Journal•ISSN: 0883-7252

# Journal of Applied Econometrics

Wiley-Blackwell

About: Journal of Applied Econometrics is an academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Estimator & Volatility (finance). It has an ISSN identifier of 0883-7252. Over the lifetime, 1805 publications have been published receiving 166364 citations. The journal is also known as: Applied econometrics & Special issue; the econometrics of social insurance.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors developed a new approach to the problem of testing the existence of a level relationship between a dependent variable and a set of regressors, when it is not known with certainty whether the underlying regressors are trend- or first-difference stationary.

Abstract: This paper develops a new approach to the problem of testing the existence of a level relationship between a dependent variable and a set of regressors, when it is not known with certainty whether the underlying regressors are trend- or first-difference stationary. The proposed tests are based on standard F- and t-statistics used to test the significance of the lagged levels of the variables in a univariate equilibrium correction mechanism. The asymptotic distributions of these statistics are non-standard under the null hypothesis that there exists no level relationship, irrespective of whether the regressors are I(0) or I(1). Two sets of asymptotic critical values are provided: one when all regressors are purely I(1) and the other if they are all purely I(0). These two sets of critical values provide a band covering all possible classifications of the regressors into purely I(0), purely I(1) or mutually cointegrated. Accordingly, various bounds testing procedures are proposed. It is shown that the proposed tests are consistent, and their asymptotic distribution under the null and suitably defined local alternatives are derived. The empirical relevance of the bounds procedures is demonstrated by a re-examination of the earnings equation included in the UK Treasury macroeconometric model. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

13,898 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a simple alternative where the standard ADF regressions are augmented with the cross section averages of lagged levels and first-differences of the individual series is proposed, and it is shown that the individual CADF statistics are asymptotically similar and do not depend on the factor loadings.

Abstract: A number of panel unit root tests that allow for cross section dependence have been proposed in the literature that use orthogonalization type procedures to asymptotically eliminate the cross dependence of the series before standard panel unit root tests are applied to the transformed series. In this paper we propose a simple alternative where the standard ADF regressions are augmented with the cross section averages of lagged levels and first-differences of the individual series. New asymptotic results are obtained both for the individual CADF statistics, and their simple averages. It is shown that the individual CADF statistics are asymptotically similar and do not depend on the factor loadings. The limit distribution of the average CADF statistic is shown to exist and its critical values are tabulated. Small sample properties of the proposed test are investigated by Monte Carlo experiments. The proposed test is applied to a panel of 17 OECD real exchange rate series as well as to log real earnings of households in the PSID data.

6,022 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the problem of estimating the break dates and the number of breaks in a linear model with multiple structural changes has been considered and an efficient algorithm based on the principle of dynamic programming has been proposed.

Abstract: In a recent paper, Bai and Perron (1998) considered theoretical issues related to the limiting distribution of estimators and test statistics in the linear model with multiple structural changes. In this companion paper, we consider practical issues for the empirical applications of the procedures. We first address the problem of estimation of the break dates and present an efficient algorithm to obtain global minimizers of the sum of squared residuals. This algorithm is based on the principle of dynamic programming and requires at most least-squares operations of order O(T2) for any number of breaks. Our method can be applied to both pure and partial structural change models. Second, we consider the problem of forming confidence intervals for the break dates under various hypotheses about the structure of the data and the errors across segments. Third, we address the issue of testing for structural changes under very general conditions on the data and the errors. Fourth, we address the issue of estimating the number of breaks. Finally, a few empirical applications are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the procedures. All methods discussed are implemented in a GAUSS program. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

4,026 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the adequacy of a mixing specification can be tested simply as an omitted variable test with appropriately definedartificial variables, and a practicalestimation of aarametricmixingfamily can be run by MaximumSimulated Likelihood EstimationorMethod ofSimulatedMoments, andeasilycomputedinstruments are provided that make the latter procedure fairly eAcient.

Abstract: SUMMARY Thispaperconsidersmixed,orrandomcoeAcients,multinomiallogit (MMNL)modelsfordiscreteresponse, andestablishesthefollowingresults.Undermildregularityconditions,anydiscretechoicemodelderivedfrom random utility maximization has choice probabilities that can be approximated as closely as one pleases by a MMNLmodel.PracticalestimationofaparametricmixingfamilycanbecarriedoutbyMaximumSimulated LikelihoodEstimationorMethodofSimulatedMoments,andeasilycomputedinstrumentsareprovidedthat make the latter procedure fairly eAcient. The adequacy of a mixing specification can be tested simply as an omittedvariabletestwithappropriatelydefinedartificialvariables.Anapplicationtoaproblemofdemandfor alternativevehiclesshowsthatMMNL provides aflexible and computationally practical approach todiscrete response analysis. Copyright # 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

3,967 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors used response surface regressions based on simulation experiments to calculate distribution functions for some well-known unit root and cointegration test statistics, which can be used to calculate both asymptotic and finite sample critical values and P-values for any of the tests.

Abstract: SUMMARY This paper employs response surface regressions based on simulation experiments to calculate distribution functions for some well-known unit root and cointegration test statistics. The principal contributions of the paper are a set of data files that contain estimated response surface coefficients and a computer program for utilizing them. This program, which is freely available via the Internet, can easily be used to calculate both asymptotic and finite-sample critical values and P-values for any of the tests. Graphs of some of the tabulated distribution functions are provided. An empirical example deals with interest rates and inflation rates in Canada. Tests of the null hypothesis that a time-series process has a unit root have been widely used in recent years, as have tests of the null hypothesis that two or more integrated series are not cointegrated. The most commonly used unit root tests are based on the work of Dickey and Fuller (1979) and Said and Dickey (1984). These are known as Dickey-Fuller (DF) tests and Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) tests, respectively. These tests have non-standard distributions, even asymptotically. The cointegration tests developed by Engle and Granger (1987) are closely related to DF and ADF tests, but they have different, non-standard distributions, which depend on the number of possibly cointegrated variables. Although the asymptotic theory of these unit root and cointegration tests is well developed, it is not at all easy for applied workers to calculate the marginal significance level, or P-value, associated with a given test statistic. Until a few years ago (MacKinnon, 1991), accurate critical values for cointegration tests were not available at all. In a recent paper (MacKinnon, 1994), I used simulation methods to estimate the asymptotic distributions of a large number of unit root and cointegration tests. I then obtained reasonably simple approximating equations that may be used to obtain approximate asymptotic P-values. In the present paper, I extend the results to allow for up to 12 variables, instead of six, and I correct two deficiencies of the earlier work. The first deficiency is that the approximating equations are considerably less accurate than the underlying estimated asymptotic distributions. The second deficiency is that, even though the simulation experiments provided information about the finite-sample distributions of the test statistics, the approximating equations were obtained only for the asymptotic case. The key to overcoming these two deficiencies is to use tables of response surface coefficients, from which estimated quantiles for any sample size may be calculated, instead of equations to

2,969 citations