Showing papers in "Journal of Applied Physics in 1996"
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explore the interrelationships between the green 510 nm emission, the free-carrier concentration, and the paramagnetic oxygen vacancy density in commercial ZnO phosphors by combining photoluminescence, optical absorption, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies.
Abstract: We explore the interrelationships between the green 510 nm emission, the free‐carrier concentration, and the paramagnetic oxygen‐vacancy density in commercial ZnO phosphors by combining photoluminescence, optical‐absorption, and electron‐paramagnetic‐resonance spectroscopies. We find that the green emission intensity is strongly influenced by free‐carrier depletion at the particle surface, particularly for small particles and/or low doping. Our data suggest that the singly ionized oxygen vacancy is responsible for the green emission in ZnO; this emission results from the recombination of a photogenerated hole with the singly ionized charge state of this defect.
TL;DR: Entropy generation minimization (finite time thermodynamics, or thermodynamic optimization) is the method that combines into simple models the most basic concepts of heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and thermodynamics as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Entropy generation minimization (finite time thermodynamics, or thermodynamic optimization) is the method that combines into simple models the most basic concepts of heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and thermodynamics. These simple models are used in the optimization of real (irreversible) devices and processes, subject to finite‐size and finite‐time constraints. The review traces the development and adoption of the method in several sectors of mainstream thermal engineering and science: cryogenics, heat transfer, education, storage systems, solar power plants, nuclear and fossil power plants, and refrigerators. Emphasis is placed on the fundamental and technological importance of the optimization method and its results, the pedagogical merits of the method, and the chronological development of the field.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors compute the band structure and shear deformation potentials of strained Si, Ge, and SiGe alloys, and fit the theoretical results to experimental data on the phonon-limited carrier mobilities in bulk Si and Ge.
Abstract: Using nonlocal empirical pseudopotentials, we compute the band structure and shear deformation potentials of strained Si, Ge, and SiGe alloys. Fitting the theoretical results to experimental data on the phonon‐limited carrier mobilities in bulk Si and Ge, the dilatation deformation potential Ξd is found to be 1.1 eV for the Si Δ minima, −4.4 eV for the Ge L minima, corresponding to a value for the valence band dilatation deformation potential a of approximately 2 eV for both Si and Ge. The optical deformation potential d0 is found to be 41.45 and 41.75 eV for Si and Ge, respectively. Carrier mobilities in strained Si and Ge are then evaluated. The results show a large enhancement of the hole mobility for both tensile and compressive strain along the  direction, but only a modest enhancement (approximately 60%) of the electron mobility for tensile biaxial strain in Si. Finally, from a fit to carrier mobilities in relaxed SiGe alloys, the effective alloy scattering potential is determined to be about 0...
TL;DR: In this paper, a comprehensive analysis of the developments in ultraviolet (UV) detector technology is described and the current state of the art of different types of semiconductor UV detectors is presented.
Abstract: In this review article a comprehensive analysis of the developments in ultraviolet (UV) detector technology is described. At the beginning, the classification of UV detectors and general requirements imposed on these detectors are presented. Further considerations are restricted to modern semiconductor UV detectors, so the basic theory of photoconductive and photovoltaic detectors is presented in a uniform way convenient for various detector materials. Next, the current state of the art of different types of semiconductor UV detectors is presented. Hitherto, the semiconductor UV detectors have been mainly fabricated using Si. Industries such as the aerospace, automotive, petroleum, and others have continuously provided the impetus pushing the development of fringe technologies which are tolerant of increasingly high temperatures and hostile environments. As a result, the main efforts are currently directed to a new generation of UV detectors fabricated from wide band‐gap semiconductors the most promising ...
TL;DR: The origin and interpretation of the Raman features of amorphous (hydrogenated) carbonfilmsdeposited at room temperature in the region of 1000-1700 cm−1 is discussed in this paper.
Abstract: The origin and interpretation of the Raman features of amorphous (hydrogenated) carbonfilmsdeposited at room temperature in the region of 1000–1700 cm−1 is discussed in this paper. Possible interpretations of the linewidths, positions of the ‘‘G’’ graphite peak and ‘‘D’’ disordered peak, and their intensity ratios are examined using results obtained from magnetron sputtered and magnetic field enhanced plasmadepositedfilms. It is shown that even small ‘‘clusters’’ of condensed benzene rings (cluster size below 20 A) in carbonfilms can explain the observed Raman scattering. Besides the care that should be taken in the correct interpretation of Raman results, the utility of Raman scattering in obtaining an estimate of cluster sizes in amorphous (hydrogenated) carbonfilms is discussed. Carbonfilms prepared by magnetron sputtering show two additional Raman features at 1180 and 1490 cm−1 in addition to the G and D peaks. It is shown that a correlation exists between the 1180 cm−1 peak and the sp 3 content in the films.
TL;DR: In this article, an approach combining both of pulse (PT) and modulated infrared thermography is proposed which combines simultaneously advantages both of PT and MODI, and the results are presented and the theory is discussed as well.
Abstract: An approach is proposed which combines simultaneously advantages both of pulse (PT) and modulated infrared thermography. In a nondestructive evaluation perspective, the specimen is pulse heated as in PT and the mix of frequencies of the thermal waves launched into the specimen is unscrambled by performing the Fourier transform of the temperature evolution over the field of view. Of interest is the maximum phase image with many attractive features: deeper probing, less influence of surface infrared and optical characteristics, rapid image recording (pulse heating, surface‐wide inspection), and the possibility to inspect high thermal conductivity specimens. Several results are presented and the theory is discussed as well.
TL;DR: The average electronic oxide polarizability α02− of numerous single component oxides has been calculated on the basis of two different properties: linear refractive index n0 and energy gap Eg, which have demonstrated remarkable correlation.
Abstract: The average electronic oxide polarizability α02− of numerous single component oxides has been calculated on the basis of two different properties: linear refractive index n0 and energy gap Eg, which have demonstrated remarkable correlation. The optical basicity Λ of the oxides has been estimated on the basis of average electronic oxide polarizability calculated from the refractive index Λ(n0) and the energy gap Λ(Eg). A good agreement has been observed between the optical basicity data obtained using independent initial quantities. The simple oxides have been separated into three groups according to the values of their oxide polarizability. The α02− values (above 3 A) obtained for PbO, Sb2O3, and Bi2O3 have been attributed to the high cation polarizability and the presence of a lone pair in the valence shell of the cation.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors measured the currentvoltage and electroluminescence characteristics of single-heterojunction, vacuum-deposited organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) over a wide range of materials, temperatures, and currents.
Abstract: We measure the current–voltage and electroluminescencecharacteristics of single‐heterojunction, vacuum‐deposited organic light‐emitting devices(OLEDs) over a wide range of materials, temperatures, and currents. We find that the current is limited by a large density of traps with an exponential energy distribution below the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital. The characteristic trap depth is 0.15 eV. Furthermore, in metal–quinolate‐based devices,electroluminescence originates from recombination of Frenkel excitons, and its temperature dependence is consistent with the excitons being formed by Coulombic relaxation of the trapped electrons with holes injected from the counter electrode. By semiempirical molecular orbital modeling, we find that the trap distribution obtained from the current–voltage characteristics is consistent with a distribution in the metal–quinolate molecular conformations which result in a continuous, exponential distribution of allowed states below the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital. We discuss the implications of the intrinsic relationship between electroluminescence and current transport in OLEDs for the optimization of efficiency and operating voltage in these devices.
TL;DR: In this article, a method to deduce energy distributions of defects in the band gap of a semiconductor by measuring the complex admittance of a junction is proposed, which consists of calculating the derivative of the junction capacitance with respect to the angular frequency of the signal corrected by a factor taking into account the band bending and the drop of the ac signal.
Abstract: A method to deduce energy distributions of defects in the band gap of a semiconductor by measuring the complex admittance of a junction is proposed. It consists of calculating the derivative of the junction capacitance with respect to the angular frequency of the ac signal corrected by a factor taking into account the band bending and the drop of the ac signal over the space charge region of the junction. Numerical modeling demonstrates that defect distributions in energy can be reconstructed by this method with high accuracy. Defect distributions of polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films are determined by this method from temperature dependent admittance measurements on heterojunctions of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 with ZnO that are used as efficient thin film solar cells.
TL;DR: In this article, a maximum field effect mobility of 0.038 cm−2'V−1'1's−1 is reported for devices incorporating pentacene films deposited at room temperature.
Abstract: Pentacene films deposited with molecular beam deposition have been fabricated and characterized with respect to structure and morphology using x‐ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Metal‐insulator semiconductor field‐effect transistor devices based on such films were used to study their transport properties. A maximum field‐effect mobility of 0.038 cm−2 V−1 s−1 is reported for devices incorporating pentacene films deposited at room temperature. The structural characterization revealed the coexistence of two phases: the thermodynamically stable single‐crystal phase and the kinetically favored, metastable thin‐film phase. Such mixed phase films were produced when low deposition rates were used in combination with a substrate temperature of 55 °C. Mixed phase films had transport properties inferior to films consisting solely of one phase, while amorphous films deposited at low surface mobility conditions had extremely low conductivity. Use of prepurified pentacene as source material resulted in...
TL;DR: In this article, the thermoelectric properties of the skutterudite compound CoSb3 were investigated on single crystals grown by the Bridgman gradient freeze technique and the results of the transport property measurements are discussed and are in agreement with some recent predictions based on band structure calculations.
Abstract: A study of the thermoelectric properties of the skutterudite compound CoSb3 was carried out on single crystals grown by the Bridgman gradient freeze technique. p‐ and n‐type samples were obtained over a wide range of carrier concentration. Undoped As‐grown crystals show p‐type conductivity while n‐type samples were obtained by addition of Te or Pd. Samples were characterized by x‐ray diffractometry, electron microprobe analysis, and density measurements. The physical properties of CoSb3 such as linear thermal expansion coefficient, sound velocity, and Debye temperature were also determined and are presented. Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and Hall effect measurements were performed between room temperature and about 900 K. Exceptionally high Hall mobilities were obtained on p‐type samples with a maximum room‐temperature Hall mobility of 3300 cm2 V−1 s−1 at a carrier concentration of 1×1017 cm−3. The results of the transport property measurements are discussed and are in agreement with some recent predictions based on band structure calculations. The potential of CoSb3 for thermoelectric applications is evaluated.
TL;DR: The influence of postdeposition annealing on the structural and optical properties of rf sputtered insulating zinc oxide films has been investigated in this article, where the optical dispersion data have been fitted to (1) a single oscillator model and (2) the Pikhtin-Yas'kov model.
Abstract: The influence of postdeposition annealing on the structural and optical properties of rf sputtered insulating zinc oxide films has been investigated. The as‐grown films deposited on quartz substrates were highly c‐axis oriented and in a state of stress. These films become almost stress free after a postdeposition annealing treatment at 673 K for 1 h in air. Above 673 K, a process of coalescence was observed which causes major grain growth resulting in microcrack formation and surface roughness. The refractive index shows a strong frequency dispersion below the interband absorption edge. The optical dispersion data have been fitted to (1) a single oscillator model and (2) the Pikhtin–Yas’kov model. The origin of optical dispersion at different annealing temperatures has been discussed in the light of these models. A packing density of more than 99% is estimated in the film annealed at 673 K, indicating that these films are almost void free.
TL;DR: In this paper, a mixed oxide (Zn1−x Al x )O exhibits promising thermoelectric properties attaining a dimensionless figure of merit ZT of 0.30 at 1000°C, which value is much superior to other oxides and quite comparable to conventional state-of-the-art thermolectricmaterials.
Abstract: A mixed oxide (Zn1−x Al x )O exhibits promising thermoelectricproperties attaining a dimensionless figure of merit ZT of 0.30 at 1000 °C, which value is much superior to other oxides and quite comparable to conventional state‐of‐the‐art thermoelectricmaterials. The addition of a small amount of Al2O3 to ZnO results in a large power factor of 10–15×10−4 W/mK2, showing a marked increase in the electrical conductivity while retaining moderate thermoelectric power. A large product of the carrier mobility and density of states would be responsible for the favorable electrical properties of the present oxide. A figure of merit Z=0.24×10−3 K−1 is attained by (Zn0.98Al0.02)O at 1000 °C, even with a high thermal conductivity. A predominant proportion of the phononthermal conductivity promises a further improvement in the thermoelectric performance by selective enhancement of phonon scattering.
TL;DR: The elastic constants of GaN have been determined using Brillouin scattering; in GPa they are: C11=390, C33=398, C44=105, C66=123, C12=145, and C13=106.
Abstract: The elastic constants of GaN have been determined using Brillouin scattering; in GPa they are: C11=390, C33=398, C44=105, C66=123, C12=145, and C13=106. Our values differ substantially from those quoted in the literature which were obtained from the determination of mean square displacement of atoms measured by x‐ray diffraction.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the phonon-limited mobility of strained Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) through theoretical calculations including two-dimensional quantization.
Abstract: The phonon‐limited mobility of strained Si metal–oxide–semiconductor field‐effect transistors (MOSFETs) fabricated on a SiGe substrate is investigated through theoretical calculations including two‐dimensional quantization, and compared with the mobility of conventional (unstrained) Si MOSFETs. In order to match both the mobility of unstrained Si MOSFETs and the mobility enhancement in strained Si MOSFETs, it is necessary to increase the coupling of electrons in the two‐dimensional gas with intervalley phonons, compared to the values used in conventional models. The mobility enhancement associated with strain in Si is attributed to the following two factors: the suppression of intervalley phonon scattering due to the strain‐induced band splitting, and the decrease in the occupancy of the fourfold valleys which exhibit a lower mobility due to the stronger interaction with intervalley phonons. While the decrease in the averaged conductivity mass, caused by the decrease in the occupancy of the fourfold valle...
TL;DR: In this article, two primary modes of degradation are identified: oxidation of the polymer leads to the formation of aromatic aldehyde, which quenches the fluorescence, and concomitant chain scission results in reduced carrier mobility.
Abstract: Light‐emitting diodes made with poly(2‐methoxy‐5(2′‐ethyl)hexoxy‐phenylenevinylene) (MEH‐ PPV) using indium‐tin‐oxide (ITO) as anode and Ca as cathode have been examined as they age during operation in a dry inert atmosphere. Two primary modes of degradation are identified. First, oxidation of the polymer leads to the formation of aromatic aldehyde, i.e., carbonyl which quenches the fluorescence. The concomitant chain scission results in reduced carrier mobility. ITO is identified as a likely source of oxygen. The second process involves the formation of localized electrical shorts which do not necessarily cause immediate complete failure because they can be isolated by self‐induced melting of the surrounding cathode metal. We have not identified the origin of the shorts, but once they are initiated, thermal runaway appears to accelerate their development. The ultimate failure of many MEH‐PPV devices occurs when the regions of damaged cathode start to coalesce.
TL;DR: In this paper, the defect structures, including threading dislocations, partial dislocation bounding stacking faults and inversion domains, were investigated by transmission electron microscopy for GaN/Al2O3 epilayers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using a two-step process.
Abstract: Defect structures were investigated by transmission electron microscopy for GaN/Al2O3 (0001) epilayers grown by metal‐organic chemical vapor deposition using a two‐step process. The defect structures, including threading dislocations, partial dislocation bounding stacking faults, and inversion domains, were analyzed by diffraction contrast, high‐resolution imaging, and convergent beam diffraction. GaN film growth was initiated at 600 °C with a nominal 20 nm nucleation layer. This was followed by high‐temperature growth at 1080 °C. The near‐interfacial region of the films consists of a mixture of cubic and hexagonal GaN, which is characterized by a high density of stacking faults bounded by Shockley and Frank partial dislocations. The near‐interfacial region shows a high density of inversion domains. Above ∼0.5 μm thickness, the film consists of isolated threading dislocations of either pure edge, mixed, or pure screw character with a total density of ∼7×108 cm−2. The threading dislocation reduction in the...
TL;DR: In this paper, the lattice thermal conductivity of these filled skutterudites is quantified in an effort to quantify the impact of void filling in this structure, which shows that the atoms "rattle" in the voids of the structure and therefore interact with a broad spectrum of lattice phonons, reducing their mean free paths substantially below that in the "unfilled" skutteruds.
Abstract: Polycrystalline samples of Ir4LaGe3Sb9, Ir4NdGe3Sb9, and Ir4SmGe3Sb9 have been made by hot isostatic pressing of powders. The lattice thermal conductivity of these filled skutterudites is markedly smaller than that of IrSb3; thus, void filling shows promise as a method for improving the thermoelectric properties of these materials. We present the lattice thermal conductivity of these filled skutterudites in an effort to quantify the impact of void filling in this structure. It is believed that the atoms ‘‘rattle’’ in the voids of the structure and therefore interact with a broad spectrum of lattice phonons, reducing their mean free paths substantially below that in the ‘‘unfilled’’ skutterudites. An additional phonon scattering mechanism is caused by phonon‐stimulated transitions between the low‐lying energy levels of the 4f electron configurations in the case of Nd3+ and Sm3+. Magnetic susceptibility and Hall‐effect measurements are also presented.
TL;DR: In this paper, a suitable relationship between the linear refractive index n 0, the energy gap, and the nonlinear refractive indices n 2 has been found for simple oxides.
Abstract: A suitable relationship between the linear refractive index n0, the energy gap Eg, and the nonlinear refractive index n2 has been looked for on the basis of experimental and theoretical data reported in the literature for numerous simple oxides. It has been established that the nonlinear refractive index increases with increasing linear refractive index and decreasing energy gap of the oxides. This is related to the increasing metallicity of the oxides. Oxides with a high nonlinear refractive index posses a metallization criterion of approximately 0.30–0.45.
TL;DR: In this article, tunneling between ferromagnetic-insulator-ferromagnet (FM-I-FM) trilayer thin-film planar junctions has been successfully studied.
Abstract: Tunneling between ferromagnet–insulator–ferromagnet (FM–I–FM) trilayer thin‐film planar junctions has been successfully studied. Tunnel current was observed to be dependent on the relative orientation of the magnetization (M). Co, CoCr, CoFe, Fe0.7Pt0.3, and NiFe were tried as the FM electrodes with Al2O3 or MgO as the barrier layers for the above studies. Large magnetoresistance (MR) was observed as the M alignment of the two ferromagnets changed from being parallel to antiparallel orientation. At room temperature, the highest change in junction MR was 18%, field sensitivity factor reaching 5%/Oe in the best cases. The MR value increased to 25.6% at 4.2 K, and decreased as the dc bias was increased to a fraction of the barrier height. The angular dependence of MR varied nearly as the cosine of the relative angle of M, as predicted by Slonczewski’s theory. The magnitude of MR agrees well with that given by Julliere’s model, which predicts that the MR varies as the product of the conduction electron spin polarization of the FMs. These trilayer junctions can find application as high‐density, nonvolatile storage media or as field sensors.
TL;DR: In this paper, three derivatives of poly(paraphenylene) (PPP) have been synthesized, all with excellent solubility in common organic solvents.
Abstract: Three derivatives of poly(paraphenylene) (PPP) have been synthesized, all with excellent solubility in common organic solvents. Efficient blue polymer light‐emitting diodes (LEDs) are demonstrated using these PPPs as the semiconducting and luminescent polymers. Double‐layer polymer LEDs (consisting of a hole transport layer in addition to the electroluminescent layer) emit blue light with external quantum efficiencies between 1% and 3% photons per electron, when using indium tin oxide as the anode and calcium as the cathode. Using internal field emission (Fowler–Nordheim tunneling) of single carrier devices for both electrons and holes, the energies of the top of the π band and the bottom of the π* band have been determined as, respectively, 5.7 and 2.3 eV below the vacuum. The operating voltages of these LEDs have been lowered by using a porous polyaniline anode, or by blending PPP with a hole transport material. LEDs using air stable cathodes, silver, indium, aluminum, and copper, were also demonstrated...
TL;DR: In this paper, different steps that have to be taken in order to derive information about local mechanical stress in silicon using micro-Raman spectroscopy experiments, including theoretical and experimental aspects, are discussed.
Abstract: The different steps that have to be taken in order to derive information about local mechanical stress in silicon using micro‐Raman spectroscopy experiments, including theoretical and experimental aspects, are discussed. It is shown that the calculations are in general less complicated when they are done in the axes system of the sample. For that purpose, the secular equation is calculated in the axes system , [−110], , which is important for microelectronics structures. The theory relating Raman mode shift with stress tensor components is applied using two analytical stress models: uniaxial stress and planar stress. The results of these models are fitted to data from micro‐Raman spectroscopy experiments on Si3N4/poly‐Si lines on silicon substrate. In this fit procedure, the dimensions of the laser spot and its penetration depth in the substrate are also taken into account.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examine the dynamic behavior of quantum cellular automata, arrays of artificial quantum-dot cells that can be used to perform useful computations, and they develop several approximate techniques for reducing the size of the basis set required.
Abstract: We examine the dynamic behavior of quantum cellular automata, arrays of artificial quantum‐dot cells that can be used to perform useful computations. The dynamics of the array can be solved directly, retaining the full many‐electron degrees of freedom only for small array sizes. For larger arrays, we develop several approximate techniques for reducing the size of the basis set required. We examine the effect of intercellular quantum correlations on the switching response. Several important examples of switching behavior are solved using the techniques developed.
TL;DR: In this article, the important changes produced on the electroluminescence characteristics of organic materials due to planar microcavity effects are examined in detail, and the design considerations for and device characteristics of a novel multiple emissive layer LED are also described.
Abstract: The important changes produced on the electroluminescence characteristics of organic materials due to planar microcavity effects are examined in detail. The photon density of states is redistributed such that only certain wavelengths, which correspond to allowed cavity modes, are emitted in a given direction. This enables us to realize color selectivity over a large wavelength (and color coordinate) range with broadband emitters such as 8‐hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq), and intensity enhancement in narrow band emitters. The intensity enhancement in Alq‐based cavity light emitting diodes (LEDs) is extensively evaluated both experimentally and theoretically. The design considerations for and device characteristics of a novel multiple emissive layer LED are also described.
TL;DR: In this paper, light-emitting diodes have been fabricated from self-assembled multilayers of poly(p•phenylene vinylene) (PPV) and two different polyanions; polystyrene sulfonic acid (SPS) and polymethacrylic acid (PMA).
Abstract: Light‐emitting diodes have been fabricated from self‐assembled multilayers of poly(p‐phenylene vinylene) (PPV) and two different polyanions; polystyrene sulfonic acid (SPS) and polymethacrylic acid (PMA). The type of polyanion used to assemble the multilayer thin films was found to dramatically influence the behavior and performance of devices fabricated with indium tin oxide and aluminum electrodes. Light‐emitting devices fabricated from PMA/PPV multilayers were found to exhibit luminance levels in the range of 20–60 cd/m2, a thickness dependent turn‐on voltage and classical rectifying behavior with rectification ratios greater than 105. In sharp contrast, the devices based on SPS/PPV exhibited near symmetric current–voltage curves, thickness independent turn‐on voltages and much lower luminance levels. The significant difference in device behavior observed between these two systems is primarily due to a doping effect induced either chemically or electrochemically by the sulfonic acid groups of SPS. It w...
TL;DR: In this paper, electroluminescence (EL) degradation studies of thin-film organic light-emitting diodes under ambient conditions were performed via EL and photoluminecence (PL) microscopy.
Abstract: We report electroluminescence (EL) degradation studies of thin‐film organic light‐emitting diodes under ambient conditions. Bilayer organic ITO/TPD/Alq3/Mg/Ag devices were studied via EL and photoluminescence (PL) microscopy. In situ imaging of device luminescing areas and measurement of sample luminance were performed, allowing for a detailed study of black spot formation and luminance reduction under constant voltage stress conditions. Post‐stress devices were further characterized using PL microscopy, and it was found that black spots result from delamination of the metal at the Alq3/Mg interface initiated by pinholes on the cathode, caused by substrate defects.
TL;DR: In this paper, a large range of silane dilution investigated can be divided into an amorphous and a micro-crystalline zone, separated by a narrow transition zone at a dilution level of 7.5%.
Abstract: Hydrogen incorporation in silicon layers prepared by plasma‐enhanced chemical‐vapor deposition using silane dilution by hydrogen has been studied by infrared spectroscopy (IR) and elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). The large range of silane dilution investigated can be divided into an amorphous and a microcrystalline zone. These two zones are separated by a narrow transition zone at a dilution level of 7.5%; here, the structure of the material cannot be clearly identified. The films in/near the amorphous/microcrystalline transition zone show a considerably enhanced hydrogen incorporation. Moreover, comparison of IR and ERDA and film stress measurements suggests that these layers contain a substantial amount of molecular hydrogen probably trapped in microvoids. In this particular case the determination of the total H content by IR spectroscopy leads to substantial errors. At silane concentrations below 6%, the hydrogen content decreases sharply and the material becomes progressively microcrystalline...
TL;DR: In this article, an ellipsometer, surface profilometer, optical spectrometer, and nano-indenter were used to characterize the properties of a filter cathodic vacuum arc (CVA arc) film.
Abstract: Ion energy, controlled by the substrate bias, is an important parameter in determining properties of films deposited by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique. The substrate bias determines the ion energy distribution of the growth species. The ion energy is varied, while keeping the other deposition conditions constant, in order to study the effect of ion energy on the film properties. The films were characterized by their optical and mechanical parameters using an ellipsometer, surface profilometer, optical spectrometer, and nanoindenter. Electron energy‐loss spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used for structural analysis of the films.
TL;DR: In this article, the temperature dependences of heat expansion, elastocaloric effect, magnetocaloric effects, and the shift in the critical temperature of the transition due to tensile stress have been measured using samples of the same concentration Fe49Rh51 in the antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic (AF•F) transition range.
Abstract: The temperature dependences of heat expansion, elastocaloric effect, magnetocaloric effect, and the shift in the critical temperature of the transition due to tensile stress have been measured using samples of the same concentration Fe49Rh51 in the antiferromagnetic‐ferromagnetic (AF‐F) transition range. Using data on specific heat and magnetocaloric effects, entropy‐temperature diagrams for the alloy were made for various magnetic fields. The ratios ΔS(TcH)/TcH, where ΔS(TcH) is the entropy change during transition and TcH is the transition’s critical temperature, were found to be ∼3.98×102 erg/g K2 which is close to the value of the change in the electronic specific heat coefficient Δγ obtained by other researchers. It has been concluded that the change in the electronic part of entropy is the main mechanism of the transition. The phenomenological model is proposed, taking into account the electronic entropy change during the transition. Calculations using the model give values for the main thermodynamic parameters of the transition (free energy change ΔF=1.91×106 erg/g, the critical temperature shift ∂Tc/∂P=3.08×10−9 K cm2/Dyn and ∂Tc/∂H=0.788 K/kOe due to hydrostatic pressure and magnetic field respectively), which are in agreement with experimental data.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present computer simulation data for the effective permittivity (in the quasistatic limit) of a system composed of discrete inhomogeneities, embedded in a three-dimensional homogeneous matrix of permittivities.
Abstract: We present computer simulation data for the effective permittivity (in the quasistatic limit) of a system composed of discrete inhomogeneities of permittivity e1, embedded in a three‐dimensional homogeneous matrix of permittivity e2. The primary purpose of this paper is to study the related issue of the effect of the geometric shape of the components on the dielectric properties of the medium. The secondary purpose is to analyse how the spatial arrangement in these two‐phase materials affects the effective permittivity. The structures considered are periodic lattices of inhomogeneities. The numerical method proceeds by an algorithm based upon the resolution of boundary integral equations. Finally, we compare the prediction of our numerical simulation with the effective medium approach and with results of previous analytical works and numerical experiments.