Showing papers in "Journal of Asean Studies in 2019"
TL;DR: In this article, a systematic review of empirical literature regarding sustainability-oriented innovation in the Asia Pacific region, which were discussed through network perspectives, was conducted, focusing on process view to explain how SOI is mobilised and practised throughout different social, institutional, and political contexts.
Abstract: Sustainability-oriented innovation (SOI) is particular type of innovation that is not only economically oriented, but also environmental- and social benefits-oriented. SOI is now being widely discussed due to the increasing environmental and social problems that accompany various innovations around the world. In this paper we conducted a systematic review of empirical literature regarding SOI in the Asia Pacific region, which were discussed through network perspectives. For network perspectives, researchers focused on process view to explain how SOI is mobilised and practised throughout different social, institutional, and political contexts. We chose the Asia Pacific as the context because the region is the most dynamic part of the global economy, with ASEAN being the prominent parts of it. In conducting the review, we used the Tranfield, Denyer, & Smart's protocol (2003) to ensure its rigorousness. The search focused on the academic database of Scopus with specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. The results show that SOI has been rapidly developing into practices in countries in the Asia Pacific, not only in profit sectors, but also in non-profit sectors such as government and community. Our review emphasised that actor-network theory (ANT) emerged as the currently most adopted framework to explain the dynamics process of SOI mobilisations and practices in the Asia Pacific region. ANT frameworks contribute to defining the structure of SOI networks as well as identifying social, institutional, and political challenges of SOI implementation. Regionally, the focus of the study so far is in North America (US and Canada), while studies in ASEAN are still very limited.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the nature of China's soft power and the linkage between the increasing Chinese assertive measures in the South China Sea and the foundation of China’s soft power in the region.
Abstract: While contemporary scholarly literatures on South China Sea conflicts have been dominated by hard power calculations, some other aspects remain under-researched. Rather underplayed in the existing literature is the question on the political implication of the conflicts on China’s soft power in the region. In responding to this issue, this article tries to carefully investigate the nature of the China’s soft power and the linkage between the increasing Chinese assertive measures in the South China Sea and the foundation of China’s soft power in the region. Through some cases of China’s skirmishes with Southeast Asian countries on the South China Sea between 2009 and 2012, this article argues that Beijing’s increasing hard power measures have induced growing threat perceptions in the region. This very context not only signals a distinct dissonance of Beijing’s image in Southeast Asia but also creates surging discontents and rejections to China’s role and political position in the region. Ultimately, China’s perceived inappropriate hard power measures affect its soft power, particularly in eroding the reputation of being a benign political entity as its source of soft power in Southeast Asia.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigate the emergent inequality within and across age cohorts shaped by the ASEAN structural forces, as well as utilize reliable secondary data to formulate argumentation, including academic publications, policy analysis, scientific reports.
Abstract: The ASEAN Economic Community is envisaged to promote economic integration initiatives to create a single market across Southeast Asian member countries. It is acknowledged that the intergovernmental initiatives need to be accommodative to national and regional contexts. Thailand, as a pivotal and active partnership, endeavours to facilitate economic transformation and regional integration within the ASEAN and cope with population ageing in Thai society. Since Thailand has been the third most rapidly ageing country in the world, demographic changes pose new challenges for how to achieve persistent economic growth, productive employment and decent work. This article is based on a qualitative approach to investigate the emergent inequality within and across age cohorts shaped by the AEC structural forces, as well as utilizes reliable secondary data to formulate argumentation, including academic publications, policy analysis, scientific reports. We are particularly concerned about the heterogeneity and poverty in old age from the perspective of cumulative advantages/disadvantages. In conclusion, this article suggests policy recommendations of mitigating inequality in old age and advocates a critical lens to examine how political economic structure shapes older individuals in the labour market.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors argue that the complex systems encapsulated Indonesia-Vietnam relations post the sink-the-vessel policy consist of symbol system, interest system, and role system that maintain their friendly bilateral relations, even in the turbulence ocean.
Abstract: The vibrant bilateral relations between Indonesia-Vietnam has been tested by the Sink the Vessels policy, a robust measure executed by Indonesia to tackle rampant illegal fishing that encroach Indonesian waters. The policy has caused in the demolition of, among else, Vietnamese fishing vessels; and has also led to near-clash and incidents at sea. Despite these, both countries bilateral relations were far from hostile condition, and uphold their neighbourly relations to manage the illegal fishing problem. How Could Indonesia’s foreign policy action did not further exacerbate Indonesia-Vietnam relations post “Sink the Vessels” policy? To tackle our question, this article probes to describe the complex systems that interwoven Indonesia and Vietnam during the rising tension. We argue that the complex systems encapsulated Indonesia – Vietnam relations post “Sink the Vessels” policy consist of symbol system, interest system, and role system that maintain their friendly bilateral relations, even in the turbulence ocean. This article exposes that Indonesia-Vietnam responds to tackle the problem stems primarily from the linkage between the three systems to escape the security dilemma.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors focused on the three most important areas in the frontier Indonesia namely, Riau Island, West Kalimantan and Maluku, and conducted qualitative research with discourse analysis.
Abstract: In the last few decades, the practice of paradiplomacy in Indonesia has increased across the country. The paradiplomacy policy was commonly conducted by local governments in Indonesia since the collapse of the centralized-New Order regime followed by political reformation in various sectors. Decentralization is the main issue that demand local government to be more active and to manage the region properly. The opportunity to boost international partners is very open under the new norm that pave the way to the practice of paradiplomacy including in the frontier areas in Indonesia. This research focuses on the thwo important areas in the frontier Indonesia namely, Riau Island, West Kalimantan and Maluku. Nevertheless, in fact, the so-called “ceremonial” paradiplomacy blatantly practiced amid of the tighten and very bureaucratic barrier including obstacles on the budget implementation. This is qualitative research with discourse analysis which so important to understand paradiplomacy practices notably in the frontier areas in Indonesia that in some extent are vulnerable to the separatism issues in the central government in Jakarta.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors argue that while some large palm oil companies have shown modest progress in realizing their human rights obligation, challenges emerge in many forms including the lack of leadership, collaboration and ambition to steer and scale up industry transformation on human rights across supply chain.
Abstract: The release of the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights in 2011 aims to address gaps in human rights governance by setting a standard and corporate culture of respecting human rights. As part of the state responsibility to implement these guiding principles, some member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have already embarked preliminary steps towards establishing their respective National Action Plan on Business and Human rights (NAPBHR), while others are still lag behind. This article describes current development on business and human rights in the region. Drawing from the palm oil sector’s experience in Malaysia, this study aims to provide lessons for ASEAN member states to contemplate when developing their NAPBHR. In this article, I argue that while some large palm oil companies have shown modest progress in realizing their human rights obligation, challenges emerge in many forms including the lack of leadership, collaboration and ambition to steer and scale up industry transformation on human rights across supply chain. Equally important, challenges around certification scheme depict that it is not the only solution in persuading respect to human rights. Meaningful values transfer often overlooked in certification practice resulting in typical "ticking the audit box" exercise without understanding principles behind it. As such, the development of NAPBHR among the ASEAN member states should reflect on these reality and challenges.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors evaluated the current situation of technical skill levels of employees in the Vietnamese manufacturing industry, as well as technology transfer from Japan to Vietnam through Japanese FDI manufacturing firms.
Abstract: In this era of globalization, technology transfer is widely regarded as a significant vehicle by which developing countries can both acquire technologies and develop human resources. Also, the skills level of employees has been identified in playing a critical role in making technology transfer effective. Japan is one of the largest investors in Vietnam. Japanese foreign direct investment (FDI) projects that are large in terms of investment capital and concentrate in high technology industries, are predicted to continue to increase and they offer the promise of new employment and technology transfer opportunities for Vietnam and its people. However, the lack of a skilled labor force in Vietnam, especially in the manufacturing industry, has currently impeded the transfer of technologies from Japan to Vietnam. Human resource development in general and technical skill promotion in particular are critical requirements for Vietnam to take advantage of technology transfer. This paper attempts to evaluate the current situation of technical skill levels of employees in the Vietnamese manufacturing industry, as well as technology transfer from Japan to Vietnam through Japanese FDI manufacturing firms. In addition, this paper introduces the current policies and strategies of the Vietnam government in relation to technology transfer issues. It is suggested in this paper that bridging the huge gap between Japanese technical standards and the Vietnamese workforce’s technical skills definitely requires the crucial role of the Vietnamese government. The author then provides some recommendations for the government to adopt in order to upgrade technical skill levels to effectively adopt and utilize technologies transferred from Japan in the manufacturing industry.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explore the Roxas night market in Davao City as a practiced space, guided by Lefebvre's (1991) notion of space, and reveal the vendors' creativity and capacity to rise above the rules of the Local Government Unit (LGU) of Davao, and the bombing incident.
Abstract: This paper explores the Roxas Night Market in Davao City as practiced space. Guided by Lefebvre’s (1991) notion of space, the night market is a result of actual and evolving activities of vendors as they subsist in the area for their livelihood, interpret and apply the rules set by the Local Government Unit (LGU) of Davao, and manage their spaces as response to emerging experiences such as the three-month rule of the LGU, and bomb blast in 2016. Given that vendors try to maximize their lot and capitalize on their experiences as survivors of bombing incident, they have demonstrated ways of extending their stay in the night market and invoked their new-found identity as symbols of resilience. Such actuations, in turn, reveal the vendors’ creativity and capacity to rise above the rules of the LGU, and the bombing incident. When gleaned from the perspective of Foucault’s power as discipline and transcendence (1977), the way vendors convert the night market into an arena of practice also underscores their agency to conversely discipline the LGU by demanding that the city administration should do its task in securing the area and provide alternative spaces for the increasing number of vendors in the City.