Showing papers in "IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering in 2014"
TL;DR: An innovative GSM/Bluetooth based remote controlled embedded system for irrigation that enables users to take advantage of the globally deployed GSM networks with its low SMS service cost to use mobile phones and simple SMS commands to manage their irrigation system is proposed.
Abstract: The greenhouse based modern agriculture industries are the recent requirement in every part of agriculture in India. In this technology, the humidity and temperature of plants are precisely controlled. Due to the variable atmospheric circumstances these conditions sometimes may vary from place to place in large farmhouse, which makes very difficult to maintain the uniformity at all the places in the farmhouse manually. It is observed that for the first time an android phone-control the Irrigation system, which could give the facilities of maintaining uniform environmental conditions are proposed. The Android Software Development Kit provides the tools and Application Programmable Interface necessary to begin developing applications on the Android platform using the Java programming language. Mobile phones have almost become an integral part of human life serving multiple needs of humans. This application makes use of the GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) feature of mobile phone as a solution for irrigation control system. GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) is used to inform the user about the exact field condition. The information is passed onto the user request in the form of SMS. Drip irrigation is artificial method of supplying water to the roots of the plant. It is also called micro irrigation. In past few years there is a rapid growth in this system. The user communicates with the centralized unit through SMS. The centralized unit communicates with the system through SMS which will be received by the GSM with the help of the SIM card. The GSM sends this data to ARM7which is also continuously receives the data from sensors in some form of codes. After processing, this data is displayed on the LCD. Thus in short whenever the system receives the activation command from the subscriber it checks all the field conditions and gives a detailed feedback to the user and waits for another activation command to start the motor. The motor is controlled by a simple manipulation in the internal structure of the starter. The starter coil is indirectly activated by means of a transistorized relay circuit. When the motor is started, a constant monitoring on soil moisture and water level is done & once the soil moisture is reached to sufficient level the motor is automatically turned off & a massage is send to subscriber that the motor is turned off. The water level indicator indicates three levels low, medium, high and also empty tank. Shen etc. al (2007) introduced a GSM-SMS remote measurement and control system for greenhouse based on PC-based database system connected with base station. Base station is developed by using a microcontroller, GSM module, sensors and actuators. In practical operation, the central station receives and sends messages through GSM module. Criterion value of parameters to be measured in every base station is set by central station, and then in base stations parameters including the air temperature, the air humidity. Indu etc. al (2013) mainly focuses on reviews in the field of remote monitoring and control, the technology used and their potential advantages. The paper proposes an innovative GSM/Bluetooth based remote controlled embedded system for irrigation. The system sets the irrigation time depending on the temperature and humidity reading from sensors and type of crop and can automatically irrigate the field when unattended. Information is exchanged between far end and designed system via SMS on GSM network. A Bluetooth module is also interfaced with the main microcontroller chip which eliminates the SMS charges when the user is within the limited range of few meters to the designated system. The system informs users about many conditions like status of electricity, dry running motor, increased temperature, water content in soil and smoke via SMS on GSM network or by Bluetooth. The GSM based irrigation system (Fig.1) may offer users the flexibility to regulate and control the operations of their irrigation systems with little intervention to reduce runoff from over watering for improvement in crop yield. This enables users to take advantage of the globally deployed GSM networks with its low SMS service cost to use mobile phones and simple SMS commands to manage their irrigation system. It will be possible for users to use SMS to monitor directly the conditions of their farmland, schedule the water
TL;DR: In this paper, a study was conducted on 15 workers engaged in small scale industry situated at MIDC Wardha (Maharashtra, India). Video tape on different activities of the workers was prepared and then images were cropped from it for the analysis.
Abstract: The common occupational problem of the workers is musculoskeletal disorders in India. Currently the work is being carried out manually in most of the small scale industries therefore the issues of work related musculoskeletal disorders and injury in different body sites are of top priority. Postural analysis tool using Rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) and Rapid entire body assessment (REBA) were applied for assessment which indicates that the workers are working above the secure limit. This ergonomic study sheds light on posture analysis of the workers in small scale industry. The study was conducted on 15 workers engaged in small scale industry situated at MIDC Wardha (Maharashtra, India). Video tape on different activities of the workers was prepared and then images were cropped from it for the analysis. This study presents assessment of work posture of workers engaged in different activities of small scale industry. Evaluation of posture was carried out using RULA and REBA. Assessment is carried out using worksheet. The RULA method determined that the majority of the workers were under high risk levels and required immediate change. The REBA method determined that some of the workers were under lower levels and majority at high risk levels. Hence it was concluded that; there is a lack of ergonomics awareness and understanding in small scale industries. Evaluation using postural analysis by RULA and REBA indicates that the workers are working above the secure limit. The major percentage of the workers having awkward postures. Thus the workers are under moderate to high risk of Musculoskeletal disorders.
TL;DR: In this article, the co-relation curves are developed for packing density method between compression strength and water cement ratio, paste content to reduce the time involved in trial to decide water cements ratio and paste content for a particular grade of concrete.
Abstract: Packing density is new kind of mix design method used to design different types of concrete To optimize the particle packing density of concrete, the particles should be selected to fill up the voids between large particles with smaller particles and so on, in order to obtain a dense and stiff particle structure Higher degree of particle packing leads to minimum voids, maximum density and requirement of cement and water will be less In this work the co-relation curves are developed for packing density method between compression strength and water cement ratio, paste content to reduce the time involved in trial to decide water cement ratio and paste content for a particular grade of concrete Results obtained by packing density method are compared with IS code method The optimum bulk density was obtained at proportion of 42% coarse aggregates (20mm downsize), 18% coarse aggregates (125mm downsize) and 40% fine aggregates Large number of trial casting were carried out for each grade of concrete (ie, M20, M25, M30, M35 and M40) with different water cement ratio and three paste contents in excess of void content To finalise mix proportions using packing density method flow table tests were carried out to decide water cement ratio and paste content in excess of void content for each grade of concrete The finalised mix proportion for each grade of concrete was used to cast the cube specimens for 7 days and 28 days curing age The cube compressive strength results obtained by packing density and IS code method are nearly same The co-relation curves were plotted for packing density results alone and also combining the results of packing density and IS code methods The co-relation curves were plotted between compressive strength vs water cement ratio at 7 and 28 days curing age and compressive strength vs paste content at 7 and 28 days curing age Very good co-relation is obtained with a co-relation co- efficient of 0953 (minimum) to 0998 (maximum) These curves can be used to decide the water cement ratio and paste content for the specified grade of concrete incase of packing density method thus reducing the material and time involved in trial testing
TL;DR: In this paper, shredded rubber from waste has been chosen as the reinforcement material and cement as binding agent which was randomly included into the soil at three different percentages of fibre content, i.e. 5% 10% and 15% by weight of soil.
Abstract: Construction of engineering structures on weak or soft soil is considered as unsafe. Improvement of load bearing capacity of the soil may be undertaken by a variety of ground improvement techniques. In the present investigation, shredded rubber from waste has been chosen as the reinforcement material and cement as binding agent which was randomly included into the soil at three different percentages of fibre content, i.e. 5% 10% and 15% by weight of soil. The investigation has been focused on the strength behaviour of soil reinforced with randomly included shredded rubber fibre. The samples were subjected to California bearing ratio and unconfined compression tests. The tests have clearly shown a significant improvement in the shear strength and bearing capacity parameters of the studied soil. The results obtained are compared with unreinforced samples and inferences are drawn towards the usability and effectiveness of fiber reinforcement as a replacement for deep or raft foundation and on pavement subgrade soil as a cost effective approach. The low strength and high compressible soft clay soils were found to improve by addition of shredded rubber and cement. It can be concluded that shredded rubber fibre can be considered as a good earth reinforcement material.
TL;DR: In this article, a study examines the major causes of accidents and suggests ways of mitigating these accidents on construction sites, the authors identify the various causes and effect of accidents at construction sites and propose ways and means of reducing these accidents.
Abstract: As the growth of construction industry blossoms in Nigeria, this also causes an increase in competition of projects to execute between construction firms which are however achieved at the expense of the workers welfare and their safety. Therefore identifying the various causes and effect of accidents on construction sites and proposing ways and means of reducing these accidents should be acknowledged. This study examines the major causes of accidents and suggests ways of mitigating these accidents on construction sites. A designed questionnaire was administered and descriptive statistics tool such as frequency, mean, percentage and relative importance index were used for the analysis. Construction firms in Nigeria can be classified as Multinationals, Large Scale indigenous construction firms and Small Scale indigenous construction firms. From the research negligence is the main cause of accidents on construction sites, labourers are also the major victims of these site accidents, loss of time in project execution is the major effect caused by these accidents in project execution. To ensure safety and to reduce the occurrence of construction site accidents to the minimum, management of construction firms must undertake and implement some of the context of this study such as implementation of safety policy, use of safety items and gears, training on safety measures and accident prevention methods, ensuring safe working environment and enforcing safety rules etc.
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of fly ash derived from combustion of sub-bituminous coal at electric power plants in stabilization of soft fine-grained red soils was evaluated.
Abstract: Soil is a peculiar material. Some waste materials such Fly Ash, rice husk ash, pond ash may use to make the soil to be stable. Addition of such materials will increase the physical as well as chemical properties of the soil. Some expecting properties to be improved are CBR value, shear strength, liquidity index, plasticity index, unconfined compressive strength and bearing capacity etc. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Fly Ash derived from combustion of sub-bituminous coal at electric power plants in stabilization of soft fine-grained red soils. California bearing ratio (CBR) and other strength property tests were conducted on soil. The soil is in range of plasticity, with plasticity indices ranging between 25 and 30. Tests were conducted on soils and soil-Fly Ash mixtures prepared at optimum water content of 9% .Addition of Fly Ash resulted in appreciable increases in the CBR of the soil. For water contents 9% wet of optimum, CBRs of the soils are found in varying percentage such that 3,5,6and 9.We will found optimum CBR value of the soil is 6%.Increment of CBR value is used to reduce the thickness of the pavement. And increasing the bearing capacity of soil.
TL;DR: In this article, the effects of micro synthetic polypropylene fiber in improving concrete strength with the main focus of identifying the optimal quantity for improved compressive and flexural strength of concrete.
Abstract: Worldwide, concrete is a very important construction material, impacting heavily on Gross Domestic Products of many nations: a $30 billion business for ready- mix concrete production industry per year in the United States and a cement consumption rate of about 106kg per person in Nigeria. It is therefore imperative that this important material in the world construction industry must also be endued with the best possible properties. The principles on which reinforced concrete structural designs were based hangs on quality concrete material used in conjunction with quality steel or reinforcing material. However, in Nigeria, the reinforcement steel commonly used is of poor qualities as recent researches have shown that over 40% of 12 mm and 16 mm used within Lagos in 2010 failed the 460N/mm2 yield strength bench mark of BS8110 of 1997. The employment of micro fibers in the concrete will improve the strength and compensate for the apparently declining strength of Nigerian reinforced concrete building constructions and will also improve the strength of the non-reinforced concrete-sand crate block buildings. This research studies the effects of micro synthetic polypropylene fiber in improving concrete strength with the main focus of identifying the optimal quantity for improved compressive and flexural strengths of concrete. Destructive and non-destructive compressive strength tests and destructive flexural strength tests were carried out on the samples built with 0.25%, 0.5% 0.75% and 1% contents of polypropylene fibers alongside a control samples after 7, 14, 21 28 days of curing. The optimal percentage of polypropylene fiber that produced improved compressive and flexural strengths were found to lie within 0.25% and 0.5%.
TL;DR: In this paper, a study was carried out to determine the density and mechanical properties of Al-7%Si alloy - Bagasse Ash (BA) composite produced at 800 o C. BA obtained at 700 o C and having high silica and alumina contents of up to 77.29% and 10.95%, respectively was used as reinforcement and varied from 0vol% to 30vol%.
Abstract: The study was carried out to determine the density and mechanical properties of Al-7%Si alloy - Bagasse Ash (BA) composite produced at 800 o C. BA obtained at 700 o C and having high silica and alumina contents of up to 77.29% and 10.95%, respectively was used as reinforcement and varied from 0vol% to 30vol%. The density and some mechanical properties of the produced composites were determined. The results showed that the density decreases with percentage increase in reinforcement from 2840.242kgm -3 to 2292.208kgm -3 with the minimum value at 30vol% BA. The results of the mechanical properties tests showed that, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) varies from 139.677MNm -2 to 176.683MNm -2 with maximum value at 10vol% BA, Young modulus varies from 1429.890MNm -2 to 1725.425MNm -2 with maximum value at 10vol% BA, impact strength varies from 75.401kJm -2 to 128.262kJm -2 with maximum value at 10vol% BA and hardness varies from 70.467RHV to 90.767HRV with maximum value at 20vol% BA and with all the hardness values better than that of the control sample. The results also showed that, the fatigue strength varies from 0.066x10 6 cycles to 1.797x10 6 cycles with maximum value at 15vol% BA and the percentage elongation having approximately the same value.The results of the statistical analysis showed that there are significant differences among the means of each property of the composites at various levels of BA replacement (P<0.05).It was concluded that bagasse ash can be used as reinforcement in aluminium composites and the produced composites could be used in automobile industry for the production of engine blocks, pistons, among others.
TL;DR: An overview of the state-of-the-art of key biomass conversion technologies currently deployed and technologies that may play a key role in the future, including possible linkage to CO2 capture and sequestration technology (CCS) is given in this article.
Abstract: The world’s energy markets rely heavily on the fossil fuels coal, petroleum crude oil, and natural gas as sources of thermal energy; gaseous, liquid, and solid fuels; and chemicals. Since millions of years are required to form fossil fuels in the earth, their reserves are finite and subject to depletion as they are consumed. The only natural, renewable carbon resource known that is large enough to be used as a substitute for fossil fuels is biomass. This article gives an overview of the state-of-the-art of key biomass conversion technologies currently deployed and technologies that may play a key role in the future, including possible linkage to CO2 capture and sequestration technology (CCS). In doing so, special attention is paid to production of biofuels for the transport sector, because this is likely to become the key emerging market for large-scale sustainable biomass use. A range from 200 to 300 EJ may be observed looking well into this century, making biomass a more important energy supply option than mineral oil today. A key issue for bio-energy is that its use should be modernized to fit into a sustainable development path. Especially promising are the production of electricity via advanced conversion concepts (i.e. gasification and state-of-the-art combustion and co-firing) and modern biomass derived fuels like methanol, hydrogen and ethanol from ligno-cellulosic biomass, which can reach competitive cost levels within 1–2 decades (partly depending on price developments with petroleum). The gasification route offers special possibilities to combine this with low cost CO2 capture (and storage), resulting in concepts that are both flexible with respect to primary fuel input as well as product mix and with the possibility of achieving zero or even negative carbon emissions. Further biomass market development, consistent policy support, RD&D efforts and international collaboration are essential to achieve this.
TL;DR: In this paper, a method is proposed for correlating CBR value with the LL, PL, SL, PI, OMC and MDD index values of different soils samples collected from different locations.
Abstract: Subgrade strength is mostly affected by thickness of pavement, in Highway design. California Bearing Ratio (CBR) is the one of the method to determine the sub grade strength.CBR test is laborious and time consuming, hence a method is proposed for correlating CBR value with the LL, PL, SL, PI, OMC and MDD. In the present study, different soils samples (having 20
TL;DR: In this article, the static and dynamic analysis of a G+30 storied regular building has been done on computer with the help of STAAD-Pro software using the parameters for the design as per the IS-1893-2002-Part-1 for the zones- 2 and 3 and the post processing result obtained has summarized.
Abstract: Analysis and design of buildings for static forces is a routine affair these days because of availability of affordable computers and specialized programs which can be used for the analysis. On the other hand, dynamic analysis is a time consuming process and requires additional input related to mass of the structure, and an understanding of structural dynamics for interpretation of analytical results. Reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings are most common type of constructions in urban India, which are subjected to several types of forces during their lifetime, such as static forces due to dead and live loads and dynamic forces due to the wind and earthquake. Here the present works (problem taken) are on a G+30 storied regular building. These buildings have the plan area of 25m x 45m with a storey height 3.6m each and depth of foundation is 2.4 m. & total height of chosen building including depth of foundation is 114 m. The static and dynamic analysis has done on computer with the help of STAAD-Pro software using the parameters for the design as per the IS-1893- 2002-Part-1 for the zones- 2 and 3 and the post processing result obtained has summarized.
TL;DR: In this article, the flexural and compressive strength characteristics of M30 grade concrete with partial replacement using coconut shell aggregate concrete are analyzed and shown to be a potential construction material and simultaneously reduce the environment problem of solid.
Abstract: The high cost of conventional building materials is a major factor affecting housing delivery in the world. This has necessitated research into alternative materials of construction. In this study, coconut shell is used as light weight aggregate in concrete. The properties of coconut shell and coconut shell aggregate concrete is examined and the use of coconut shell aggregate in construction is tested. The project paper aims at analyzing flexural and compressive strength characteristics of with partial replacement using M30 grade concrete. The project also aims to show that Coconut shell aggregate is a potential construction material and simultaneously reduces the environment problem of solid..Beams are casted, tested and their physical and mechanical properties are determined. The main objective is to encourage the use of these „seemingly‟ waste products as construction materials in low-cost housing.
TL;DR: In this paper, a finite element software, called ANSYS 10.0, has been used to simulate reinforced concrete (RC) beams consisting of circular openings with varying diameters in 3-D nonlinear finite element method.
Abstract: ANSYS 10.0, a finite element software, has been used to simulate simply supported RC beams consisting of circular openings with varying diameters in 3-D nonlinear finite element method. The RC beam model is created using SOLID65, SOLID45 and LINK8 elements representing both linear and non-linear behavior of concrete, steel plate and reinforcing bar respectively. The inherent assumption is that there is full displacement compatibility between the reinforcement and the concrete and no bond slippage occurs. The FE beam model is verified against experimental test data of RC solid beam without opening available in literature and then a number of verified models of simply supported RC beams with circular opening are loaded monotonically with two incremental concentrated loads. A model with equivalent square opening of 133 mm in width is also analyzed. An attempt is made to know the effects of circular opening size on the behavior of RC beams from load-deflection curve, crack pattern and stress distribution. RC rectangular beams with circular openings of diameter less than 44% of the depth of beam (D) has no effect on the ultimate load capacity but circular openings with diameter more than 44% of D reduces the ultimate load capacity at least 34.29%. Keyword: ANSYS, beam opening, crack pattern, finite element method, load vs. deflection curve, modeling, reinforced concrete (RC) beam, stress distribution.
TL;DR: In this article, a study showed that the pulverized sludge could be used as a brick material in reducing the firing temperature for the production of energy efficient bricks, which can be further enhanced by controlling operating conditions.
Abstract: The bricks are obtained by moulding clay in rectangular blocks of uniform size and then by drying and burning these blocks. Burnt clay bricks have good resistance to moisture, insects and erosion and create a good room environment. They are medium in cost and have medium to high compressive strength. In brick making the major input is fuel followed by labour. Bricks manufactured from dried sludge collected from textile wastewater treatment plant were investigated. Results of tests indicated that the sludge proportion and the firing temperature were the two key factors determining the brick quality. Results showed that the brick weight loss on ignition was mainly attributed to the organic matter content in the sludge being burnt off during the firing process. With up to 6.66% sludge added to the bricks, the strength measured at temperatures 500 0 C met the requirements of the National Standards. This study showed that the pulverized sludge could be used as a brick material in reducing the firing temperature for the production of energy efficient bricks. The bonding strength can be further enhanced by controlling operating conditions.
TL;DR: In this paper, the results of an experimental research on the workability and mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete are presented, which focused on concrete mixes having Water/Cement ratios of 0.23, 0.24, and 0.27, with a Packing Factor of 1.12.
Abstract: This paper presents the results of an experimental research on the workability and mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete. The work focused on concrete mixes having Water/Cement ratios of 0.23, 0.24, 0.25, 0.26 and 0.27, with a Packing Factor of 1.12. The Concrete mixes contains different proportions of GGBS, Super plasticizers, water binder ratios and constant proportions of Cement, Micro Silica, VMA, Coarse aggregate and Fine aggregate for different Water Cement ratios. The percentage of Micro Silica added is 7% for all mixes. The mix proportions are obtained on the basis of NAN-SU mix design. All the mixes contain Cement of 574 kg/m 3 but with different total binder content. The workability tests performed in this research were as per EFNARC. Based upon the experimental results, for water cement ratio 0.25 fresh and hardened state properties of high strength self-compacting concrete are moderate.
TL;DR: In this article, the study of Mechanical Properties of Tensile, Compression and Bending Strength of the 12, 24% and 36% of Hybrid Natural Fiber (Natural fiber-Sisal, Jute and Hemp) polymer composite material used as Bio-material.
Abstract: This Research Paper constitutes the study of Mechanical Properties of Tensile, Compression and Bending Strength of the 12%, 24% and 36% of Hybrid Fiber (Natural fiber- Sisal, Jute and Hemp) polymer composite material used as Bio-material. Characterization of 12%, 24% & 36% Hybrid Natural fiber polymer composite material with the low density, economical for prosthetic bone with respect to biocompatibility and the mechanical behavior of long human bones, such as Femur Bone. According to the ASTM Standards the specimen is fabricated by using the Epoxy resin- LY556 as the matrix material and the Hardener-HY 951 with the 12%, 24% and 36% of the Natural Fibers (Sisal, Jute and Hemp) as the reinforcement material with fiber weight fraction, randomly continuous long fiber orientation. By using the Hand Layup fabrication technique the specimen are prepared. This Research work concentrated on study of Femur Bone and collection of the strength and other parameters of bone and compared the experimental results of the 12%, 24% and 36% Hybrid Natural fiber Polymer composite material with the Femur bone. This Research work suggesting the low weight, low Density and high strength, Bio-composite, Biocompatible material use or suggest to the orthopedic Implants Especially for Femur bone. From the Experimental results all the strengths of 12%, 24% &36% Hybrid Natural fiber Polymer composite materials will match the femur Bone Strengths and also it is found that by increasing the weight fraction of the fiber or percentage of fiber which will increase the Tensile, Compression, Bending strength and increases the density and mass of composite of the specimen. Finally we suggest the 36% Hybrid Natural fiber polymer composite material for Femur bone Prosthesis and hence it is a Natural Bio-compatible Hybrid Natural fiber polymer composite material.
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of the state of the art in the active vehicle suspension control field in terms of ride comfort and road-holding performance is presented, where the main concept is use an active suspension to reduce the vibration energy of the vehicle body induced by the road excitation, while keeping the vehicle stability within an acceptable limit.
Abstract: Ride comfort and the handling capabilities of vehicle are mainly determined by its suspension system, which transmits the forces between the vehicle and the road In recent years, using active control mechanisms for design of active suspension system has attracted considerable attention The main concept is use an active suspension to reduce the vibration energy of the vehicle body induced by the road excitation, while keeping the vehicle stability within an acceptable limit The present paper aims at providing a picture - as complete as possible of the present state of the art in the active suspension control field in terms of ride comfort and road-holding performance evaluation This paper discussed all the design literature review for active suspension systems for vehicle This paper also deals with a number of control aspects and some of the important practical considerations Keywords: Active vehicle suspension; Fuzzy logic control; Preview control
TL;DR: In this article, a case study of construction of a Mega Industrial Project which is dealt by Project Management Consultancy and Project consist of various type of buildings for Manufacturing unit, Assembling unit, Logistic unit, Process unit with allied Infra of Electrical utilities, Services like Fire fighting, Sewage line, Storm water arrangement and Road etc have been considered for this research work.
Abstract: The construction industry generally deals with the various types of construction sectors viz Real Estate & Infrastructure. Real Estate Sector is segmented in Residential, Industrial, Corporate, and Commercial. Whereas Infrastructure sector in Roads, Railways, Urban Infrastructures, Ports, Airports and Power. To manage such kind of unique projects requires an expertise with organizations and a thorough body of knowledge. The purpose of this paper is to provide the analysis or breakdown of Role of Project Management Consultancy and study the Problems faced by PMC for implementing the project. Project Management Consultancy plays multifaceted part in such projects and provides the services from inception to completion of projects. At every stage of project life cycle, the principles of pro-activeness and creating the win-win situation is necessary keeping in mind the customer / client's requirements. Use of Project Management Consultancy (PMC) offers one of the effective management solution to increase and improve the efficiency and outcome of a project in construction. A case study of construction of a Mega Industrial Project which is dealt by PMC and Project consist of various type of buildings for Manufacturing unit, Assembling unit , Logistic unit , Process unit with allied Infra of Electrical utilities, Services like Fire fighting, Sewage line, Storm water arrangement and Road etc have been considered for this research work.
TL;DR: In this article, a review paper was written to study the robotics application in various industries mainly in pipeline inspection, where the main problem of in-pipe inspection robots found is the different in diameter of pipes in any plant.
Abstract: Robotics application has slowly increasing for the past 13 years. Much increase was seen in 2011. This review paper was written to study the robotics application in various industries mainly in pipeline inspection. This review paper was to fulfil the requirement of Automation and Robotics module assessment. The objectives of this review paper are; to observe different robotics applications in pipelines inspection, to learn the different design of robots in pipeline inspection, to outline the problems and adaptability improvements in the robotics application that was applied. The major problem of in-pipe inspection robots found is the different in diameter of pipes in any plant. And other problem relative to the inspection ways for different types of pipe applications.At the end of this review paper, it was concluded that improvements were seen in few designs of the robot example like the Parallelogram wheel leg.
TL;DR: In this article, a study was carried out to determine silica and alumina potential of sugarcane bagasse obtained from Savannah Sugar Company Numan, Adamawa state of Nigeria.
Abstract: This study was carried out to determine silica and alumina potential of ash of sugarcane bagasse obtained from Savannah Sugar Company Numan, Adamawa state of Nigeria. Sugarcane bagasse samples were burnt in a metallurgical furnace at three different temperatures of 500 o C, 600 o C and 700 o C. The percentages of ashes that remained after burning were found to be 12.65%, 10.89% and 9.95%, respectively. The ashes were ground to powder and using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) machine, the samples of the ashes were analysed to determine their percentage chemical oxide composition. The XRF results show that the silica contents are 76.168%, 76.292% and 77.286% while alumina contents are 11.079%, 11.410% and 10.951% for 500 o C, 600 o C and 700 o C respectively. It was concluded that the sugarcane bagasse ash has high silica and alumina total content both of which are the most commonly used reinforcing materials in aluminium matrix composites. It was recommended that to enhance the application of the ash as reinforcement, the ash should be further heated at 1100 o C and above for a period of 2 - 3hours.
TL;DR: In this paper, waste plastic oil and its blends with Diesel and Ethanol is introduced as an alternative fuel for internal combustion engine and the experimental research on this alternative fuel on various operational parameters i.e. Engine Performance and emission test with blends like D100, B20, B40, B60.
Abstract: Fossil fuels are non- renewable source of energy. It is difficult to predict its availability in future. It casts a shadow of uncertainty of its supply, the immediate effect of its scarcity is rising price and its adverse impact on the growing economies like India. India imports 80% of total demand of the Petroleum products. Therefore, sourcing a sustainable energy and environment friendly alternative is needed to be developed instead of using fossil fuels. Recently waste plastics are receiving renewed interest as an alternative to fossil fuel. Waste plastics are indispensable materials in the modern life and its application in the industrial field is continuously increasing. Conversion of waste plastic to energy is one of the recent trends in minimizing not only the waste disposal but also as an alternative fuel for internal combustion engine. In this paper waste plastic oil and its blends with Diesel and Ethanol is introduced as alternative fuel. I have conducted an experimental research on this alternative fuel on various operational parameters i.e. Engine Performance and emission test with blends like D100, B20, B40, B60.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed to replace natural sand (NS) with Quarry sand and partial replacement of cement with ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), Rice husk ash (RHA), and Quarry Sand (QS) with natural sand.
Abstract: Concrete is the most widely used construction material in civil engineering industry because of its high structural strength and stability. The concrete industry is constantly looking for supplementary cementitious material with the objective of reducing the solid waste disposal problem. Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) Rice husk ash (RHA) and Quarry sand (QS) are among the solid wastes generated by industry. To overcome from this crisis, partial replacement of natural sand (NS) with Quarry sand and partial replacement of cement with GGBS and RHA can be an economic alternative. This research is carried out in three phase, in first phase mix of M40 grade concrete with replacement of 0%,15%,30%,45%,60%,75%,90% and 100% of quarry sand with natural sand is carried out to determine the optimum percentage of replacement at which maximum compressive strength is achieved. It is observed that when natural sand is partially replaced with 60% quarry sand maximum strength is achieved. In second phase, cement is partially replaced with GGBS by 10%, 20% and 30%. In phase three, combination of GGBS and RHA is partially replaced with cement. The composition of 22.5% GGBS + 7.5% RHA with 60% of quarry sand gives good strength results.
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of FSP on pure copper with six different tool pin profiles (plastic cylindrical, threaded cylinder, triflute, triangle, square and hexagonal) at low-heat input condition was investigated.
Abstract: Friction Stir Processing (FSP) is a solid-state surface modification technique to alter the properties of metals and alloys. This work studies the effect of FSP on pure copper with six different tool pin profiles ( plain cylindrical, threaded cylindrical, triflute, triangle, square and hexagonal ) at low-heat input condition. The tool rotational speed and tool traverse speed were kept constant to maintain the low heat input. Temperature distribution, microstructure, microhardness and tensile strength were analyzed to evaluate the modifications occurred in the mechanical properties. From the investigation, it is observed that threaded cylindrical pin profile tool is more effective in bringing about a favourable mechanical modification in pure copper than other pin profiles under low-heat input condition.
TL;DR: Sridhar et al. as mentioned in this paper presented a detailed modeling of the individual brake system products, right from the actuating valves, control valves, actuators and foundation brakes, and compared the transient torque response of a typical drum and equivalent disc brake for a typical 4X2 heavy commercial vehicle.
Abstract: An air brake system is used in heavy commercial vehicles for the purpose to stop or slow down the vehicle. The effective braking depends mainly on the response time of the entire system. The brake system layout configuration has to be designed in such a way that the response time should meet the vehicle safety standard regulations. This paper describes the detailed modeling of the individual brake system products, right from the actuating valves, control valves, actuators and foundation brakes. Response time prediction for a typical 4X2 Heavy commercial vehicle has been done. Also a study on comparing the transient torque generated by the existing drum brake and an equivalent disc brake model was carried out. The layout was modeled in one of the commercially available multi-domain physical modeling software employing bond graph technique and lumped system. The effective braking depends mainly on the response time of the entire system and driver's feel. The response time is determined as the time elapsing between the beginning of the actuation of the control pedal and the moment the pressure in the actuator reaches 75 percent of its asymptotic value(1). The brake system layout configuration has to be designed in such a way that the response time should meet the vehicle safety standard regulations. The heavy commercial vehicle brake system layout is designed keeping various vehicle parameters like Gross Vehicle Weight, wheel base, Centre of Gravity of the vehicle, number of axles etc. The system layout design is extremely complex since it involves number of valves which have to function in a logical sequence during different stages of braking (Normal, emergency, and One circuit failed condition).Conventionally, the system layout design is arrived after many iterations based on field trials and experience. This method involves more lead time and cost till the layout is finalized. Hence the modeling and analysis of the system layout using AMESim helps us to predict the behavior of the layout in terms of response and the effect of the individual subsystems, valves on the system behavior and thereby optimization study can be carried out. This tool employs bond graph technique and lumped system for developing physical based modeling. Sridhar (2) Describes the modeling of foot brake valve and predicting the dynamic response of the individual valve.Wu (3) studied the robust of pneumatic brake system in commercial vehicle using AMESim. (4), (5),(6) describes the modeling of system by simplifying the valves and the actuators. This paper describes the detailed modeling of individual valves , and actuators by including all the design parameters, thereby makes the model flexible to study the role of each and every design parameter on system level response. Apart from this the paper deals the modeling of foundation brakes and compare the transient torque response of a typical drum and equivalent disc brake for a heavy commercial vehicle. This model can be directly coupled to the vehicle models and the dynamics of the vehicle like stopping distance, stability can be studied. This model can also be used for design and optimization of brake system layouts for various heavy commercial trucks having varying wheel base and Gross Vehicle Weight. II.
TL;DR: In this article, a finite element based method is used to simulate the radial test of an automobile wheel, using ANSYS replicates the actual experiments, and it was observed that when the wheel rotates at a speed of 1790 rpm under the stated loads, the fatigue crack propagates at the point of maximum stress concentration.
Abstract: A finite element based method is used to simulate the radial test of an automobile wheel. Besides the certainty of results obtain through practical, computer aided simulation of the wheel, using ANSYS replicates the actual experiments. The fatigue life limit factors introduced by other researchers were used to obtain the stress and fatigue reduction factors which were further used to estimate the S-N curve as the stress-Life method is employed in predicting the fatigue life of a rim.During the static analysis of the steel wheel, it was discovered that the maximum stress concentration ( ) occurred at the spokes and ventilation hole of the rim under loads, Fr and pi. It was observed that when the wheel rotates at a speed of 1790 rpm under the stated loads, the fatigue crack propagates at the point of maximum stress concentration.
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of adding Al2O3 nanoparticle to base fluid (mixture of EG+Water) in automotive radiator is investigated experimentally and the results show that Nusselt number, total heat transfer, effectiveness and overall heat transfer coefficient increases with increase, nano particle volume fraction, air Reynolds number and mass flow rate of coolant flowing through radiator.
Abstract: In this study, effect of adding Al2O3 nanoparticle to base fluid (mixture of EG+Water) in Automobile radiator is investigated experimentally. Radiators are compact heat exchangers optimized and evaluated by considering different working conditions. The cooling system of a Automobile plays an important role in its performance, consists of two main parts, known as radiator and fan. Improving thermal efficiency of engine leads to increase the engine's performance, decline the fuel consumption and decrease the pollution emissions. For this purpose, an experimental setup was designed. Effects of fluid inlet temperature, the flow rate and nano particle volume fraction on heat transfer are considered. Results show that Nusselt number, total heat transfer, effectiveness and overall heat transfer coefficient increases with increase , nano particle volume fraction , air Reynolds number and mass flow rate of coolant flowing through radiator.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors provided an overview of the current status, historical growth, technological status, policy, regulatory and fiscal support extended by the Govt of India as well as state governments to bagasse cogeneration.
Abstract: India is one of the largest consumers and producers of sugar in the world and is the world's second largest producer next to Brazil of the sugarcane. Country has made impressive growth in the bagasse cogeneration. However, sustaining the growth is the real challenge. This article provides an overview of the current status, historical growth, technological status, policy, regulatory and fiscal support extended by the Govt of India as well as state governments to bagasse cogeneration. This work has identified the barriers in speedy adoption of the technology by sugar mills. The article concludes that support extended to bagasse cogeneration by the MNRE, especially to cooperative sugar mills, must be continued. The preferential tariff determined by CERC and SERCs for the bagasse cogeneration must take into account the increased support price offered to sugarcane by state governments as well as price offered to bagasse by competing technologies like paper and pulp industries. Strong RPO compliance by power distribution companies and streamlining of REC mechanism is required to attract industries, project developers and investors to invest in renewable energy in the country.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors reviewed all the three advanced combustion concepts along with their merits and demerits, including Low Temperature Combustion (LTC), Stratified Charge Compression Ignition (SCCI), and Low Temperature Compressed Compressed Engine (LTE) combustion concepts, which can be considered as the extension of HCCI.
Abstract: At present, it is highly required from the automobile sector to develop clean technologies with lower fuel consumption for ambient air quality improvement, green house gas reduction and energy security. Furthermore, due to continuously stringent emission legislation and the fast depletion of the primary energy resources, the development of new highly efficient and environment friendly combustion systems becomes of paramount importance and hence research need to be done in this area. One such combustion system is Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) technology, which has the potential to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) simultaneously maintaining the thermal efficiency at par with that of conventional diesel engine combustion. However, some issues such as combustion phasing control, controlled auto-ignition, operating range, homogeneous charge preparation, cold start, pressure rise rate and noise and emissions of unburned hydro carbon (UHC), and carbon monoxide (CO) need to be solved for successful operation and therefore commercial application of HCCI engine. Other similar combustion concepts, which can be considered as the extension of HCCI, are Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) and Stratified Charge Compression Ignition (SCCI). This paper reviews all the three advanced combustion concepts along with their merits and demerits.
TL;DR: In this paper, a simplified model of shell and tube type heat exchanger has been designed using kern's method to cool the water from 55 to 45 by using water at room temperature.
Abstract: This paper consists of extensive thermal analysis of the effects of severe loading conditions on the performance of the heat exchanger. To serve the purpose a simplified model of shell and tube type heat exchanger has been designed using kern's method to cool the water from 55 to 45 by using water at room temperature. Then we have carried out steady state thermal analysis on ANSYS 14.0 to justify the design. After that the practical working model of the same has been fabricated using the components of the exact dimensions as derived from the designing. We have tested the heat exchanger under various flow conditions using the insulations of aluminium foil, cotton wool, tape, foam, paper etc. We have also tested the heat exchanger under various ambient temperatures to see its effect on the performance of the heat exchanger. Moreover we have tried to create the turbulence by closing the pump opening and observed its effect on its effectiveness. All these observations along with their discussions have been discussed in detail inside the paper.
TL;DR: In this paper, a model for free vibration analysis of a fixed beam with an open edge crack has been presented, and a parametric study has been carried out using ANSYS software.
Abstract: The presence of cracks causes changes in the physical properties of a structure which introduces flexibility,and thus reducing the stiffness of the structure with an inherent reduction in modal natural frequencies. Consequently it leads to the change in the dynamic response of the beam. This paper focuses on the theoretical analysis of transverse vibration of a fixed beam and investigates the mode shape frequency. All the theoretical values are analyzed with the numerical method by using ANSYS software and co relate the theoretical values with the numerical values to find out percentage error between them.Also in this paper, a model for free vibration analysis of a beam with an open edge crack has been presented. Variations of natural frequencies due to crack at various locations and with varying crack depths have been studied. A parametric study has been carried out. The analysis was performed using ANSYS software. Most of the members of engineering structures operate under loading conditions, which may cause damages or cracks in overstressed zones. The presence of cracks in a structural member, such as a beam, causes local variations in stiffness, the magnitude of which mainly depends on the location and depth of the cracks. The presence of cracks causes changes in the physical properties of a structure which in turn alter its dynamic response characteristics. The monitoring of the changes in the response parameters of a structure has been widely used for the assessment of structural integrity, performance and safety. Irregular variations in the measured vibration response characteristics have been observed depending upon whether the crack is closed, open or breathing during vibration. The vibration behavior of cracked structures has been investigated by many researchers. The majority of published studies assume that the crack in a structural member always remains open during vibration. However, this assumption may not be valid when dynamic loadings are dominant. In such case, the crack breathes (opens and closes) regularly during vibration, inducing variations in the structural stiffness. These variations cause the structure to exhibit non-linear dynamic behavior. Christides and Barr (1) developed a one- dimensional cracked beam theory at same level of approximation as Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. Liang, Choy and Jialou Hu (3) presented an improved method of utilizing the weightless torsional spring model to determine the crack location and magnitude in a beam structure. Dimaragonas (4) presented a review on the topic of vibration of cracked structures. His review contains vibration of cracked rotors, bars, beams, plates, pipes, blades and shells. Shen and Chu (5) and Chati, Rand and Mukherjee (6) extended the cracked beam theory to account for opening and closing of the crack, the so called "breathing crack" model. Kisa and Brandon (7) used a bilinear stiffness model for taking into account the stiffness changes of a cracked beam in the crack location. They have introduced a contact stiffness matrix in their finite element model for the simulation of the effect of the crack closure which was added to the initial stiffness matrix at the crack location in a half period of the beam vibration. Saavedra and Cuitino (8) and Chondros, Dimarogonas and Yao (9) evaluated the additional flexibility that the crack generates in its vicinity using fracture mechanics theory. Zheng et al (10) the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a cracked beam are obtained using the finite element method. An overall additional flexibility matrix, instead of the local additional flexibility matrix, is added to the flexibility matrix of the corresponding intact beam element to obtain the total flexibility matrix, and therefore the stiffness matrix. Zsolt huszar (11) presented the quasi periodic opening and closings of cracks were analyzed for vibrating reinforced concrete beams by laboratory experiments and by numeric simulation. The linear analysis supplied lower and upper bounds for the natural frequencies. Owolabi, Swamidas and Seshadri (12) carried out experiments to detect the presence of crack in beams, and determine its location and size. Behzad, Ebrahimi and Meghdari (14) developed a continuous model for flexural vibration of beams with an edge crack perpendicular to the neutral plane. The model assumes that the displacement field is a superposition of the classical Euler- Bernoulli beam's displacement and of a displacement due to the crack. Shifrin (16) presented a new technique is proposed for calculating natural frequencies of a vibrating beam with an arbitrary finite number of transverse open cracks. Most of the researchers studied the effect of single crack on the dynamics of the structure. A local flexibility will reduce the stiffness of a structural member, thus reducing its natural frequency. Thus most popular parameter applied in identification methods is change in natural frequencies of structure caused by the