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Showing papers in "J. of Design Research in 2016"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Pick-A-Mood as mentioned in this paper is a character-based pictorial scale for reporting and expressing moods, which consists of three characters that each express eight mood states, representing four main categories.
Abstract: This paper introduces Pick-A-Mood, a character-based pictorial scale for reporting and expressing moods. Pick-A-Mood consists of three characters that each express eight mood states, representing four main categories: excited and cheerful (for energised-pleasant), irritated and tense (for energised-unpleasant), relaxed and calm (for calm-pleasant), and bored and sad (for calm-unpleasant). Using Pick-A-Mood requires little effort on the part of respondents, making it suitable for design research applications in which people often have little time or motivation to report their moods. Contrary to what is often assumed, mood and emotion are distinct phenomena with different measurable manifestations. These differences are discussed, and a review of existing methods is provided, indicating to what extent current methods that measure emotion are suitable for measuring mood. The development and validation of Pick-A-Mood is reported, and application examples and research opportunities are discussed.

82 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The tactile triangle, a framework to facilitate systematic analysis and comparison of tactile experiences, is proposed and results show expert and consumer perceptions overlapped and correlated well to objective measures except in the perception of temperature.
Abstract: Tactile experiences of textile materials are difficult to communicate and elicit. To interrogate this space we propose the tactile triangle, a framework to facilitate systematic analysis and comparison of tactile experiences. The three levels reflect different aspects of tactile experience and possible methods to capture them: physical properties, in which human senses or objective testing measure fabric properties; the perceptual space level in which triadic comparisons reveal combinations of various dimensions which capture and describe tactile experiences; and finally the communication level, in which design games elicit languages communicating tactile perceptions. A case study illustrates the frameworks use to compare the tactile experiences of textiles in experts and consumers. The results show expert and consumer perceptions overlapped and correlated well to objective measures except in the perception of temperature. We conclude by discussing the frameworks effectiveness, the contribution of individual methods, and its potential as a communication tool for designers.

18 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, a complete user centred design for sustainable behavior process, from initial ethnographic studies, through the design process, to a comparative testing of a prototype and a regular woodstove, monitoring emissions and user behaviour, was described.
Abstract: For many products there is a substantial potential for reducing environmental impacts by altering the way people interact with them. The current work investigates the potential for improving the way people interact with woodstoves, thereby reducing the environmental impact resulting from burning firewood, by adjusting the design of the woodstove. This paper describes a complete user centred design for sustainable behaviour process, from initial ethnographic studies, through the design process, to a comparative testing of a prototype and a regular woodstove, monitoring emissions and user behaviour. The test indicates that the prototype is used much more in line with the recommendations and emits fewer fine particles than the conventional stove.

10 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors compared the use of digital and conventional sketching as influence upon conceptual design work and found that increased frequencies of sketching tool focused activities resulted in both significantly more time spent in problem orientated work and the fragmentation of attempts to transition from problem definition to generative solution ideation.
Abstract: The study compared the use of digital and conventional sketching as influence upon conceptual design work. The results show a significantly increased focus of attention upon the sketching tool in the digital condition compared to conventional sketching with pen and paper. Both a statistical analysis and fine-grained qualitative comparison illustrate how increased frequencies of sketching tool focused activities resulted in both significantly more time spent in problem orientated work and the fragmentation of attempts to transition from problem definition to generative solution ideation. In contrast, reduced tool-focused activity in the conventional sketching condition appeared to provide opportunities for significantly increased solution ideation through design-driven moves to explore, reflect upon and develop solution propositions. The implications of a tool orientated focus of attention are discussed in terms of its impact upon reflective solution ideation during conceptual design.

9 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigate the skills, material and meaning elements sustaining the practice under examination, and the role of design professionals in boosting the sustainable potential of REDIY will be proposed.
Abstract: Contemporary self-production (i.e. DIY) phenomena are envisaged as a 'window of opportunity' to foster sustainable and satisfactory practices of consumption and production. This research addressed self-production to save products and prolong their lifespan once the end-of-life is reached by re-using, re-pairing, re-purposing, and re-appropriating. The resulting 'RE-DIY' practice was investigated through qualitative interviews with 15 practitioners in Italy and England (UK). Sociological theories of practices have been used to investigate the skills, material and meaning elements sustaining the practice under examination. Four different groups of practitioners were identified according to motivations and levels of commitment and interest. However, all interviewees seemed to perceive comparable levels of satisfaction from practising RE-DIY. Furthermore, some elements for a flow condition have been identified. Finally, the role of design professionals in boosting the sustainable potential of RE-DIY will be proposed. To this purpose the scale of action and typologies of collaboration for design are mapped.

9 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present findings from a case study of inducing a sustainable behaviour - using human-power to drive everyday energy using products (EuP) using an artefact and evaluation was carried through conducting a product-in-use study.
Abstract: There is an increased focus on research identifying design strategies to influence user behaviour towards more sustainable action, known as design for sustainable behaviour (DfSB). Recent literature in this field has introduced a number of design processes, and developed a model that emerged through consensus. However, not enough case studies are accompanied by those proposed strategies; therefore it is difficult to evaluate their effectiveness. This paper presents findings from a case study of inducing a sustainable behaviour - using human-power to drive everyday energy using products (EuP). It presents the result of applying the strategy to an artefact and evaluation was carried through conducting a product-in-use study. The analysis provides an explanation of how each of the participants copes with the use of a new artefact and account for different types of motivations that have affected their behaviour determinants.

9 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An experimental approach to understanding the effectiveness of problem structuring strategies such as decomposition modes and control strategies has shown that the participants who applied the explicit decomposition mode and the breadth-first strategy had significantly higher effectiveness scores.
Abstract: This study has developed an experimental approach to understanding the effectiveness of problem structuring strategies such as decomposition modes and control strategies. Participants were randomly recruited to individually complete a design problem in a lab, and their design outcomes, including sketches and retrospective verbal protocols, were collected. The effectiveness of problem structuring was represented as the ratio of output to input of the human information processing system: the output was the quality of design outcomes, and the input was participants' mental effort normalised by the complexity of problem structuring. The case study has shown that the participants who applied the explicit decomposition mode and the breadth-first strategy had significantly higher effectiveness scores than those who applied the implicit mode and the depth-first strategy. The results suggest that effective problem structuring strategies should be encouraged in design idea generation and design education.

7 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the behaviour of 100 people interacting with six different PV-powered products in their daily life was analysed, and lead-users' expectations were outlined, as well as their opinion of the products' performance during and after use was addressed.
Abstract: In order to better understand how 'lead-users' interact with PV-powered products, the behaviour of 100 people interacting with six different PV-powered products in their daily life was analysed. The sample of respondents to be observed consisted of 20 groups, each one formed by five students of Industrial Design Engineering at Technical University of Delft (TU Delft). The tested PV products are: the IKEA Sunnan lamp, the Waka Waka light, the Waka Waka power (charger and light), the Little Sun light, the Logitech solar keyboard and the Beurer kitchen weight scale. In this study the design of the six tested PV products was analysed, lead-users' expectations were outlined, as well as their opinion of the products' performance during and after use was addressed. Results show that respondents need reliable PV products with appealing design and improved performance.

6 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigate what can be learned from what architects say about whom they have in mind during design and reveal a gap between how users are considered in literature versus by the architects observed.
Abstract: As design processes become more complex, the distance between architects and their buildings' users increases. In large-scale projects, future users often remain absent or hypothetic during design, and in some design competitions, architects are not even allowed to interact with the client. This article considers whom architects design for in such a case, and how they imagine them. Through an in-depth case study of a real-world design process, it investigates what can be learned from what architects say about whom they have in mind during design. The findings reveal a gap between how users are considered in literature versus by the architects observed. Strikingly, the term 'user' is not used at all by the latter while corporeality seems to be largely absent in how they talk about whom they design for. These findings complete Kostof's model of homunculi and contribute to a more nuanced understanding of whom architects have in mind when future users are absent or hypothetic.

6 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The process of practical implementation of interactive tools in architectural education which places the diversity of students' cultural experiences, contextual awareness and individual interests as a crucial resource for design inquiry is analyzed.
Abstract: This paper investigates modes of active communications and propagation of ideas and ideologies in architectural education in general and the design studio in particular. Based on a survey of students' opinions, modes of tutorials, assessment and production, it investigates the extent to which students enjoy freedom of choice, liberal thinking and ability to develop independently from their design tutors. While challenging current modes of one-to-one design tutorial paradigms, it experiments with alternative means of tutor-free and student-led workshops, where students are able to develop their conceptual ideas in the absence of their tutors at an early stage of design development. It analyses the process of practical implementation of interactive tools in architectural education which places the diversity of students' cultural experiences, contextual awareness and individual interests as a crucial resource for design inquiry. The cyclical development of interactive learning strategy is examined through two settings: first, it discusses ideology-driven design tutorials that influence students' conceptual ideas; second, it reports on a liberal approach to the design studio, where students are given larger freedom to define their own position and intuition towards the practice of architecture, both in England and in Northern Ireland.

6 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a series of changes involving collaboration, visualisation and audience presentation were incrementally added to a first year visual communication design theory course taught at the University of Newcastle, NSW.
Abstract: This study reports on a series of changes involving collaboration, visualisation and audience presentation which were incrementally added to a first year visual communication design theory course taught at the University of Newcastle, NSW. It will discuss novice, first year students' experience of collaborating with peers and also look at how visual media methods were used in the construction of a theoretical argument. It responds to previous observations that many of our students were not engaging with theory at a deep intrinsic level, writing essays that were motivated by the extrinsic demands of passing a course than actual fascination with the theoretical dimensions of design. In contrast, visual communication design students thrive in studio environments where collaboration and immersion in visual methods of working are the norm. We put forward here, the argued position that student learning of design theory can be enhanced through the incorporation of working methods commonly used in creative practice.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In the field of sustainable product design, the use of nature-inspired design (NID) strategies such as biomimicry and cradle to cradle has become more widespread, resulting in a variety of natureinspired products as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: In the field of sustainable product design, the use of nature-inspired design (NID) strategies such as biomimicry and cradle to cradle has become more widespread, resulting in a variety of nature-inspired products. Research so far has studied NID on the basis of individual, key design cases and student projects. This paper assesses the state of NID at nine companies that have applied either biomimicry or cradle to cradle in product design. NID comes to the forefront as a promising but challenging new design paradigm. Analysis of best practice reveals that companies that applied a top-down approach, invested in training and/or external NID-experts, set positive and ambitious design targets, and included value chain partners early on in their projects were generally successful in removing barriers towards project success.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper explores the qualitative and quantitative data analysis methods of RGT and suggests using cross impact analysis (CIA) for data analysis of qualitative data and compares the results with those of quantitative analysis.
Abstract: User research in understanding people's needs and expectations is a critical part of the design process. Researchers have sought to find methods that help them to collect data and lead the design process properly. To achieve this, several methods have been borrowed from other disciplines, one of which is repertory grid technique (RGT). While RGT has been widely used in user research, a common understanding of how the qualitative data of RGT should be analysed is still missing. This paper explores the qualitative and quantitative data analysis methods of RGT and suggests using cross impact analysis (CIA) for data analysis of qualitative data. It compares the results of suggested qualitative data analysis with the results of quantitative analysis. The paper further discusses the potentials of CIA and makes suggestions about usage of it.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a Think-Aloud protocol was employed to obtain verbalised thoughts of both Indonesian and UK master craftsmen and the keywords of verbalized thoughts were evaluated and extracted using a list of typical mindsets.
Abstract: At the very early stage of idea generation, allegedly, a master craftsperson encounters cognitive dissonance to maintain beliefs/mindsets from various conceptual stimuli. We aim to capture the underlying form of cognition by examining the structure of thoughts collected from the subjective conceptualisation. A Think-Aloud Protocol was employed to obtain verbalised thoughts of both Indonesian and UK master craftsmen. The keywords of verbalised thoughts were evaluated and extracted using a list of typical mindsets. The evaluated keywords were then analysed by means of a conceptual network to reproduce a model of the individual’s mental state. This study discovered that Indonesian master craftsmen’s conceptualisation is greatly influenced by the strong typical mindsets of Object-attribute that emphasise Rationale and Mastery, which stimulates a pragmatic viewpoint. Furthermore, UK master craftsmen’s conceptualisation greatly considers strong typical mindsets of Object-attribute that emphasise Wisdom and Passionate, which indicates a rigorous mind. This paper reveals that both pragmatic and rigorous mindsets can create potential or barriers for creative cognitive resources.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a failed participatory design experience that occurred in a Brazilian favela in partnership with a local NGO is studied, and the goal of the paper is to reflect on the limits of social design, so as to avoid frustration and resignation and even foster the designers' hope in this practice.
Abstract: Social design represents a growing interest among the design community. Many academic and educational experiences confirm that it is possible and promising. Senior, junior and future designers are urged to face social issues, and to foster social change and innovate. Far from institutional environments, however, professionals' action can be rather difficult since the social dynamics are very different, less regulated and more unpredictable. This entails a great challenge for professionals involved in these design processes and a great risk for this kind of practice itself. If their efforts are not reciprocated, frustration and resignation can prevail. The goal of the paper is to reflect on the limits of social design, so as to avoid frustration and resignation and even foster the designers' hope in this practice. Towards this end, the paper studies a failed participatory design experience that occurred in a Brazilian favela in partnership with a local NGO. In this way, the paper presents new paths for design research, education and practice.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an integrated method for innovative product-service system (PSS) design based on the theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ) methodology is proposed, which is capable of providing three different search routes and their combinations for generating innovative product service solution concepts.
Abstract: This paper proposes an integrated method for innovative product-service system (PSS) design based on the theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ) methodology. Extant TRIZ-based approaches for PSS innovation are largely based on a single mode of solution development. They are limited to deal with only technical-contradiction problems either through direct use of the adapted inventive principles or by applying the contradiction matrix to solve conflicts with some simplified rules. By integrating multiple TRIZ tools, the proposed new method is capable of providing three different search routes and their combinations for generating innovative product-service solution concepts. In comparison with other similar TRIZ-based approaches, this method is more flexible and effective in solving problems of different natures, i.e., technical contradictions, physical contradictions, and non-contradictions, as well as their mixes. A real-life case study on a datacentre PSS design is presented at the end of this paper to illustrate the application of the new method.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the relationship between the global frameworks and the country-specific adjustments in these collective innovative activities and found that despite the important role of global frameworks, countryspecific adjustments had a significant influence on the tools, rules and procedures, roles, demographics of participants, and the resultant designs.
Abstract: Service and sustainability jams are annual events that are being held across the globe to promote collective design-based problem solving. These events, similar to other innovation jams, represent a new approach towards design which is based on collective and distributed innovation. While the online platform and the main framework of these jams are designed by the global organisers, there are always country-specific adjustments in implementation. Understanding the relationships between the global frameworks and the country-specific adjustments in these collective innovative activities is an interesting, but unexplored research area. This paper explains how seven jam events between 2012 and 2015 in Iran have been influenced by changes on both global and country-specific levels. As a conclusion, we found out that despite the important role of global frameworks, country-specific adjustments had a significant influence on the tools, rules and procedures, roles, demographics of participants, and the resultant designs.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an ethnographic approach was adopted to collect empirical information about the agents who performed in the competition context, and every impression about the dynamics and the actions of those who performed during the competition was taken into consideration.
Abstract: This article attempts to look into the dynamics involved in the use of criteria to evaluate projects in a big Brazilian design competition. An ethnographic approach was carefully adopted to collect empirical information about the agents who performed in the competition context. Every impression about the dynamics and the actions of those who performed during the competition was taken into consideration. The evaluation of the projects revealed itself as an ongoing process in which criteria had to be actualised in order to work properly. That is, throughout the jury deliberation, the initial abstract and non-specific given criteria became more distinct, allowing for a coherent ranking of the projects. This study also observed the important role played by criteria, jurors and projects, possibly forming a kind of a hybrid agent, and affecting the competition's results.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The data suggest that UD goals provide a useful framework for classifying real-world usability problems and demonstrate the potential to discriminate among populations and distinguish the nature of the environment.
Abstract: This study assessed the goals of universal design (UD) defined by Steinfeld and Maisel (2012), as a conceptual framework for classifying usability problems experienced in the home kitchen environment by diverse user populations. Seven focus groups were conducted with three populations: wheelchair users, persons with vision impairment, and older adults. Participant-reported usability problems were mapped onto the eight goals of UD. The data suggest that UD goals provide a useful framework for classifying real-world usability problems. In addition, the UD goals demonstrated the potential to discriminate among populations and distinguish the nature of the environment. Whereas traditional product usability measures emphasise user performance, the UD goals re-focus attention on functional demands that products and environments place on end users. These findings are an important first step in the research pathway needed to elevate UD from a respected conceptual philosophy to a valuable tool embraced by product designers and managers.