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Showing papers in "JAMA Internal Medicine in 2004"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The data suggest that efforts to reduce mortality in this population should be focused on treatment and prevention of coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, and anemia.
Abstract: Background Chronic kidney disease is the primary cause of end-stage renal disease in the United States. The purpose of this study was to understand the natural history of chronic kidney disease with regard to progression to renal replacement therapy (transplant or dialysis) and death in a representative patient population. Methods In 1996 we identified 27 998 patients in our health plan who had estimated glomerular filtration rates of less than 90 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 on 2 separate measurements at least 90 days apart. We followed up patients from the index date of the first glomerular filtration rates of less than 90 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 until renal replacement therapy, death, disenrollment from the health plan, or June 30, 2001. We extracted from the computerized medical records the prevalence of the following comorbidities at the index date and end point: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, hyperlipidemia, and renal anemia. Results Our data showed that the rate of renal replacement therapy over the 5-year observation period was 1.1%, 1.3%, and 19.9%, respectively, for the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) stages 2, 3, and 4, but that the mortality rate was 19.5%, 24.3%, and 45.7%. Thus, death was far more common than dialysis at all stages. In addition, congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, diabetes, and anemia were more prevalent in the patients who died but hypertension prevalence was similar across all stages. Conclusion Our data suggest that efforts to reduce mortality in this population should be focused on treatment and prevention of coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, and anemia.

1,580 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in nondiabetic adult Europeans is 15%, slightly higher in men than in women, and nondiabetic persons with the metabolic Syndrome have an increased risk of death from all causes as well as cardiovascular disease.
Abstract: Background: Few studies have evaluated the associations between the metabolic syndrome (by any definition) and mortality. This study examined the age- and sex-specific prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its association with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in nondiabetic European men and women. Methods: The study was based on 11 prospective European cohort studies comprising 6156 men and 5356 women without diabetes and aged from 30 to 89 years, and had a median follow-up of 8.8 years. A modification of the World Health Organization definition of the metabolic syndrome was used. The subjects were considered to have the metabolic syndrome if they had hyperinsulinemia and 2 or more of the following: obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or impaired glucose regulation; however, other definitions were also studied. Hazard ratios for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were estimated with Cox models in each cohort. Meta-analyses were performed to assess the overall association of the metabolic syndrome with mortality risk. Results: The age-standardized prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was slightly higher in men (15.7%) than in women (14.2%). Of the 1119 deaths recorded during follow-up, 432 were caused by cardiovascular disease. The overall hazard ratios for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in persons with the metabolic syndrome compared with persons without it were 1.44 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-1.84) and 2.26 (95% CI, 1.61-3.17) in men and 1.38 (95% CI, 1.02-1.87) and 2.78 (95% CI, 1.574.94) in women after adjustment for age, blood cholesterol levels, and smoking. Conclusions: The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in nondiabetic adult Europeans is 15%. Nondiabetic persons with the metabolic syndrome have an increased risk of death from all causes as well as cardiovascular disease. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:1066-1076

1,123 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: After 7.5 years, low-dose antioxidant supplementation lowered total cancer incidence and all-cause mortality in men but not in women, suggesting that supplementation may be effective in men only because of their lower baseline status of certain antioxidants, especially of beta carotene.
Abstract: Background It has been suggested that a low dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins and minerals increases the incidence rate of cardiovascular disease and cancer. To date, however, the published results of randomized, placebo-controlled trials of supplements containing antioxidant nutrients have not provided clear evidence of a beneficial effect. We tested the efficacy of nutritional doses of supplementation with a combination of antioxidant vitamins and minerals in reducing the incidence of cancer and ischemic cardiovascular disease in the general population. Methods The Supplementation en Vitamines et Mineraux Antioxydants (SU.VI.MAX) study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled primary prevention trial. A total of 13 017 French adults (7876 women aged 35-60 years and 5141 men aged 45-60 years) were included. All participants took a single daily capsule of a combination of 120 mg of ascorbic acid, 30 mg of vitamin E, 6 mg of beta carotene, 100 μg of selenium, and 20 mg of zinc, or a placebo. Median follow-up time was 7.5 years. Results No major differences were detected between the groups in total cancer incidence (267 [4.1%] for the study group vs 295 [4.5%] for the placebo group), ischemic cardiovascular disease incidence (134 [2.1%] vs 137[2.1%]), or all-cause mortality (76 [1.2%] vs 98 [1.5%]). However, a significant interaction between sex and group effects on cancer incidence was found ( P = .004). Sex-stratified analysis showed a protective effect of antioxidants in men (relative risk, 0.69 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.53-0.91]) but not in women (relative risk, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.85-1.29]). A similar trend was observed for all-cause mortality (relative risk, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.42-0.93] in men vs 1.03 [95% CI, 0.64-1.63] in women; P = .11 for interaction). Conclusions After 7.5 years, low-dose antioxidant supplementation lowered total cancer incidence and all-cause mortality in men but not in women. Supplementation may be effective in men only because of their lower baseline status of certain antioxidants, especially of beta carotene.

907 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A strategy to reduce overall fracture incidence will likely require lifestyle changes and a targeted effort to identify and develop treatment protocols for women with less severe low bone mass who are nonetheless at increased risk for future fractures.
Abstract: Background: Treatment intervention thresholds for prevention of osteoporotic fractures can be derived from reports from the World Health Organization (diagnostic criteria) and National Osteoporosis Foundation (treatment criteria). It is not known how well these thresholds work to identify women who will fracture and are therefore candidates for treatment interventions. We used data from the National Osteoporosis Risk Assessment (NORA) to examine the effect of different treatment thresholds on fracture incidence and numbers of women with fractures within the year following bone mineral density measurement. Methods: The study comprised 149 524 white postmenopausal women aged 50 to 104 years (mean age, 64.5 years). At baseline, bone mineral density was assessed by peripheral bone densitometry at the heel, finger, or forearm. New fractures during the next 12 months were self-reported. Results: New fractures were reported by 2259 women, including 393 hip fractures; only 6.4% had baseline T scores of �2.5 or less (World Health Organization definition for osteoporosis). Although fracture rates were highest in these women, they experienced only 18% of the osteoporotic fractures and 26% of the hip fractures. By National Osteoporosis Foundation treatment guidelines, 22.6% of the women had T scores of 2.0 or less, or �1.5 or less with 1 or more clinical risk factors. Fracture rates were lower, but 45% of osteoporotic fractures and 53% of hip fractures occurred in these women. Conclusions: Using peripheral measurement devices, 82% of postmenopausal women with fractures had T scores better than �2.5. A strategy to reduce overall fracture incidence will likely require lifestyle changes and a targeted effort to identify and develop treatment protocols for women with less severe low bone mass who are nonetheless at increased risk for future fractures.

907 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The clinical implications of the findings include emphasizing the importance of smoking cessation as part of the therapeutic plan for people with serious infectious diseases or periodontitis, and individuals who have positive results of tuberculin skin tests.
Abstract: Background Infectious diseases may rival cancer, heart disease, and chronic lung disease as sources of morbidity and mortality from smoking. We reviewed mechanisms by which smoking increases the risk of infection and the epidemiology of smoking-related infection, and delineated implications of this increased risk of infection among cigarette smokers. Methods The MEDLINE database was searched for articles on the mechanisms and epidemiology of smoking-related infectious diseases. English-language articles and selected cross-references were included. Results Mechanisms by which smoking increases the risk of infections include structural changes in the respiratory tract and a decrease in immune response. Cigarette smoking is a substantial risk factor for important bacterial and viral infections. For example, smokers incur a 2- to 4-fold increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease. Influenza risk is severalfold higher and is much more severe in smokers than nonsmokers. Perhaps the greatest public health impact of smoking on infection is the increased risk of tuberculosis, a particular problem in underdeveloped countries where smoking rates are increasing rapidly. Conclusions The clinical implications of our findings include emphasizing the importance of smoking cessation as part of the therapeutic plan for people with serious infectious diseases or periodontitis, and individuals who have positive results of tuberculin skin tests. Controlling exposure to secondhand cigarette smoke in children is important to reduce the risks of meningococcal disease and otitis media, and in adults to reduce the risk of influenza and meningococcal disease. Other recommendations include pneumococcal and influenza vaccine in all smokers and acyclovir treatment for varicella in smokers.

882 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Self-management education programs resulted in small to moderate effects for selected chronic diseases and in light of evidence of publication bias, further trials that adhere to a standard methodology would help clarify whether self- management education is worthwhile.
Abstract: Background Self-management programs have been widely reported to help patients manage symptoms and contain utilization of health care resources for several chronic conditions, but to date no systematic review across multiple chronic diseases has been reported. We evaluated the efficacy of patient self-management educational programs for chronic diseases and critically reviewed their methodology. Methods We searched MEDLINE and HealthSTAR for the period January 1, 1964, through January 31, 1999, then hand searched the reference section of each article for other relevant publications. We included studies if a self-management education intervention for a chronic disease was reported, a concurrent control group was included, and clinical outcomes were evaluated. Two authors reviewed each study and extracted the data on clinical outcomes. Results We included 71 trials of self-management education. Trial methods varied substantially and were suboptimal. Diabetic patients involved with self-management education programs demonstrated reductions in glycosylated hemoglobin levels (summary effect size, 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17-0.74); diabetic patients had improvement in systolic blood pressure (summary effect size, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.01-0.39); and asthmatic patients experienced fewer attacks (log rate ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.35-0.83). Although we found a trend toward a small benefit, arthritis self-management education programs were not associated with statistically significant effects. Evidence of publication bias existed. Conclusions Self-management education programs resulted in small to moderate effects for selected chronic diseases. In light of evidence of publication bias, further trials that adhere to a standard methodology would help clarify whether self-management education is worthwhile.

738 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Antibiotic administration within 4 hours of arrival at the hospital was associated with decreased mortality and LOS among a random sample of older inpatients with community-acquired pneumonia who had not received antibiotics as outpatients.
Abstract: Background Pneumonia accounts for more than 600 000 Medicare hospitalizations yearly. Guidelines have recommended antibiotic treatment within 8 hours of arrival at the hospital. Methods We performed a retrospective study using medical records from a national random sample of 18 209 Medicare patients older than 65 years who were hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia from July 1998 through March 1999. Outcomes were severity-adjusted mortality, readmission within 30 days of discharge, and length of stay (LOS). Results Among 13 771 (75.6%) patients who had not received outpatient antibiotic agents, antibiotic administration within 4 hours of arrival at the hospital was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality (6.8% vs 7.4%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-0.98), mortality within 30 days of admission (11.6% vs 12.7%; AOR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76-0.95), and LOS exceeding the 5-day median (42.1% vs 45.1%; AOR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.83-0.96). Mean LOS was 0.4 days shorter with antibiotic administration within 4 hours than with later administration. Timing was not associated with readmission. Antibiotic administration within 4 hours of arrival was documented for 60.9% of all patients and for more than 50% of patients regardless of hospital characteristics. Conclusions Antibiotic administration within 4 hours of arrival was associated with decreased mortality and LOS among a random sample of older inpatients with community-acquired pneumonia who had not received antibiotics as outpatients. Administration within 4 hours can prevent deaths in the Medicare population, offers cost savings for hospitals, and is feasible for most inpatients.

715 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Restless legs syndrome is a common disease in the general population, affecting women more often than men, and is associated with reduced quality of life in cross-sectional analysis.
Abstract: Background Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is characterized by the desire to move the limbs associated with paresthesias of the legs, a motor restlessness, an intensification of symptoms at rest with relief by activity, and a worsening of symptoms in the evening or at night. Population-based studies are rare, and risk factors in the general population are not known. Methods Cross-sectional survey with face-to-face interviews and physical examination among 4310 participants in the Study of Health in Pomerania in northeastern Germany. Participants were aged 20 to 79 years and were randomly selected from population registers. Restless legs syndrome was assessed with standardized, validated questions addressing the 4 minimal criteria for RLS as defined by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group. Results The overall prevalence of RLS was 10.6%, increasing with age, and women were twice as often affected as men. While nulliparous women had prevalences similar to those among men up to age 64 years, the risk of RLS increased gradually for women with 1 child (odds ratio, 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-3.13), 2 children (odds ratio, 3.04; 95% confidence interval, 2.11-4.40), and 3 or more children (odds ratio, 3.57; 95% confidence interval, 2.30-5.55). Subjects with RLS had significantly lower quality-of-life scores than those without the syndrome. Conclusions Restless legs syndrome is a common disease in the general population, affecting women more often than men. It is associated with reduced quality of life in cross-sectional analysis. Parity is a major factor in explaining the sex difference and may guide further clarification of the etiology of the disease.

698 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Serum uric acid levels are a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease mortality in healthy middle-aged men, independent of variables commonly associated with gout or the metabolic syndrome.
Abstract: Background Despite abundant epidemiologic evidence, the role of elevated serum uric acid level as a cardiovascular risk factor is controversial. We assessed the predictive value of serum uric acid levels for cardiovascular and overall mortality. Methods A population-based prospective cohort study was performed of 1423 middle-aged Finnish men initially without cardiovascular disease, cancer, or diabetes. The main outcome measure was death from cardiovascular disease and any cause. Results The mean follow-up was 11.9 years. There were 157 deaths during follow-up, of which 55 were cardiovascular. In age-adjusted analyses, serum uric acid levels in the upper third were associated with a greater than 2.5-fold higher risk of death from cardiovascular disease than levels in the lower third. Taking into account cardiovascular risk factors and variables commonly associated with gout increased the relative risk to 3.73. Further adjustment for factors related to the metabolic syndrome strengthened the risk to 4.77. Excluding the 53 men using diuretics did not alter the results. In age-adjusted analyses, men with serum uric acid levels in the upper third were 1.7-fold more likely to die of any cause than men with levels in the lower third. Adjustment for further risk factors strengthened the association somewhat. Conclusions Serum uric acid levels are a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease mortality in healthy middle-aged men, independent of variables commonly associated with gout or the metabolic syndrome. Serum uric acid measurement is an easily available and inexpensive risk marker, but whether its relationship to cardiovascular events is circumstantial or causal remains to be answered.

651 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Blood glucose level is a risk marker for CVD among apparently healthy individuals without diabetes among apparentlyhealthy individuals with and without diabetes.
Abstract: Background: Although hyperglycemia increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in diabetic patients, the risk associated with blood glucose levels in the nondiabetic range remains unsettled. Methods: We identified 38 reports in which CVD incidence or mortality was an end point, blood glucose levels were measured prospectively, and the relative risk (RR) and information necessary to calculate the variance were reported comparing groups of nondiabetic people. These reports were prospective studies, published in English-language journals. First author, publication year, participant age and sex, study duration, CVD end points, glucose assessment methods, control for confounding, range of blood glucose levels, RR, and confidence intervals (CIs) or P values were extracted. Using a random effects model, we calculated pooled RRs and 95% CIs. Results: The group with the highest postchallenge blood glucose level (midpoint range, 150-194 mg/dL [8.3-10.8 mmol/L]) had a 27% greater risk for CVD compared with the group with the lowest level (midpoint range, 69-107 mg/dL [3.8-5.9 mmol/L]) (RR, 1.27 [95% CI, 1.091.48]). The results were similar when combining studies regardless of type of blood glucose assessment (RR, 1.36 [95% CI, 1.23-1.52]) and when using strict criteria for exclusion of diabetic subjects (RR, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.111.43]). Adjustment for CVD risk factors attenuated but did not abolish this relationship (RR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.071.32]). The RR was greater in cohorts including women than in cohorts of men (RR, 1.56 vs 1.24 [P=.03]). Conclusion: Blood glucose level is a risk marker for CVD among apparently healthy individuals without diabetes. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:2147-2155

646 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the risk of having an incident myocardial infarction or stroke is increased 2- to 3-fold and therisk of death is increased 1.5 to 2 times, independent of other known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.
Abstract: Background Epidemiological studies have reported that patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) have increased mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular diseases, independent of other risk factors. However, most of these studies have been performed in selected patient groups. The purpose of the present study was prospectively to assess the impact of type 2 DM on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in an unselected population. Methods A total of 13 105 subjects from the Copenhagen City Heart Study were followed up prospectively for 20 years. Adjusted relative risks of first, incident, admission for, or death from ischemic heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, or stroke, as well as total mortality in persons with type 2 DM compared with healthy controls, were estimated. Results The relative risk of first, incident, and admission for myocardial infarction was increased 1.5- to 4.5-fold in women and 1.5- to 2-fold in men, with a significant difference between sexes. The relative risk of first, incident, and admission for stroke was increased 2- to 6.5-fold in women and 1.5- to 2-fold in men, with a significant difference between sexes. In both women and men the relative risk of death was increased 1.5 to 2 times. Conclusions In persons with type 2 DM, the risk of having an incident myocardial infarction or stroke is increased 2- to 3-fold and the risk of death is increased 2-fold, independent of other known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Findings strongly suggest that, absent changes in diet, a higher amount of activity is necessary for weight maintenance and that the positive caloric imbalance observed in the overweight controls is small and can be reversed by a modest amount of exercise.
Abstract: Background Obesity is a major health problem due, in part, to physical inactivity. The amount of activity needed to prevent weight gain is unknown. Objective To determine the effects of different amounts and intensities of exercise training. Design Randomized controlled trial (February 1999–July 2002). Setting and Participants Sedentary, overweight men and women (aged 40-65 years) with mild to moderate dyslipidemia were recruited from Durham, NC, and surrounding communities. Interventions Eight-month exercise program with 3 groups: (1) high amount/vigorous intensity (calorically equivalent to approximately 20 miles [32.0 km] of jogging per week at 65%-80% peak oxygen consumption); (2) low amount/vigorous intensity (equivalent to approximately 12 miles [19.2 km] of jogging per week at 65%-80%), and (3) low amount/moderate intensity (equivalent to approximately 12 miles [19.2 km] of walking per week at 40%-55%). Subjects were counseled not to change their diet and were encouraged to maintain body weight. Main Outcome Measures Body weight, body composition (via skinfolds), and waist circumference. Results Of 302 subjects screened, 182 met criteria and were randomized and 120 completed the study. There was a significant ( P Conclusions In nondieting, overweight subjects, the controls gained weight, both low-amount exercise groups lost weight and fat, and the high-amount group lost more of each in a dose-response manner. These findings strongly suggest that, absent changes in diet, a higher amount of activity is necessary for weight maintenance and that the positive caloric imbalance observed in the overweight controls is small and can be reversed by a modest amount of exercise. Most individuals can accomplish this by walking 30 minutes every day.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Consumption of dietary fiber from cereals and fruits is inversely associated with risk of coronary heart disease.
Abstract: Background Few epidemiologic studies of dietary fiber intake and risk of coronary heart disease have compared fiber types (cereal, fruit, and vegetable) or included sex-specific results. The purpose of this study was to conduct a pooled analysis of dietary fiber and its subtypes and risk of coronary heart disease. Methods We analyzed the original data from 10 prospective cohort studies from the United States and Europe to estimate the association between dietary fiber intake and the risk of coronary heart disease. Results Over 6 to 10 years of follow-up, 5249 incident total coronary cases and 2011 coronary deaths occurred among 91 058 men and 245 186 women. After adjustment for demographics, body mass index, and lifestyle factors, each 10-g/d increment of energy-adjusted and measurement error–corrected total dietary fiber was associated with a 14% (relative risk [RR], 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78-0.96) decrease in risk of all coronary events and a 27% (RR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.61-0.87) decrease in risk of coronary death. For cereal, fruit, and vegetable fiber intake (not error corrected), RRs corresponding to 10-g/d increments were 0.90 (95% CI, 0.77-1.07), 0.84 (95% CI, 0.70-0.99), and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.88-1.13), respectively, for all coronary events and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.63-0.91), 0.70 (95% CI, 0.55-0.89), and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.82-1.23), respectively, for deaths. Results were similar for men and women. Conclusion Consumption of dietary fiber from cereals and fruits is inversely associated with risk of coronary heart disease.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work states that acute mesenteric ischemia remains a diagnostic challenge for clinicians, and the delay in diagnosis contributes to the continued high mortality rate and early diagnosis and prompt effective treatment are essential to improve the clinical outcome.
Abstract: Acute mesenteric ischemia is a life-threatening vascular emergency that requires early diagnosis and intervention to adequately restore mesenteric blood flow and to prevent bowel necrosis and patient death. The underlying cause is varied, and the prognosis depends on the precise pathologic findings. Despite the progress in understanding the pathogenesis of mesenteric ischemia and the development of modern treatment modalities, acute mesenteric ischemia remains a diagnostic challenge for clinicians, and the delay in diagnosis contributes to the continued high mortality rate. Early diagnosis and prompt effective treatment are essential to improve the clinical outcome.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Men, but not women, show evidence of poorer sleep with aging, suggesting important sex differences in sleep physiology, and sleep architecture varies with sex, age, ethnicity, and SDB.
Abstract: Background Polysomnography is used to assess sleep quality and to gauge the functional effect of sleep disorders. Few population-based data are available to estimate the variation in sleep architecture across the population and the extent to which sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), a common health condition, contributes to poor sleep independent of other factors. The objective of this study was to describe the population variability in sleep quality and to quantify the independent associations with SDB. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were performed on data from 2685 participants, aged 37 to 92 years, in a community-based multicenter cohort study. Dependent measures included the percentage time in each sleep stage, the arousal index, and sleep efficiency. Independent measures were age, sex, ethnicity, comorbidity status, and the respiratory disturbance index. Results Lighter sleep was found in men relative to women and in American Indians and blacks relative to other ethnic groups. Increasing age was associated with impaired sleep in men, with less consistent associations in women. Notably, women had, on average, 106% more slow wave sleep. Sleep-disordered breathing was associated with poorer sleep; however, these associations were generally smaller than associations with sex, ethnicity, and age. Current smokers had lighter sleep than ex-smokers or never smokers. Obesity had little effect on sleep. Conclusions Sleep architecture varies with sex, age, ethnicity, and SDB. Individual assessment of the effect of SDB on sleep quality needs to account for other host characteristics. Men, but not women, show evidence of poorer sleep with aging, suggesting important sex differences in sleep physiology.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Armed with the recently refined criteria for diagnosis, specialists, such as rheumatologists, primary care physicians, ophthalmologists, and dentists, who would otherwise focus only on those symptoms that encompass their areas of expertise, can get a comprehensive image of the presenting patient, leading to earlier identification and treatment of SS.
Abstract: Sjogren syndrome (SS) is a common autoimmune disease evidenced by broad organ-specific and systemic manifestations, the most prevalent being diminished lacrimal and salivary gland function, xerostomia, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, and parotid gland enlargement. Primary SS presents alone, and secondary SS occurs in connection with autoimmune rheumatic diseases. In addition, symptoms do not always present concurrently. This diversity of symptomatic expression adds to the difficulty in initial diagnosis. Armed with the recently refined criteria for diagnosis, specialists, such as rheumatologists, primary care physicians, ophthalmologists, and dentists, who would otherwise focus only on those symptoms that encompass their areas of expertise, can get a comprehensive image of the presenting patient, leading to earlier identification and treatment of SS.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension according to the new JNC guidelines, people's awareness and management of hypertension, and the differences across sociodemographic and body weight groups are examined.
Abstract: Background The recently released Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee (JNC) on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure provides a new classification of blood pressure levels. Little is known about the current situation of elevated blood pressure in the United States, according to the new guidelines. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of national representative data collected from 4805 adults 18 years and older surveyed in the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We examined the prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension according to the new JNC guidelines, people’s awareness and management of hypertension, and the differences across sociodemographic and body weight groups. Results Elevated blood pressure is a serious problem in the United States. Approximately 60% of American adults have prehypertension or hypertension, and some population groups, such as African Americans, older people, low-socioeconomic-status groups, and overweight groups, are disproportionately affected. The prevalence of hypertension has increased by approximately 10 percentage points during the past decade. The awareness and appropriate management of hypertension among hypertensive patients remain low: 31% were not aware of their disease, only two thirds (66%) were told by health professionals to adopt lifestyle modifications or take drugs to control hypertension, and only 31% controlled their hypertension. Conclusions With 60% of the population affected, the United States is facing a serious challenge in the prevention and management of prehypertension and hypertension. People’s awareness and control of hypertension remain poor. This study highlights the seriousness of the problem and the importance of promoting lifestyle modifications.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Patients taking warfarin had a doubling in the rate of intracerebral hemorrhage mortality in a dose-dependent manner, and the data suggest that careful control of the INR, already known to limit the risk of warFarin-related ICH, may also limit its severity.
Abstract: Background Warfarin sodium is highly effective for prevention of embolic stroke, particularly in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, but its expected benefit can be offset by risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We studied the determinants of ICH outcome to quantify the independent effect of warfarin. Methods Consecutive patients with supratentorial ICH treated in a tertiary care hospital with a neurointensive care unit were prospectively identified during a 7-year period, and data on hemorrhage location, clinical characteristics, and warfarin use were collected. Independent predictors of 3-month mortality were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Of 435 consecutive patients aged 55 years or older, 102 (23.4%) were taking warfarin at the time of ICH. Three-month mortality was 25.8% for those not taking warfarin and 52.0% for those taking warfarin. Independent predictors of death were warfarin use (odds ratio [OR], 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-3.8), age 70 years or older (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4-4.0), and presence of diabetes mellitus (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0-3.3). Although 68.0% of all warfarin-related hemorrhages occurred at an international normalized ratio (INR) of 3.0 or less, increasing degrees of anticoagulation were strongly associated with increasing risk of death compared with no warfarin use. Conclusions Patients taking warfarin had a doubling in the rate of intracerebral hemorrhage mortality in a dose-dependent manner. The data suggest that careful control of the INR, already known to limit the risk of warfarin-related ICH, may also limit its severity.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The coronary artery calcium score is an independent predictor of coronary heart disease events and differences among studies in outcome adjudication, measurement of other risk factors, tomographic slice thickness, and/or proportion of female study subjects may account for this heterogeneity.
Abstract: Background Primary prevention of coronary heart disease is most appropriate for patients at relatively high risk. Measurement of coronary artery calcium has been proposed as a way to improve risk assessment, but it is unknown whether it adds predictive information to standard risk factor assessment. Methods We systematically searched electronic databases for relevant articles published between January 1, 1980, and March 19, 2003, and hand searched bibliographies. We included studies that reported measuring the coronary artery calcium score by electron beam computed tomography in asymptomatic subjects and subsequent follow-up of those patients for coronary events and that presented score-specific relative risks, adjusted for established risk factors. Two abstractors verified inclusion criteria and abstracted data from each study. We estimated adjusted relative risks associated with 3 standard categories of coronary artery calcium scores (1-100, 101-400, and >400), compared with a score of 0, and used a random-effects model for meta-analysis. Results Meta-analysis of the 4 studies meeting inclusion criteria yielded a summary adjusted relative risk of 2.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.6-2.9) for a coronary artery calcium score of 1 to 100. Relative risk estimates for higher calcium scores were higher, ranging from 3.0 to 17.0 but varied significantly among studies. Subgroup analyses suggested that differences among studies in outcome adjudication (blinded or not), measurement of other risk factors (direct or by patient history), tomographic slice thickness (3 or 6 mm), and/or proportion of female study subjects may account for this heterogeneity. Conclusion The coronary artery calcium score is an independent predictor of coronary heart disease events.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Major depression is strongly associated with increased levels of CRP among men and could help explain the increased risk of cardiovascular disease associated with depression in men.
Abstract: Background The biological mechanisms by which depression might increase risk of cardiovascular disease are not clear. Inflammation may be a key element in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to determine the association between major depression and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) level in a nationally representative cohort. Methods We estimated the odds of elevated CRP level (>0.21 mg/mL) associated with depression in 6914 noninstitutionalized men and women (age, 18-39 years) from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Results The prevalence of lifetime major depression was 5.7% for men and 11.7% for women. The prevalence of elevated CRP level was 13.7% for men and 27.3% for women. A history of major depression was associated with elevated CRP level (odds ratio [OR], 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-2.24). The association between depression and CRP was much stronger among men than among women. Results were adjusted for age, African American race, body mass index, total cholesterol, log triglycerides, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, smoking status, alcohol use, estrogen use in women, aspirin use, ibuprofen use, and self-reported health status. Compared with men without a history of depression, CRP levels were higher among men who had a more recent (within 1 year) episode of depression (adjusted OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.39-6.48) and who had recurrent (≥2 episodes) depression (adjusted OR, 3.55; 95% CI, 1.55-8.14). Conclusion Major depression is strongly associated with increased levels of CRP among men and could help explain the increased risk of cardiovascular disease associated with depression in men.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Nursing home residents dying with advanced dementia are not perceived as having a terminal condition, and most do not receive optimal palliative care, prompting management and educational strategies to improve end-of-life care in advanced dementia.
Abstract: Background Nursing homes are important providers of end-of-life care to persons with advanced dementia. Methods We used data from the Minimum Data Set (June 1, 1994, to December 31, 1997) to identify persons 65 years and older who died with advanced dementia (n = 1609) and terminal cancer (n = 883) within 1 year of admission to any New York State nursing home. Variables from the Minimum Data Set assessment completed within 120 days of death were used to describe and compare the end-of-life experiences of these 2 groups. Results At nursing home admission, only 1.1% of residents with advanced dementia were perceived to have a life expectancy of less than 6 months; however, 71.0% died within that period. Before death, 55.1% of demented residents had a do-not-resuscitate order, and 1.4% had a do-not-hospitalize order. Nonpalliative interventions were common among residents dying with advanced dementia: tube feeding, 25.0%; laboratory tests, 49.2%; restraints, 11.2%; and intravenous therapy, 10.1%. Residents with dementia were less likely than those with cancer to have directives limiting care but were more likely to experience burdensome interventions: do-not-resuscitate order (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.16), do-not-hospitalize order (adjusted OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.16-0.66), tube feeding (adjusted OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.51-3.23), laboratory tests (adjusted OR, 2.53; 95% CI, 2.01-3.18), and restraints (adjusted OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.23-2.61). Distressing conditions common in advanced dementia included pressure ulcers (14.7%), constipation (13.7%), pain (11.5%), and shortness of breath (8.2%). Conclusions Nursing home residents dying with advanced dementia are not perceived as having a terminal condition, and most do not receive optimal palliative care. Management and educational strategies are needed to improve end-of-life care in advanced dementia.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide a "call to action" with step-by-step guidelines specifically directed at the pivotal role of physicians and other health care professionals in curbing these dangerous epidemics.
Abstract: Obesity and sedentary lifestyle are escalating national and global epidemics that warrant increased attention by physicians and other health care professionals. These intricately linked conditions are responsible for an enormous burden of chronic disease, impaired physical function and quality of life, at least 300 000 premature deaths, and at least $90 billion in direct health care costs annually in the United States alone. Clinicians are on the front line of combat, yet these conditions receive minimal attention during a typical office visit. Clinicians often feel overwhelmed by these challenges and point to an absence of clear guidelines and practice tools, minimal training in behavior modification strategies, and lack of time as reasons for failing to confront them. This report provides a "call to action" with step-by-step guidelines specifically directed at the pivotal role of physicians and other health care professionals in curbing these dangerous epidemics. This blueprint for action, which requires only a few minutes of a clinician's time to implement, will facilitate more effective intervention related to obesity and inactivity and should favorably impact public health.

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TL;DR: It is suggested that young and middle-age patients with sleep-onset insomnia can derive significantly greater benefit from CBT than pharmacotherapy and that CBT should be considered a first-line intervention for chronic insomnia.
Abstract: Background Chronic sleep-onset insomnia is a prevalent health complaint in adults. Although behavioral and pharmacological therapies have been shown to be effective for insomnia, no placebo-controlled trials have evaluated their separate and combined effects for sleep-onset insomnia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of behavioral and pharmacological therapy, singly and in combination, for chronic sleep-onset insomnia. Methods This was a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial that involved 63 young and middle-aged adults with chronic sleep-onset insomnia. Interventions included cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), pharmacotherapy, or combination therapy compared with placebo. The main outcome measures were sleep-onset latency as measured by sleep diaries; secondary measures included sleep diary measures of sleep efficiency and total sleep time, objective measures of sleep variables (Nightcap sleep monitor recorder), and measures of daytime functioning. Results In most measures, CBT was the most sleep effective intervention; it produced the greatest changes in sleep-onset latency and sleep efficiency, yielded the largest number of normal sleepers after treatment, and maintained therapeutic gains at long-term follow-up. The combined treatment provided no advantage over CBT alone, whereas pharmacotherapy produced only moderate improvements during drug administration and returned measures toward baseline after drug use discontinuation. Conclusions These findings suggest that young and middle-age patients with sleep-onset insomnia can derive significantly greater benefit from CBT than pharmacotherapy and that CBT should be considered a first-line intervention for chronic insomnia. Increased recognition of the efficacy of CBT and more widespread recommendations for its use could improve the quality of life of a large numbers of patients with insomnia.

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TL;DR: The Western pattern, especially a diet higher in processed meats, may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes in women.
Abstract: Background: Although obesity is the most important risk factor for type 2 diabetes, evidence is emerging that certain foods and dietary factors may be associated with diabetes To examine the association between major dietary patterns and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a cohort of women Methods:Weprospectivelyassessedtheassociationsbetween major dietary patterns and risk of type 2 diabetes in women Dietary information was collected in 1984, 1986, 1990, and 1994 from 69554 women aged 38 to 63 years without a history of diabetes, cardiovascular disease,orcancerin1984Weconductedfactoranalysisand identified2majordietarypatterns:“prudent”and“Western” We then calculated pattern scores for each participant and examined prospectively the associations between dietary pattern scores and type 2 diabetes risks

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TL;DR: Treatment for multiple illnesses was strongly related to a higher risk of suicide in elderly patients, and many common illnesses are independently associated with an increased risk of Suicide in the elderly.
Abstract: Background Suicide is a leading cause of death, and rates are especially high among the elderly. Medical illnesses may predispose to suicide, but few controlled studies have examined the association between specific diseases and suicide. We explored the relationship between treatment for several illnesses and the risk of suicide in elderly patients using a population-based approach. Methods All Ontario residents 66 years or older who committed suicide between January 1, 1992, and December 31, 2000, were identified from provincial coroners' records. Their prescription records during the preceding 6 months were compared with those of living matched controls (1:4) to determine the presence or absence of 17 illnesses potentially associated with suicide. Results During the 9-year study period, we identified 1354 elderly patients who died of suicide. The most common mechanisms involved firearms (28%), hanging (24%), and self-poisoning (21%). Specific illnesses associated with suicide included congestive heart failure (odds ratio [OR], 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-2.24), chronic obstructive lung disease (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.37-1.92), seizure disorder (OR, 2.95; 95% CI, 1.89-4.61), urinary incontinence (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.29-3.17), anxiety disorders (OR, 4.65; 95% CI, 4.07-5.32), depression (OR, 6.44; 95% CI, 5.45-7.61), psychotic disorders (OR, 5.09; 95% CI, 3.94-6.59), bipolar disorder (OR, 9.20, 95% CI, 4.38-19.33), moderate pain (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.66-2.20), and severe pain (OR, 7.52; 95% CI, 4.93-11.46). Treatment for multiple illnesses was strongly related to a higher risk of suicide. Almost half the patients who committed suicide had visited a physician in the preceding week. Conclusions Many common illnesses are independently associated with an increased risk of suicide in the elderly. The risk is greatly increased among patients with multiple illnesses. These data may help clinicians to identify elderly patients at risk of suicide and open avenues for prevention.

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TL;DR: Consultation by a palliative medicine team led to improved patient outcomes in dyspnea, anxiety, and spiritual well-being, but failed to improve pain or depression.
Abstract: Background Little is known about the use of palliative care for outpatients who continue to pursue treatment of their underlying disease or whether outpatient palliative medicine consultation teams improve clinical outcomes. Methods We conducted a year-long controlled trial involving 50 intervention patients and 40 control patients in a general medicine outpatient clinic. Primary care physicians referred patients with advanced congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or cancer who had a prognosis ranging from 1 to 5 years. In the intervention group, the primary care physicians received multiple palliative care team consultations, and patients received advance care planning, psychosocial support, and family caregiver training. Clinical and health care utilization outcomes were assessed at 6 and 12 months. Results Groups were similar at baseline. Similar numbers of patients died during the study year ( P = .63). After the intervention, intervention group patients had less dyspnea ( P = .01) and anxiety ( P = .05) and improved sleep quality ( P = .05) and spiritual well-being ( P = .007), but no change in pain ( P = .41), depression ( P = .28), quality of life ( P = .43), or satisfaction with care ( P = .26). Few patients received recommended analgesic or antidepressant medications. Intervention patients had decreased primary care ( P = .03) and urgent care visits ( P = .04) without an increase in emergency department visits, specialty clinic visits, hospitalizations, or number of days in the hospital. There were no differences in charges ( P = .80). Conclusions Consultation by a palliative medicine team led to improved patient outcomes in dyspnea, anxiety, and spiritual well-being, but failed to improve pain or depression. Palliative care for seriously ill outpatients can be effective, but barriers to implementation must be explored.

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TL;DR: The primary univariate analysis showed that the presence of an acute infectious disease, age older than 75 years, cancer, and a history of VTE were statistically significantly associated with an increased VTE risk.
Abstract: Background: There is limited information about risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in acutely ill hospitalized general medical patients. Methods: An international, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial (MEDENOX) has previously been conducted in 1102 acutely ill, immobilized general medical patients and has shown the efficacy of using a low-molecular-weight heparin, enoxaparin sodium, in preventing thrombosis. We performed logistic regression analysis to evaluate the independent nature of different types of acute medical illness (heart failure, respiratory failure, infection, rheumatic disorder, and inflammatory bowel disease) and predefined factors (chronic heart and respiratory failure, age, previous VTE, and cancer) as risk factors for VTE. Results: The primary univariate analysis showed that the presence of an acute infectious disease, age older than 75 years, cancer, and a history of VTE were statistically significantly associated with an increased VTE risk. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that these factors were independently associated with VTE. Conclusions: Several independent risk factors for VTE were identified. These findings allow recognition of individuals at increased risk of VTE and will contribute to the formulation of an evidence-based risk assessment model for thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized general medical patients.

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TL;DR: Tai Chi appears to have physiological and psychosocial benefits and also appears to be safe and effective in promoting balance control, flexibility, and cardiovascular fitness in older patients with chronic conditions.
Abstract: Objective To conduct a systematic review of reports on the physical and psychological effects of Tai Chi on various chronic medical conditions. Data Sources Search of 11 computerized English and Chinese databases. Study Selection Randomized controlled trials, nonrandomized controlled studies, and observational studies published in English or Chinese. Data Extraction Data were extracted for the study objective, population characteristics, study setting, type of Tai Chi intervention, study design, outcome assessment, duration of follow-up, and key results. Data Synthesis There were 9 randomized controlled trials, 23 nonrandomized controlled studies, and 15 observational studies in this review. Benefits were reported in balance and strength, cardiovascular and respiratory function, flexibility, immune system, symptoms of arthritis, muscular strength, and psychological effects. Conclusions Tai Chi appears to have physiological and psychosocial benefits and also appears to be safe and effective in promoting balance control, flexibility, and cardiovascular fitness in older patients with chronic conditions. However, limitations or biases exist in most studies, and it is difficult to draw firm conclusions about the benefits reported. Most indications in which Tai Chi was applied lack a theoretical foundation concerning the mechanism of benefit. Well-designed studies are needed.

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TL;DR: A higher intake of dietary calcium decreases the risk of kidney stone formation in younger women, but supplemental calcium is not associated with risk, and dietary phytate may be a new, important, and safe addition to the authors' options for stone prevention.
Abstract: Background In older women and men, greater intakes of dietary calcium, potassium, and total fluid reduce the risk of kidney stone formation, while supplemental calcium, sodium, animal protein, and sucrose may increase the risk. Recently, phytate has been suggested to play a role in stone formation. To our knowledge, no prospective information on the role of dietary factors and risk of kidney stone formation is available in younger women. Methods We prospectively examined, during an 8-year period, the association between dietary factors and the risk of incident symptomatic kidney stones among 96 245 female participants in the Nurses' Health Study II; the participants were aged 27 to 44 years and had no history of kidney stones. Self-administered food frequency questionnaires were used to assess diet in 1991 and 1995. The main outcome measure was an incident symptomatic kidney stone. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to adjust simultaneously for various risk factors. Results We documented 1223 incident symptomatic kidney stones during 685 973 person-years of follow-up. After adjusting for relevant risk factors, a higher dietary calcium intake was associated with a reduced risk of kidney stones (P =.007 for trend). The multivariate relative risk among women in the highest quintile of intake of dietary calcium compared with women in the lowest quintile was 0.73 (95% confidence interval, 0.59-0.90). Supplemental calcium intake was not associated with risk of stone formation. Phytate intake was associated with a reduced risk of stone formation. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of phytate intake, the relative risk for those in the highest quintile was 0.63 (95% confidence interval, 0.51-0.78). Other dietary factors showed the following relative risks (95% confidence intervals) among women in the highest quintile of intake compared with those in the lowest quintile: animal protein, 0.84 (0.68-1.04); fluid, 0.68 (0.56-0.83); and sucrose, 1.31 (1.07-1.60). The intakes of sodium, potassium, and magnesium were not independently associated with risk after adjusting for other dietary factors. Conclusions A higher intake of dietary calcium decreases the risk of kidney stone formation in younger women, but supplemental calcium is not associated with risk. This study also suggests that some dietary risk factors may differ by age and sex. Finally, dietary phytate may be a new, important, and safe addition to our options for stone prevention.

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TL;DR: In this sample, CRF provided a strong protective effect against all-cause and CVD mortality in healthy men and men with the metabolic syndrome.
Abstract: Background: The metabolic syndrome is a prevalent condition that carries with it an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and mortality. Objective: To determine the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and mortality in healthy men and in those with the metabolic syndrome. Methods: The sample included 19223 men, aged 20 to 83 years, who received a clinical evaluation between 1979 and 1995 with mortality follow-up through December 31, 1996. There were 15466 healthy men (80.5%) and 3757 men with the metabolic syndrome (19.5%). Results: A total of 480 deaths (161 due to CVD) occurred during 196298 man-years of follow-up. After adjustment for age, year of examination, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and parental CVD, the relative risks (RRs) (95% confidence interval) of all-cause and CVD mortality were 1.29 (1.05-1.57) and 1.89 (1.36-2.60), respectively, for men with the metabolic syndrome compared with healthy men. After the inclusion of CRF, the associations were not significant. The RRs comparing unfit with fit men for all-cause mortality were 2.18 (1.662.87) in healthy men and 2.01 (1.38-2.93) in men with the metabolic syndrome, whereas the RRs for CVD mortality for unfit vs fit men were 3.21 (2.03-5.07) in healthy men and 2.25 (1.27-3.97) in men with the metabolic syndrome. A significant dose-response relationship between CRF and mortality was also observed in men with the metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: In this sample, CRF provided a strong protective effect against all-cause and CVD mortality in healthy men and men with the metabolic syndrome. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:1092-1097