# Showing papers in "Journal of Applied Physics in 1965"

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TL;DR: In this paper, the thermaloxidation kinetics of silicon are examined in detail based on a simple model of oxidation which takes into account the reactions occurring at the two boundaries of the oxide layer as well as the diffusion process, the general relationship x02+Ax0=B(t+τ) is derived.

Abstract: The thermal‐oxidation kinetics of silicon are examined in detail. Based on a simple model of oxidation which takes into account the reactions occurring at the two boundaries of the oxide layer as well as the diffusion process, the general relationship x02+Ax0=B(t+τ) is derived. This relationship is shown to be in excellent agreement with oxidation data obtained over a wide range of temperature (700°–1300°C), partial pressure (0.1–1.0 atm) and oxide thickness (300–20 000 A) for both oxygen and water oxidants. The parameters A, B, and τ are shown to be related to the physico‐chemical constants of the oxidation reaction in the predicted manner. Such detailed analysis also leads to further information regarding the nature of the transported species as well as space‐charge effects on the initial phase of oxidation.

2,932 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the elastic coefficients for an arbitrary rectangular coordinate system are calculated as a function of direction cosines in the crystal and graphs of these moduli are also plotted for orientations in the (100) and (110) planes as well as planes determined by the [110] direction and any perpendicular direction.

Abstract: The elastic coefficients for an arbitrary rectangular coordinate system are calculated as a function of direction cosines in the crystal. Young's modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio are defined in general and values tabulated for some of the more important directions in the crystal. Graphs of these moduli are also plotted as a function of crystal direction for orientations in the (100) and (110) planes as well as planes determined by the [110] direction and any perpendicular direction.

1,226 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the dependence of the barrier height of metal-semiconductor systems upon the metal work function is derived based on the following assumptions: (1) the contact between the metal and the semiconductor has an interfacial layer of the order of atomic dimensions; it is further assumed that this layer is transparent to electrons with energy greater than the potential barrier but can withstand potential across it.

Abstract: The dependence of the barrier height of metal-semiconductor systems upon the metal work function is derived based on the following assumptions: (1) the contact between the metal and the semiconductor has an interfacial layer of the order of atomic dimensions; it is further assumed that this layer is transparent to electrons with energy greater than the potential barrier but can withstand potential across it. (2) The surface state density (per unit area per electron volt) at the interface is a property only of the semiconductor surface and is independent of the metal. The barrier height φВn is defined here as the energy needed by an electron at the Fermi level in the metal to enter the conduction band of the semiconductor.

1,198 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, buildup and decay transients were observed when polar or nonpolar liquid cells were placed within the resonator of a helium-neon laser operating in the red at 6328 A.

Abstract: Buildup and decay transients were observed when polar or nonpolar liquid cells were placed within the resonator of a helium—neon laser operating in the red at 6328 A. Similar but smaller effects were also observed with two solids. Time constants were the order of a few seconds for all materials, which suggests a thermal phenomenon, but general heating effects were ruled out by the strong localization of the phenomenon. Transverse motion of the cell by about one beam width caused new transients similar to the initial ones.It is believed that the effects are caused by absorption of the red light in the material, producing a local heating in the vicinity of the beam and a lens effect arising from the transverse gradient of refractive index. Absorptions of 10−3 to 10−4 parts per centimeter are sufficient to produce the effects, and are believed to be reasonable values for the materials studied. One of the most important applications may in fact be for the measurement of small absorbancies.The experiments are ...

992 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the orientation distribution of crystallites in anisotropic polycrystalline samples can be derived from a set of plane-normal distributions obtained by x-ray diffraction measurements.

Abstract: A method is presented here by which orientation distribution of crystallites in anisotropic polycrystalline samples can be derived from a set of plane‐normal distributions obtained by x‐ray diffraction measurements. It is the generalization of the similar procedure proposed previously for analysis of samples having fiber texture. It thus represents a completely general solution to the problem of pole figure inversion, applicable to samples having any arbitrary symmetry elements. The plane‐normal distribution function is expanded in a series of spherical harmonics, the coefficients of which, Qlmi, can be determined by numerical integration of experimental diffraction data. The crystallite distribution function is expanded in a series of generalized spherical harmonics which appear as solutions to the Schrodinger wave equation of a symmetric top. The coefficients of the crystallite distribution function, Wlmn, are then obtained as linear combinations of Qlmi. Symmetry properties of Wlmn arising from crystallographic or statistical symmetry elements existing in the sample are examined. The methods of estimating the series truncation errors and of minimizing the experimental error by a least‐squares method, previously proposed in connection with fiber texture analysis, are still applicable here with appropriate generalizations. In addition it is shown that the effect of diffraction line broadening due to finite size or imperfection of crystallites can also be allowed for at least approximately.

757 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, an all-reflector spectrometer was used to measure the refractive indices of the cubic crystals ZnS, GaP, SrTiO3, and Y3Al5O12.

Abstract: An all‐reflector spectrometer is used to measure the refractive indices of the cubic crystals ZnS, GaP, SrTiO3, and Y3Al5O12; the tetragonal crystals rutile, CaWO4, SrMoO4, CaMoO4; the hexagonal crystals LiTaO3, CdSe, ZnO, and AlPO4; and the monoclinic crystal ZnWO4. Most of these are measured in the wavelength range 0.4 to 4 μ.

628 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, an approximate model of an ion explosion spike is proposed in which the mutual repulsion of the positive ions ejects them into the surrounding lattice, and the model is shown to be generally consistent with a wide range of experimental fact.

Abstract: Massive charged particles create regions of intense damage (tracks) by passing through bulk samples of insulating materials. These tracks are shown to result from the positively charged region created by ionization. An approximate model of an ``ion explosion spike'' is proposed in which the mutual repulsion of the positive ions ejects them into the surrounding lattice. This model is shown to be generally consistent with a wide range of experimental fact. An additional damage mechanism appears to apply to polymers, in some of which tracks are produced by light projectiles such as α particles. The data here are shown to be consistent with tracks consisting primarily of broken bonds caused by decay of directly excited electrons.

603 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a finite-difference method has been developed for the general case of an arbitrary surface of revolution and solutions have been obtained for the specific problems of blunting of field-emission tips and the sintering of spheres.

Abstract: The partial differential equation describing morphological changes of a surface of revolution due to capillarity‐induced surface diffusion has been derived under the assumption of isotropy of surface tension and surface self‐diffusion coefficient. A stable, convergent finite‐difference method has been developed for the general case of an arbitrary surface of revolution and solutions have been obtained for the specific problems of the blunting of field‐emission tips and the sintering of spheres. Spheroidization of cylindrical rods, as well as field‐emission tips with taper below a certain critical value, is predicted; for tapers above the critical value, steady‐state shapes are predicted and equations describing the blunting and recession of the tips are presented. If the sintering results for spheres are represented by a plot of log x/a vs log t, it is found that the inverse slope varies from approximately 5.5 to approximately 6.5 for the range 0.05≤x/a≤0.3, in contrast with the constant value of 7 found by Kuczynski from an order‐of‐magnitude analysis. At higher values of x/a, n increases steadily and without bound.

563 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a detailed study of the kinetics of alkali ion migration in thermally grown silicon dioxide films has been made using a simple model based on the division of the insulator into two regions: a thin boundary layer near the metal-insulator interface in which ion transport is...

Abstract: It is shown that changes in the capacitance‐voltage characteristic of a metal‐insulator‐semiconductor structure provide a powerful tool for the observation of ion motion in thin insulating films. Using this method, a detailed study of the kinetics of alkali ion migration in thermally grown silicon dioxide films has been made. Alkali ions were initially deposited at the metal‐oxide interface and their transport through the oxide was studied as a function of time, temperature and applied voltage. When the metal is biased positively the number of ions accumulated at the oxide‐silicon interface is initially proportional to the square root of time and then approaches a saturation value. The temperature dependence is exponential and leads to an activation energy for the diffusion coefficient of 32 kcal/mole for Na and 22 kcal/mole for Li.A simple model is developed which is based on the division of the insulator into two regions: a thin boundary layer near the metal‐insulator interface in which ion transport is...

484 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the effects of high-power pulses of laser radiation of specified shapes absorbed at opaque surfaces were analyzed using a phenomenological model to calculate the amount of material vaporized by an ordinary laser pulse.

Abstract: This paper describes methods by which one may calculate the effects of high‐power pulses of laser radiation of specified shapes absorbed at opaque surfaces. First the heating effects at levels where no phase change is produced are treated by ordinary thermodynamics. The vaporization produced by Q‐switched lasers should proceed differently from that produced by ordinary lasers and the two processes are treated separately. The amount of material vaporized by an ordinary laser pulse is calculated using conventional methods, while we adopt a phenomenological model to treat the case of the higher peak power pulses from Q‐switched lasers. The results are in agreement with experimental data.

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TL;DR: A new electrostatic probe method utilizing the triple probe is proposed in which no voltage or frequency sweep is required, allowing the instantaneous values of the electron temperature and the electron density to be determined within a short time.

Abstract: A new electrostatic probe method utilizing the triple probe is proposed in which no voltage or frequency sweep (or switching) is required. This feature enables us to determine the instantaneous values of the electron temperature (Te), as well as the electron density (ne), within a short time which is of the order of the intrinsic response time of the probe itself (⪝1μsec). Moreover, the system allows the direct display of the Te values as well as the semidirect display of the ne values on appropriate display units, thus permitting us to eliminate almost all procedures usually required for data processing. In view of the features mentioned, this system may be a useful diagnostic tool not only for stationary plasmas but also for rapidly varying time‐dependent plasmas of various types.This paper presents theoretical considerations for the instantaneous direct‐display system using a symmetrical triple probe. Discussions are also presented for the estimation of errors caused by the variation of ion saturation ...

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TL;DR: In this paper, a general method for calculating the (nonuniform) demagnetizing field in ferromagnetic bodies of arbitrary shape is described, based upon the assumption that the magnitude of the magnetization vector is constant throughout the sample and that its direction coincides with the direction of the local magnetic field at any point within the sample.

Abstract: A general method for calculating the (nonuniform) demagnetizing field in ferromagnetic bodies of arbitrary shape is described. The theory is based upon the assumption that the magnitude of the magnetization vector is constant throughout the sample and that its direction coincides with the direction of the local magnetic field at any point within the sample. The total magnetic field is expressed as a series of ascending powers in M/H0, where M is the saturation magnetization and H0 the applied magnetic field. The first term of this series expansion (first‐order theory) gives the demagnetizing field for very large applied fields, i.e., for a uniformly magnetized sample. The higher‐order corrections (we consider in detail only the first correction term; second‐order theory) take account of the fact that the sample is not in general uniformly magnetized. The general theory has been applied to rectangular slabs and circular cylinders. The first‐order demagnetizing field has been calculated for rectangular slab...

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors derived the conditions for maximum transmitted or internally dissipated power and axial distribution of radiation within the active medium for high-gain gas lasers with homogeneous line broadening.

Abstract: Earlier calculations of the radiation intensity obtainable from lasers with homogeneous line broadening are generalized to include arbitrarily large loss fractions per pass. The conditions for maximum transmitted or internally dissipated power are derived, as well as the axial distribution of radiation within the active medium. The relevance of these calculations to high‐gain gas lasers is discussed.

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TL;DR: In this article, a set of adjusted velocities and initial pressure derivatives was obtained which satisfies all the cross-checks exactly, while minimizing a weighted sum of the squares of the adjustments from the measured values.

Abstract: Ultrasonic wave velocities in single‐crystal quartz have been measured as a function of temperature and pressure by means of a pulse superposition method described in J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 33, 12 (1961). In order to make good use of all the experimental data, a set of ``adjusted'' velocities and initial pressure derivatives was obtained which satisfies all the cross‐checks exactly, while minimizing a weighted sum of the squares of the adjustments from the measured values. These adjusted values were then used to calculate the elastic moduli as functions of temperature and pressure. Values of ``zero‐field'' moduli at zero pressure and the initial pressure derivatives determined in this way are shown below. T=25∘CT=−195.8∘CValue at p=0PressureValue at p=0PressureModulus(1011 dyn/cm2)derivative(1011 dyn/cm2)derivativec118.6803.288.7263.40c12=c11−2c660.7048.660.9907.40c131.1915.971.3025.41c14−1.8041.93−1.7732.00c3310.57510.8410.91910.26c445.8202.665.9721.77c663.988−2.693.868−2.00

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TL;DR: In this article, the dielectric constants of CoO, NiO and CoO·NiO were derived as a function of frequency from 102 to 1010 cps and temperature from −193°C to 400°C.

Abstract: Dielectric constant κ′, loss κ″, and conductivity σ of single crystals of CoO, NiO, and mixed crystals of CoO–NiO as a function of frequency from 102 to 1010 cps and temperature from −193°C to 400°C have been determined. The dielectric constant κ′ is constant (12.9 at 25°C) in the whole frequency range in CoO. It decreases with frequency in NiO and mixed crystals CoO–NiO. In NiO κ′ reaches a constant value (11.9 at 25°C) at 105 cps, and in CoO·NiO (12.3 at 25°C) at 1010 cps. The dielectric constants extrapolated to 0°K are 10.9, 10.0, and 9.1 for CoO, CoO·NiO, and NiO, respectively. In all crystals the dielectric constant increases exponentially with temperature. Using modified Debye equations, two thermal activation energies for κ′ have been obtained: 0.042, 0.027, and 0.018 eV for temperatures below 40°C (frequency‐independent region); 0.33, 0.20, and 0.16 eV for temperatures above 40°C, for CoO, NiO, and CoO·NiO (frequency‐dependent region). The plot of log σ vs 1/T gives straight lines for CoO from 400° to 100°C, and NiO from 400° to 25°C with activation energies 0.73 and 0.66 eV. At lower temperatures the activation energies decrease continuously. The mixed crystals have two activation energies, one at high temperatures and the other at low temperatures. Variation of the activation energy with composition at high temperatures is less than that at low temperatures. The variation of activation energies in mixed crystals is correlated to lattice distortion and an increase of trivalent ion concentration.

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TL;DR: In this article, the Curie point, lattice constants, sublattice magnetization, spontaneous magnetic moment, susceptibility, and the nonlinear susceptibility have been measured on the compounds RFeO3 with R yttrium or a rare earth.

Abstract: The Curie point, lattice constants, sublattice magnetization, spontaneous magnetic moment, susceptibility, and the nonlinear susceptibility have been measured on the compounds RFeO3 with R yttrium or a rare earth. The main conclusions from these measurements are: (1) The rare‐earth ions contribution to the magnetic properties of these materials at relatively high temperature is mainly through the geometrical effect of ionic radii. (2) The ratio of iron sublattice to the weak ferromagnetic moment shows that the canting angle is temperature independent. (3) Between liquid‐air temperature and the Curie point, the rare‐earth ions behave like a paramagnet in an effective magnetic field of the iron ions. This field is of the order of a few thousand gauss of either sign. (4) From measurements of the spontaneous moment, the susceptibility and the nonlinear dependence of the magnetization on applied fields it appears that the antisymmetric exchange interaction is responsible for the weak ferromagnetism of these ma...

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TL;DR: In this article, a new etchant for GaAs consisting of CrO3, HF, AgNO3, and H2O was described which selectively attacks dislocations on the following planes: Ga {111, As {111}, {100, and {110}.

Abstract: A new etchant for GaAs consisting of CrO3, HF, AgNO3, and H2O is described which selectively attacks dislocations on the following planes: Ga {111}, As {111}, {100}, and {110}. Dislocations normal, inclined, and parallel to the plane of observation are revealed. The etching figures were correlated with dislocations by equating (a) the etch pits produced on {111} surfaces with those produced by a known dislocation etchant, (b) the {111} etch pits with the linear structure appearing on {100}, and (c) the pits on two matched {110} cleavage planes. Supporting evidence obtained from plastic indentation experiments on {111} and {100} is also presented. It is observed that long, straight dislocations tend to lie in 〈110〉 and 〈112〉 directions. It was established by reverse bending experiments that the etchant produces pits only at As or β dislocations, if no impurity segregation has occurred. If decoration of the dislocations has occurred, as in Bridgman‐grown GaAs, pits are produced at both α (Ga) and β dislocat...

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TL;DR: In this paper, the crystal structure of TiNi has been determined in the temperature range −70° to 900°C through single-crystal x-ray diffraction methods, and it has been shown that the 9A superlattice undergoes a ''martensitic'' pseudo order-disorder transition which is not accompanied by a crystallographic transformation.

Abstract: Through single‐crystal x‐ray diffraction methods, the crystal structure of TiNi has been determined in the temperature range −70° to 900°C. Contrary to what has been assumed from previous work based on the powder pattern methods, the TiNi crystal structure is not a simple CsCl type. Rather, it has an a0=9A superlattice and an a0=3A sublattice with 54 atoms per unit cell complex structure.The 9A superlattice undergoes, at about 166°C, a ``martensitic'' pseudo order‐disorder transition which is not accompanied by a crystallographic transformation. Through the understanding of this unique transition the apparent contradicting observations made on TiNi by various past investigators can now be reconciled and the unusual physical properties associated with the alloy are explained qualitatively.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the long-range ferromagnetic coupling occurs in several dilute solid-solution alloys of the Ferromagnetic transition elements in Pd or Pt.

Abstract: Long‐range ferromagnetic coupling occurs in several dilute solid‐solution alloys of the ferromagnetic transition elements in Pd or Pt. New measurements of magnetic moments and Curie temperatures of PdFe, PtFe, PtCo, and PdNi alloys are reported, and previous work on these and some of the more general properties of these alloys are briefly reviewed. Also, ferromagnetism occurs in dilute PdGd solid solutions.Dilute solutions of iron in gold are ferromagnetic, although below about 10% of Fe there seems to be no homogeneous bulk ferromagnetism.

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TL;DR: The third-order elastic constants of germanium, magnesium oxide, and fused silica have been measured using the pulse superposition method for determining the ultrasonic velocity as a function of both uniaxial and hydrostatic pressure as mentioned in this paper.

Abstract: The third‐order elastic constants of germanium, magnesium oxide, and fused silica have been measured using the pulse superposition method for determining the ultrasonic velocity as a function of both uniaxial and hydrostatic pressure. From these measurements all six third‐order elastic constants were calculated by using the equations of Thurston and Brugger for MgO and Ge, and the three independent isotropic third‐order constants were calculated for fused SiO2.The results for Ge are in good agreement with the most recent data of McSkimin and Andreatch. The results for MgO agree in part quite well with theoretical data calculated from a Born‐Mayer potential. Drastic failure of the three Cauchy relations indicates the presence of many body forces. For fused silica, the remaining Cauchy relation is, as may be expected, not well fulfilled.

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TL;DR: In this paper, general analytical expressions for the line shapes of Lorentzian signals broadened by modulation are given for the cases of the first and second harmonic, and the linewidths and signal intensities have been calculated analytically as a function of the modulation amplitude.

Abstract: General analytical expressions are given for the line shapes of Lorentzian signals broadened by modulation. The results are discussed for the cases of the first and second harmonic. The linewidths and the signal intensities have been calculated analytically as a function of the modulation amplitude.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the eigenvalue problem was solved for each of these directions, and the polarization vectors and the wave speeds were tabulated for all crystal point groups belonging to the orthorhombic, tetragonal, cubic, rhombohedral, and hexagonal systems.

Abstract: In an anisotropic medium there are only certain directions along which elastic waves can propagate in pure longitudinal and transverse modes. For the determination of third‐order elastic coefficients from sound speed measurements in stressed crystals it is desirable to know these modes. Using a method due to Borgnis the pure mode directions are determined for all crystal point groups belonging to the orthorhombic, tetragonal, cubic, rhombohedral, and hexagonal systems. The eigenvalue problem is solved for each of these directions, and the polarization vectors and the wave speeds are tabulated.

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TL;DR: In this article, the dislocation contribution to the generation of the second harmonic of an ultrasonic wave in solids is measured through the changes, as a function of static bias stress, in the amplitude of a fundamental wave (10 Mc/sec compressional wave) propagating in the specimen.

Abstract: The experimental evidence and the associated theory are presented for the dislocation contribution to the generation of the second harmonic of an ultrasonic wave in solids. The contribution is measured through the changes, as a function of static bias stress, in the amplitude of the second harmonic of a fundamental wave (10 Mc/sec compressional wave) propagating in the specimen.In aluminum single crystals the amplitude of the second harmonic, for a given amplitude of the fundamental, changes markedly with static bias stresses ranging from 0 to 106 dyn/cm2. In alloys, there are essentially no changes of the amplitude of the second harmonic even for bias stresses up to 107 dyn/cm2. These observations are consistent with the predicted dependence of the amplitude on dislocation loop length and on the static stress. The effects of small amounts of plastic deformation were consistent with the proposed model.

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TL;DR: The results of an extensive experimental study of the current from shockloaded X-cut quartz disks are reported for shock stress up to 50 kbar as mentioned in this paper, where the current amplitude and its time dependence are functions of the dielectric, piezoelectric and mechanical properties of quartz under shockloading conditions.

Abstract: Current from X‐cut quartz disks may be used to detect stress‐time profiles induced by shock loading. The current amplitude and its time dependence are functions of the dielectric, piezoelectric, and mechanical properties of quartz under shock‐loading conditions. The results of an extensive experimental study of the current from shock‐loaded quartz disks are reported for shock stress up to 50 kbar. The experiment is performed by impacting precisely aligned X‐cut quartz disks upon each other at various measured velocities and observing the current in one of the disks during the first wave transit. Within the low signal range, the piezoelectric stress constant e11 is found to be 0.174 C‐m−2. The coefficient relating current jump to stress jump in one‐dimensional strain is found to be 2.04×10−8 C‐cm−2‐kbar−1 up to 6 kbar and 2.15×10−8 C‐cm−2‐kbar−1 from 9 to 18 kbar. The wave velocity was determined to be constant to 25 kbar. The observed current waveform could be fully interpreted in terms of rate‐independen...

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TL;DR: In this article, a theory of the excitation of elastic waves arising from photoelastic coupling with light is presented, similar in character to the theory of optical parametric amplification in spatially extended media.

Abstract: A theory of the excitation of elastic waves arising from photoelastic coupling with light is presented. It is similar in character to the theory of optical parametric amplification in spatially extended media. Special attention is given to the self‐excited transient case. A novel form for the space—time development of the instability appears for the case in which the spatial dimensions of the interaction region are large compared to the distance traveled by an elastic wave during the illumination time. The predicted effects should be readily observable with existing giant pulse lasers.

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TL;DR: In this article, the experimental magnetization curve of an extremely soft magnetic layer on an extremely hard magnetic layer agrees well with the theoretical curve based on such rotation models, and the existence of a new switching mode which is dependent upon the sequence of external magnetic fields is also expected from a theory based on a lumped-constant approximation to the continuous rotation model.

Abstract: Composite magnetic thin films consisting of layers of different magnetic materials in close molecular contact with one another are studied. Because of ferromagnetic exchange coupling between spins, the magnetization in the neighborhood of the interface of the layers is expected to rotate continuously as in Bloch walls. The experimental magnetization curve of an extremely soft magnetic layer on an extremely hard magnetic layer agrees well with the theoretical curve based on such rotation models. Drastic deformations in critical switching curves from the asteroid of conventional uniaxial films, improvement in nondestructive reading characteristics, and existence of a new switching mode which is dependent upon the sequence of external magnetic fields are also expected from a theory based on a lumped‐constant approximation to the continuous rotation model. All of these theoretical predictions have been confirmed by experiments using electroplated composite films.

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TL;DR: A review of neutron diffraction studies of the magnetic properties of rare earth metals and alloys is presented in this paper, where the magnetic moments in the ordered configurations at low temperatures approach the values expected from the corresponding free tripositive ions.

Abstract: A review of neutron diffraction studies of the magnetic properties of rare‐earth metals and alloys is presented. For each of the pure metals Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm there is observed a transition at a temperature TN to an oscillatory antiferromagnetic configuration (helical or linear oscillator type). At lower temperatures, further transitions to ferromagnetic, ferromagnetic spiral, or antiphase domain‐type configurations are observed. For Gd, only the ferromagnetic configuration is found. The magnetic moments in the ordered configurations at low temperatures approach the values expected from the corresponding free tripositive ions. In the first half of the series only Nd has been studied by single‐crystal methods, but Ce, Pr, and Eu have now been investigated with polycrystalline samples. The data for Ce are complicated by the existence of several allotropic forms, but a complex antiferromagnetic structure appears to be associated with the hexagonal form at low temperatures. For Nd and Pr, oscillatory ant...

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TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that the empirical introduction of a single temperature-independent parameter takes care of all the observed departures in the case of gold on gallium arsenide.

Abstract: Departures from the theoretical behavior of a Schottky barrier are reported in the case of gold on gallium arsenide. It is shown that the empirical introduction of a single temperature‐independent parameter takes care of all the observed departures.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors used the Mie-Gruneisen equation of state with Born-Mayer type repulsion terms between first and second nearest neighbors to calculate the pressure as a function of lattice parameter and temperature for NaCl over a pressure range of 0 to 500 kbar for temperatures between 0° and 1500°C.

Abstract: The pressure as a function of lattice parameter and temperature has been calculated for NaCl over a pressure range of 0 to 500 kbar for temperatures between 0° and 1500°C. The calculation used the Mie‐Gruneisen equation of state with Born‐Mayer type repulsion terms between first and second nearest neighbors. The Gruneisen constant was expanded about its value at room temperature and atmospheric pressure; the first coefficient in the expansion being evaluated by forcing the calculated thermal expansion at atmospheric pressure to fit the experimental results of Enck. The two empirical parameters in the repulsion terms were evaluated using the experimental lattice parameter and isothermal compressibility at atmospheric pressure. The calculated pressure vs volume agrees with Bridgman's room‐temperature measurements in NaCl below 100 kbar to within 3% and with high‐pressure high‐temperature shock data to better than 2%. It is proposed to use the numerical results to calibrate the pressure in high‐pressure high‐temperature apparatus.