humanitarian law (IHL) provides robust protection to health care services, but it also contains gaps. Moreover, IHL does not cover situations where an armed conflict does not exist. This paper focuses on the importance of a human rights approach to addressing these challenges, relying on the highest attainable standard of health as well as to civil and political rights. In particular we take the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights General Comment No. 14 (on Article 12 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights) as a normative framework from which states' obligations to respect, protect and fulfil the right to health across all conflict settings can be further developed.

46 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In 2011, the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) issued a report that summarised the fruits of experience and stimulated consideration of security strategies for aid providers.
Abstract: Attacks on health workers, clinics, hospitals, ambulances and patients during periods of armed conflict or civil disturbance pose enormous challenges to humanitarian response and constitute affronts to the imperatives of human rights and civilian protection. Violence inflicted on humanitarian aid workers is gaining the global attention it warrants. While the number of attacks on aid workers has decreased in recent years, in a handful of places, notably Sudan, Afghanistan, and Somalia, they have become more spectacular and frightening, with aid agencies targeted for kidnapping and subjected to use of explosives because of their perceived affiliation with Western governments. The assaults have galvanised the humanitarian aid community to track attacks and to engage in intensive and sophisticated discussion of means to increase operational security. After worldwide consultation, in 2011 the United Nations (UN) Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) issued a report that summarised the fruits of experience and stimulated consideration of security strategies for aid providers. By contrast, however, until very recently the far larger number of incidents of violence inflicted on and interference with indigenous health services and on international and local development agencies by state and armed groups has received comparatively little attention.

38 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a first attempt at analysing the complex set of issues around remote management practices in insecure environments and their increased use is presented, with a particular focus on Afghanistan and Somalia, and their implications for the future of humanitarian action.
Abstract: This article provides a first attempt at analysing the complex set of issues around remote management practices in insecure environments and their increased use. It looks at definitions and reviews existing published and grey literature on remote management and related practices. It tries to situate remote management in the evolving context of post-Cold War strategies of dealing with conflict and crisis. On the basis of interviews with a cross-section of aid workers, senior headquarters managerial and policy staff, donors, and research institutions, it provides an assessment of current remote management practices, with a particular focus on Afghanistan and Somalia, and their implications for the future of humanitarian action.

32 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the conditions for IHL applicability to multinational forces, the extent to which this body of law applies to peace operations, the determination of the parties to a conflict involving a multinational peace operation and the classification of such conflict are discussed.
Abstract: The multifaceted nature of peace operations today and the increasingly violent environments in which their personnel operate increase the likelihood of their being called upon to use force. It thus becomes all the more important to understand when and how international humanitarian law (IHL) applies to their action. This article attempts to clarify the conditions for IHL applicability to multinational forces, the extent to which this body of law applies to peace operations, the determination of the parties to a conflict involving a multinational peace operation and the classification of such conflict. Finally, it tackles the important question of the personal, temporal and geographical scope of IHL in peace operations.

28 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Methods that have been developed to ensure ‘legal interoperability’ are discussed, and some of these methods attempt to avoid situations where such interoperability is required.
Abstract: This article describes some of the challenges raised by multinational operations for the application of international humanitarian law. Such challenges are the result of different levels of ratification of treaties, divergent interpretations of shared obligations, and the fact that there is no central authority that determines who is a party to an armed conflict. The article discusses methods that have been developed to ensure ‘legal interoperability’. Some of these methods attempt to avoid situations where such interoperability is required. Where this is not possible, a ‘maximalist’ or a ‘minimalist’ approach can be taken, and in practice these are usually combined.

25 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The concept of the protection of civilians in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations fulfils a critical role in realising broader protection objectives, which have in recent years become an important focus of international relations and international law as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The ‘protection of civilians’ mandate in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations fulfils a critical role in realising broader protection objectives, which have in recent years become an important focus of international relations and international law. The concepts of the ‘protection of civilians’ constructed by the humanitarian, human rights and peacekeeping communities have evolved somewhat separately, resulting in disparate understandings of the associated normative bases, substance and responsibilities. If UN peacekeepers are to effectively provide physical protection to civilians under threat of violence, it is necessary to untangle this conceptual and normative confusion. The practical expectations of the use of force to protect civilians must be clear, and an overarching framework is needed to facilitate the spectrum of actors working in a complementary way towards the common objectives of the broader protection agenda.

23 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explore the methodology and main findings of field studies conducted for the ICRC's Health Care in Danger project in Afghanistan, Somalia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo between 2010 and 2013.
Abstract: This article explores the methodology and main findings of field studies conducted for the ICRC's Health Care in Danger project in Afghanistan, Somalia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo between 2010 and 2013. It discusses some of the actions that the ICRC takes in its health programmes to facilitate access to health care, and its approach to promoting better respect for the laws protecting it. It then suggests what more needs to be done to curb the violence.

19 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Certain areas where implementation of existing IHL and IHRL is needed are indicated, including in domestic normative frameworks, military doctrine and practice, as well as training of health-care personnel on these international legal frameworks and medical ethics.
Abstract: Ensuring respect for, and protection of, the wounded and sick and delivery of health care to them were at the origin of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, as well as the development of international humanitarian law (IHL). In today's armed conflicts and other emergencies, the problem is not the lack of existing international rules but the implementation of relevant IHL and international human rights law (IHRL) which form a complementary framework governing this issue. Against the backdrop of the different manifestations of violence observed by the ICRC in the field and expert consultations held in the framework of the Health Care in Danger Project, this article identifies commonalities between the two legal regimes, including with respect to obligations to provide and facilitate impartial health care; prohibitions of attacks against wounded and sick and health-care providers; prohibitions to arbitrarily obstruct access to health care; prohibitions to harass health-care personnel, in violation of medical ethics; or positive obligations to ensure essential medical supplies and health-care infrastructure and protect health-care providers against violent interferences by others. The article concludes by indicating certain areas where implementation of existing IHL and IHRL is needed, including in domestic normative frameworks, military doctrine and practice, as well as training of health-care personnel on these international legal frameworks and medical ethics.

17 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The United Nations (UN) is the main player in setting up multifunctional peace operations and has become an integral part of international society to the extent that they are now one of the major regulating institutions of international relations.
Abstract: Multifunctional peace operations have become an integral part of international society to the extent that they are now one of the major regulating institutions of international relations. The United Nations (UN) is the main player in setting up such operations. The UN has seen a major but gradual evolution of its role in maintaining and establishing peace. Having developed peacekeeping as a form of impartial interposition between belligerents during the Suez Crisis in 1956, the UN has continually broadened its sphere of action. These cumbersome and complex operations are demanding and present the UN with a number of challenges.

17 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a preliminary analysis of issues relating to the types of violence that are directed against humanitarian medical missions is carried out, starting from the observation that violence can cause some degree of disruption for a medical organisation such as Medecins Sans Frontieres, despite its wide experience which has brought it much wisdom and generated numerous and sporadic responses to such events.
Abstract: The aim of this article is to carry out a preliminary analysis of issues relating to the types of violence that are directed against humanitarian medical missions. Starting from the observation that violence can cause some degree of disruption for a medical organisation such as Medecins Sans Frontieres, despite its wide experience which has brought it much wisdom and generated numerous and sporadic responses to such events, the article offers a more subtle analysis of terms and of situations of violence so as to contribute to the establishment of a research project and, in a second phase, to an awareness-raising campaign focusing on these complex phenomena.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This research examines the impact on health-care provision of advanced state failure and of the violence frequently associated with it, drawing from six country case studies, and calls for a deeper understanding of this pluralism, initiative, adaptation and innovation in order to engage autonomous health actors effectively.
Abstract: This research examines the impact on health-care provision of advanced state failure and of the violence frequently associated with it, drawing from six country case studies. In all contexts, the coverage and scope of health services change when the state fails. Human resources expand due to unplanned increased production. Injury, threat, death, displacement, migration, insufficient salaries, and degraded skills all impact on performance. Dwindling public domestic funding for health causes increasing household out-of-pocket expenditure. The supply, quality control, distribution, and utilisation of medicines are severely affected. Health information becomes incomplete and unreliable. Leadership and planning are compromised as international agencies pursue their own agendas, frequently disconnected from local dynamics. Yet beyond the state these arenas are crowded with autonomous health actors, who respond to state withdrawal and structural violence in assorted ways, from the harmful to the beneficial. Integrating these existing resources into a cohesive health system calls for a deeper understanding of this pluralism, initiative, adaptation and innovation, and a long-term reorientation of development assistance in order to engage them effectively.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the status of military and civilian personnel of sending states and international organizations involved in UN peace operations is examined and the need for cooperation between the host state, the sending states, and the international organisation in this context is emphasized.
Abstract: This article examines the status of military and civilian personnel of sending states and international organisations involved in UN peace operations. It undertakes an assessment of relevant customary law, examines various forms of treaty regulation and considers topics and procedures for effective settlement of open issues prior to the mission. The author stresses the need for cooperation between the host state, the sending states and the international organisation in this context. He draws some conclusions with a view to enhancing the legal protection of personnel involved in current and future UN peace operations.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Tensions in peacetime and in times of armed conflict are looked at and the types of cases that doctors and other health-care workers will face and the common ethical decision-making framework and the role of communication are discussed.
Abstract: Health-care workers face ethical dilemmas in their decision-making in every clinical intervention they make. In times of armed conflict the decisions may be different, and the circumstances can combine to raise ethical tensions. This article looks at the tensions in peacetime and in times of armed conflict and examines the types of cases that doctors and other health-care workers will face. It also discusses the common ethical decision-making framework and the role of communication within both clinical care and ethical analysis.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Fundamental Principles are used as effective operational tools for acceptance, access and safety for the Lebanese Red Cross, which is the only public service and humanitarian actor with access throughout the country.
Abstract: Many aid agencies and commentators suggest that humanitarian principles are of little value to the humanitarian crises of today. However, through profiling the experience of the Lebanese Red Cross, this article highlights the enduring value and impact of the application of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Fundamental Principles as effective operational tools for acceptance, access and safety. Having suffered a series of security incidents during the civil war and subsequent disturbances and tensions, this National Society deliberately sought to increase its acceptance amongst different groups. One of the approaches used was the systematic operational application of the Fundamental Principles. Today, the Lebanese Red Cross is the only public service and Lebanese humanitarian actor with access throughout the country. This article seeks to address the relative absence of attention to how humanitarian organisations apply humanitarian principles in practice – and their responsibility and accountability to do so – by describing the systematic approach of the Lebanese Red Cross.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examine the validity of special rules of attribution of conduct based on the notions of "effective control" or "ultimate control" over the acts of the multinational force and discuss the possibility of dual responsibility of both the organisation and the troop-contributing state concerned.
Abstract: The article aims to examine, in light of the codification work of the International Law Commission and of the most recent practice, some issues concerning the allocation of responsibility between an organisation and its troop-contributing states for the conduct taken in the course of a multinational operation (with a specific focus on UN operations). After explaining the general rule of attribution of conduct based on the status of the multinational force as an organ or an agent of the organisation, this article will examine the validity of special rules of attribution of conduct based on the notions of ‘effective control’ or ‘ultimate control’ over the acts of the multinational force. Finally, I will discuss the possibility of dual responsibility of both the organisation and the troop-contributing state concerned.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) as discussed by the authors studied the nature and impact of violence on health care in armed conflict and other emergencies, and found that the impact of this form of violence and its accompanying insecurity goes beyond those directly affected to the many who are ultimately denied health care.
Abstract: Health-related data provide the basis of policy in many domains. By using a methodology specifically designed to gather data about any form of violence and its impact, violence affecting health-care personnel, health-care facilities, and the wounded and sick in these facilities can be quantified on an objective basis. The impact of this form of violence and its accompanying insecurity goes beyond those directly affected to the many who are ultimately denied health care. Reliable data about both the violence affecting health-care personnel and facilities and the ‘knock-on’ effects of this violence on the health of many others have a critical role to play in influencing the policies of all stakeholders, including governments, in favour of greater security of effective and impartial health care in armed conflict and other emergencies. The International Committee of the Red Cross has undertaken a study that attempts to understand on a global basis the nature and impact of the many different kinds of violence affecting health care.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the legal, policy and perception/security implications of different types of "peace operations by proxy" and the additional challenges that such operations create for humanitarian action are analyzed.
Abstract: Mandates of United Nations (UN) peacekeeping missions increasingly include stabilisation and peace enforcement components, which imply a proactive use of force often carried out by national, regional or multinational non-UN partners, operating either in support of or with the support of the UN, acting as ‘proxies’. This article analyses the legal, policy and perception/security implications of different types of ‘peace operations by proxy’ and the additional challenges that such operations create for humanitarian action. It suggests some mitigating measures, including opportunities offered by the UN Human Rights Due Diligence Policy, for a more coherent approach to the protection of civilians, but also acknowledges some of the limitations to an independent UN-led humanitarian action.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors address the challenges that the application of international humanitarian law (IHL) faces in the Middle East in general and in the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict in particular.
Abstract: In his article ‘Challenges to international humanitarian law: Israel's occupation policy’, the president of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), Mr Peter Maurer, addresses the challenges that the application of international humanitarian law (IHL) faces in the Middle East in general and in the context of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict in particular. Mr Maurer focuses on three main issues in relation to Israel's military occupation of the Palestinian territory: East Jerusalem, settlements and the Annexation Wall. Furthermore, he touches on the ICRC's confidentiality policy and suggests that the ICRC engage in public dialogue with parties to the conflict, especially when confidential dialogue fails to improve the lives of the affected people.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that, in view of the object and purpose of the First Additional Protocol to the Geneva Conventions, expected incidental casualties of military medical personnel and wounded and sick combatants must be included among the relevant incidental casualties under the principles of proportionality and precautions.
Abstract: Military medical personnel and objects, as well as wounded and sick combatants, are protected against direct attack under the principle of distinction in international humanitarian law. However, some authors argue that they are not covered by the principles of proportionality and precautions. This opinion note explains that military medical objects constitute civilian objects under the rules governing the conduct of hostilities. It also demonstrates that, in view of the object and purpose of the First Additional Protocol to the Geneva Conventions, expected incidental casualties of military medical personnel and wounded and sick combatants must be included among the relevant incidental casualties under the principles of proportionality and precautions. This stems in particular from the interpretation of the obligation ‘to respect and protect’ as the overarching obligation of the special protection afforded to all medical personnel and wounded and sick. Support for this conclusion can be found in a number of military manuals and in the Additional Protocol’s preparatory work and Commentaries. This conclusion also reflects customary law.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The applicability and application of international humanitarian law (IHL) to multinational forces are of central interest to the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO, also referred to as "the Alliance" or "the Organisation".
Abstract: Questions of the applicability and application of international humanitarian law (IHL) to multinational forces are of central interest to the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO, also referred to as ‘the Alliance’ or ‘the Organisation’). Far from being incidental, multinational military coordination is the Organisation's raison d’etre and the driving concept behind its methods, history and operations. Since the end of the Cold War, it has conducted a series of major multinational military operations – in and around the Balkans, Afghanistan, Libya and elsewhere – in which questions of the application of IHL have inevitably arisen.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The protection of the wounded and of medical personnel is part of the common heritage of the world’s cultures and religions, and the respect traditionally shown for the work of those providing medical care has always been matched by the respect for medical ethics shown by medical personnel themselves.
Abstract: crowds of people and relief workers rush to the scene to assist the wounded, a second bomb explodes, timed so as to inflict the greatest possible damage on the emergency services. Vehicles are being held up at an army checkpoint on a major highway: everyone – including an ambulance on its way to the hospital – is forced to queue for hours. It takes too long and the patient dies from lack of treatment. A doctor is put in prison for having treated wounded demonstrators following violent clashes between an opposition movement and the police. An armed group seizes a health-care centre, loots it, and kills the wounded members of the enemy group as well as the medical personnel. The local inhabitants have no access to health care and many of them have no choice but to flee the area. These incidents could have taken place anywhere today, from the Central African Republic to Syria.1 They are a part of the contemporary reality of warfare – so much so, in fact, that they barely stand out in the constant stream of news headlines. They are just a few examples of the types of threats, attacks, and obstructions that health services experience in armed conflicts and other emergency situations. Not only are medical personnel deliberately targeted, but wounded people, be they civilians or military, are not spared either. The accumulation of such incidents creates insecurity – real or perceived – and their consequences go beyond their immediate impact. The lack of security creates ‘medical deserts’, depriving entire communities of access to health care and causing severe and lasting disruption to public health across geographical areas. The indirect consequences of violence against health care are thus diffuse, insidious, and silent, but may assume disastrous proportions. Nonetheless, the protection of the wounded and of medical personnel is part of the common heritage of the world’s cultures and religions.2 The respect traditionally shown for the work of those providing medical care has always been matched by the respect for medical ethics shown by medical personnel themselves. Medical ethics derive from the civilisation of ancient Greece, with the famous Hippocratic Oath; in Arabic medicine, the earliest surviving text on medical ethics is Ishāq ibn ‘Alı̄ al-Ruhāwı̄’s tenth-century book Practical Ethics of the Physician. EDITORIAL: VIOLENCE AGAINST HEALTH CARE: GIVING IN IS NOT AN OPTION International Review of the Red Cross (2013), 95 (889), 5–12. Violence against health care doi:10.1017/S1816383114000125

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the main issues relevant for the applicability and application of international humanitarian law (IHL) in military operations under the command of the European Union (EU) are identified.
Abstract: In this contribution, I will identify the main issues relevant for the applicability and application of international humanitarian law (IHL) in military operations under the command of the European Union (EU) and I will briefly describe the EU's practice and policy in this respect.1

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The applicability of international humanitarian law (IHL) to United Nations (UN) forces has long generated discussion and questions have arisen as to whether they should be equally subject to the rules of IHL as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The applicability of international humanitarian law (IHL) to United Nations (UN) forces has long generated discussion. When peacekeepers have become engaged in hostilities of such a nature as to trigger the application of IHL (either via acts in selfdefence, or in the course of carrying out a mandate as authorised by the UN Security Council under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations1), questions have arisen as to whether they should be equally subject to the rules of IHL. Such questions arise as UN peacekeeping forces act on behalf of the international community and thus have a ‘just cause’, so to speak, to use force.2 Despite these questions, however, it now appears well settled that the distinction between jus ad bellum (the right to use force under public international law) and jus in bello (the law governing the conduct of hostilities) should be maintained, and that IHL applies PERSPECTIVES ON IHL AND MULTINATIONAL FORCES

Journal Article
TL;DR: How international humanitarian law (IHL) and the right to health complement each other in obliging states to mitigate the direct and indirect health consequences of non-international armed conflicts is analyzed.
Abstract: Abstract Armed conflicts have numerous adverse health consequences for the affected populations, many of which occur in the long-term. This article analyses in detail how international humanitarian law (IHL) and the right to health complement each other in obliging states to mitigate the direct and indirect health consequences of non-international armed conflicts. With its historical origin and purpose of protecting wounded and sick combatants of standing governmental armies, IHL focuses on the protection of the wounded and sick suffering from the direct health consequences of armed conflicts, such as injuries resulting from ongoing hostilities. The right to health is more expansive: it obliges states to prioritise the provision of primary health care through creating and maintaining an accessible basic health system. This focus enables it to highlight and address the indirect health consequences of armed conflicts, such as the spreading of epidemic and endemic diseases and rising child and maternal mortality and morbidity.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The debate section of the Review aims at contributing to the reflection on current ethical, legal, or practical controversies around humanitarian issues as mentioned in this paper, with the focus on human rights and human dignity.
Abstract: The ‘debate’ section of the Review aims at contributing to the reflection on current ethical, legal, or practical controversies around humanitarian issues.In this issue of the Review, we invited tw ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The relationship between international humanitarian law and human rights law, the principle of legality in the context of relying on United Nations Security Council resolutions as a justification for taking detainees, and the transfer of detainees where there is a substantial risk of torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment are discussed in this article.
Abstract: This paper discusses three main areas of controversy relating to detention in the context of multinational operations: the relationship between international humanitarian law and human rights law; the principle of legality in the context of relying on United Nations Security Council resolutions as a justification for taking detainees; and the transfer of detainees where there is, for example, a substantial risk of torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. The paper then considers how the Copenhagen Principles address these issues.

Journal ArticleDOI
Amrei Müller1
TL;DR: Mueller et al. as mentioned in this paper analyzed in detail how international humanitarian law and the right to health complement each other in obliging states to mitigate the direct and indirect health consequences of non-international armed conflicts.
Abstract: Armed conflicts have numerous adverse health consequences for the affected populations, many of which occur in the long-term. This article analyses in detail how international humanitarian law (IHL) and the right to health complement each other in obliging states to mitigate the direct and indirect health consequences of non-international armed conflicts. With its historical origin and purpose of protecting wounded and sick combatants of standing governmental armies, IHL focuses on the protection of the wounded and sick suffering from the direct health consequences * I would like to thank the anonymous reviewers and the editors of the International Review of the Red Cross for their helpful comments to earlier versions of this article. Any remaining errors are of course my own. Email: a.s.mueller@jus.uio.no. International Review of the Red Cross (2013), 95 (889), 129–165. Violence against health care doi:10.1017/S1816383113000738

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this regard, the court proceedings held before the War Crimes Chamber in Belgrade and the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in The Hague in connection with the events in and around the Vukovar Hospital and Ovcara farm have provided an appropriate judicial response.
Abstract: Among the increasingly frequent acts of non-compliance with, and grievous violations of, international humanitarian law around the world, especially in non-international armed conflicts, attacks on objects and persons enjoying special protection, and their abuse, as well as the misuse of the distinctive emblems of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, come as no surprise. Although a repressive approach to the problem – through the prosecution and punishment of perpetrators – cannot completely prevent such occurrences, an effective and appropriate judicial stigmatisation can significantly contribute to making them as rare as possible. In this regard, the court proceedings held before the War Crimes Chamber in Belgrade and the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in The Hague in connection with the events in and around the Vukovar Hospital and Ovcara farm have provided an appropriate judicial response. This is notwithstanding the fact that, at least for now, not all perpetrators have been prosecuted for their acts (or failure to act) at the time of the commission of these grave crimes.

Journal Article
TL;DR: A multi-scale modeling of electron transport via a metal-semiconductor interface is carried out by coupling ab initio calculations with three-dimensional finite element ensemble Monte Carlo simulations and shows that variations of the electronic properties with the distance from the interface have a strong impact on the transport characteristics.
Abstract: A multi-scale modeling of electron transport via a metal-semiconductor interface is carried out by coupling ab initio calculations with three-dimensional finite element ensemble Monte Carlo simulations. The results for the Mo/GaAs (001) interface show that variations of the electronic properties with the distance from the interface have a strong impact on the transport characteristics. In particular, the calculated tunneling barrier differs dramatically from that of the ideal Schottky model of an abrupt metal-semiconductor interface. The band gap narrowing near the interface lowers resistivity by more than one order of magnitude: from 2.1×10 Ωcm to 4.7×10 Ωcm. The dependence of the electron effective mass from the distance to the interface also plays an important role bringing resistivity to 7.9×10 Ωcm.