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Showing papers in "Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, American Volume in 1999"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The findings suggest that symptomatic adjacent-segment disease is the result of progressive spondylosis and patients should be informed of the substantial possibility that new disease will develop at an adjacent level over the long term.
Abstract: Background: We studied the incidence, prevalence, and radiographic progression of symptomatic adjacent-segment disease, which we defined as the development of new radiculopathy or myelopathy referable to a motion segment adjacent to the site of a previous anterior arthrodesis of the cervical spine. Methods: A consecutive series of 374 patients who had a total of 409 anterior cervical arthrodeses for the treatment of cervical spondylosis with radiculopathy or myelopathy, or both, were followed for a maximum of twenty-one years after the operation. The annual incidence of symptomatic adjacent-segment disease was defined as the percentage of patients who had been disease-free at the start of a given year of follow-up in whom new disease developed during that year. The prevalence was defined as the percentage of all patients in whom symptomatic adjacent-segment disease developed within a given period of follow-up. The natural history of the disease was predicted with use of a Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis. The hypothesis that new disease at an adjacent level is more likely to develop following a multilevel arthrodesis than it is following a single-level arthrodesis was tested with logistic regression. Results: Symptomatic adjacent-segment disease occurred at a relatively constant incidence of 2.9 percent per year (range, 0.0 to 4.8 percent per year) during the ten years after the operation. Survivorship analysis predicted that 25.6 percent of the patients (95 percent confidence interval, 20 to 32 percent) who had an anterior cervical arthrodesis would have new disease at an adjacent level within ten years after the operation. There were highly significant differences among the motion segments with regard to the likelihood of symptomatic adjacent-segment disease (p < 0.0001); the greatest risk was at the interspaces between the fifth and sixth and between the sixth and seventh cervical vertebrae. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that the risk of new disease at an adjacent level was significantly lower following a multilevel arthrodesis than it was following a single-level arthrodesis (p < 0.001). More than two-thirds of all patients in whom the new disease developed had failure of nonoperative management and needed additional operative procedures. Conclusions: Symptomatic adjacent-segment disease may affect more than one-fourth of all patients within ten years after an anterior cervical arthrodesis. A single-level arthrodesis involving the fifth or sixth cervical vertebra and preexisting radiographic evidence of degeneration at adjacent levels appear to be the greatest risk factors for new disease. Therefore, we believe that all degenerated segments causing radiculopathy or myelopathy should be included in an anterior cervical arthrodesis. Although our findings suggest that symptomatic adjacent-segment disease is the result of progressive spondylosis, patients should be informed of the substantial possibility that new disease will develop at an adjacent level over the long term.

1,514 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Menke et al. as mentioned in this paper found an association between decreased acetabular anteversion and osteoarthritis of the hip, and Eckhoff23 found a similar association between femoral anteversion was associated with a toeing-in gait.
Abstract: Primary osteoarthritis of the hip, often referred to as idiopathic, may be secondary to mechanical causes. There have been numerous studies on the measurement of torsion of the bones of the lower extremity1,3,8,13,14,31,34,39,44,45,47,48,54,63,79,80,84. Some studies have supported the hypothesis that a persistent increase in femoral anteversion predisposes to osteoarthritis of the hip29,53,54,62, whereas others have not35,40,61. Menke et al.45 found an association between decreased acetabular anteversion and osteoarthritis of the hip, and Eckhoff23 found a similar association between femoral anteversion and osteoarthritis of the knee. Increased femoral torsion also has been documented in patients who have pain or osteoarthritis of the knee and patellar instability5,22. There have been few reports on the potential problems that are associated with decreased femoral anteversion15,21,36,37,51,69. In 1959, Crane15 noted that decreased femoral anteversion or retroversion was associated with a toeing-out gait whereas increased femoral anteversion was associated with a toeing-in gait. Decreased femoral anteversion has been consistently observed in patients who have a slipped capital femoral epiphysis25,28,38,52,58,59 as well as in those who have congenital hypoplasia of the femur60,73. There is some evidence to suggest a congenital etiology for increased or decreased anteversion of the femur and acetabulum19. Watanabe77 examined 144 embryos and stillborn fetuses between six and twenty-four weeks of gestation. At the completion of the first half …

1,136 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Transfusion of allogenic blood transfusion varied with respect to the type of operative procedure and with a baseline hemoglobin level of 130 grams per liter or less and was also associated with infection, fluid overload, and increased duration of hospitalization.
Abstract: Three hundred and thirty orthopaedic surgeons in the United States participated in a study of transfusion requirements associated with total joint arthroplasty. A total of 9482 patients (3920 patients who had a total hip replacement and 5562 patients who had a total knee replacement) were evaluated prospectively from September 1996 through June 1997. Of those patients, 4409 (46 percent [57 percent of the patients who had a hip replacement and 39 percent of the patients who had a knee replacement]) had a blood transfusion. Two thousand eight hundred and ninety patients (66 percent) received autologous blood, and 1519 patients (34 percent) received allogenic blood. Ordered logistic regression analysis showed the most important predictors of the transfusion of allogenic blood to be a low baseline hemoglobin level and a lack of predonated autologous blood. Preoperative donation of autologous blood decreases the risk of transfusion of allogenic blood; however, inefficiencies in the procedures for obtaining autologous blood were identified. Sixty-one percent (5741) of the patients had predonated blood for autologous transfusion, but 4464 (45 percent) of the 9920 units of the predonated autologous blood were not used. Primary procedures and revision total knee arthroplasty were associated with the greatest number of wasted autologous units. Of the 5741 patients who had predonated blood, 503 (9 percent) needed a transfusion of allogenic blood. The frequency of allogenic blood transfusion varied with respect to the type of operative procedure (revision total hip arthroplasty and bilateral total knee arthroplasty were associated with the highest prevalence of such transfusions) and with a baseline hemoglobin level of 130 grams per liter or less. Transfusion of allogenic blood was also associated with infection (p < or = 0.001), fluid overload (p < or = 0.001), and increased duration of hospitalization (p < or = 0.01). These latter findings warrant further evaluation in controlled studies.

943 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The present prospective study evaluated a variety of investigations for the diagnosis of infection at the site of a previous arthroplasty to determine if any combination of diagnostic studies could be used to determine which patients are at risk for a postoperative wound infection.
Abstract: Background: Total hip arthroplasty is a commonly performed procedure in the United States and Canada that is associated with a definite risk of postoperative infection. Moreover, diagnosing an infection after total hip arthroplasty can present a challenge as there are no preoperative tests that are consistently sensitive and specific for infection in patients who need a revision arthroplasty. The present prospective study was performed to evaluate a variety of investigations for the diagnosis of infection at the site of a previous arthroplasty in order to determine if any combination of diagnostic studies could be used to determine which patients are at risk for a postoperative wound infection. Methods: We prospectively analyzed the preoperative and intraoperative investigations used for the diagnosis of infection in 178 patients who had a total of 202 revision hip replacements. Clinical data were collected preoperatively. Investigations to determine the presence or absence of infection included a white blood-cell count, measurement of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, measurement of the level of C-reactive protein, preoperative aspiration of the joint, intraoperative gram-staining and culture of periprosthetic tissue, a white blood-cell count in synovial fluid, and examination of intraoperative frozen sections. Frozen sections were analyzed in a blinded fashion without knowledge of clinical or laboratory data. Patients receiving antibiotics at the time of aspiration or collection of specimens for intraoperative culture were excluded from the analysis of those investigations, regardless of the results of the cultures. A positive result (suggestive of infection) was clearly defined for each of the investigations. Results: Thirty-five hips (17 percent) were determined to be infected on the basis of clinical findings and positive results, according to the defined criteria, of investigations. With inflammatory conditions excluded, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 0.82, 0.85, 0.58, and 0.95, respectively, for the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and 0.96, 0.92, 0.74, and 0.99, respectively, for the level of C-reactive protein. All patients who had a periprosthetic infection had an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate or level of C-reactive protein, but not always both. When patients who were receiving antibiotics were excluded, the results of aspiration of the joint were 0.86 for sensitivity, 0.94 for specificity, 0.67 for the positive predictive value, and 0.98 for the negative predictive value. Intraoperative studies revealed sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values of 0.19, 0.98, 0.63, and 0.89, respectively, for gram-staining of specimens of the most inflamed-appearing tissue; 0.36, 0.99, 0.91, and 0.90, respectively, for the white blood-cell count in synovial fluid; and 0.89, 0.85, 0.52, and 0.98, respectively, for a neutrophil count in synovial fluid of more than 80 percent. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 0.80, 0.94, 0.74, and 0.96, respectively, for the frozen sections and 0.94, 0.97, 0.77, and 0.99, respectively, for the intraoperative cultures. Conclusions: The combination of a normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein level is reliable for predicting the absence of infection. Aspiration should be used when the erythrocyte sedimentation rate or the C-reactive protein level is elevated or when a clinical suspicion of infection remains. We found the gram stain to be unreliable. Examination of intraoperative frozen sections is useful in equivocal cases or when hematological markers may be falsely elevated because of an inflammatory or other condition.

741 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The examination of specimens from patients who have tennis elbow can serve as a model for the investigation of pain in other regions in which tendinosis has been reported, such as the rotator cuff, the Achilles tendon, the patellar ligament, the adductors of the hip, the triceps, the flexors and extensor of the elbow, and the plantar fascia.
Abstract: Tendon injuries can be divided into several categories on the basis of the nature of their onset and the tissues involved. Acute tendon injuries, such as laceration of the flexor tendons of the fingers, are traumatic in nature. Chronic overuse injuries are the result of multiple microtraumatic events that cause disruption of the internal structure of the tendon and degeneration of the cells and matrix, which fail to mature into normal tendon; at times, such injuries result in tendinosis35. The healing of acute tendon injuries has been studied from the perspective of the body's response to lacerations of flexor tendons as well as after operative intervention35,67. Tendinosis is incompletely understood. Although the term tendinitis is used frequently and often indiscriminately, histopathological studies have shown that specimens of tendon obtained from areas of chronic overuse do not contain large numbers of macrophages, lymphocytes, or neutrophils26,35,59. Rather, tendinosis appears to be a degenerative process that is characterized by the presence of dense populations of fibroblasts, vascular hyperplasia, and disorganized collagen. This constellation of findings has been termed angiofibroblastic hyperplasia48. It is not clear why tendinosis is painful, given the absence of acute inflammatory cells, nor is it known why the collagen fails to mature. If it can be assumed that tendinosis has essentially the same pathogenesis regardless of where it occurs in the body, then the examination of specimens from patients who have tennis elbow can serve as a model for the investigation of pain in other regions in which tendinosis has been reported, such as the rotator cuff, the Achilles tendon, the patellar ligament, the adductors of the hip, the triceps, the flexors and extensors of the elbow, and the plantar fascia7,26,27 …

610 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The data demonstrate that equally tensioned four-strand hamstring-tendon grafts have initial tensile properties that are higher than those reported for ten-millimeter patellar-ligament grafts; thus, from a biomechanical point of view, they seem to be a reasonable alternative.
Abstract: Background: Our hypothesis that multiple, equally tensioned strands of hamstring graft used for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament are stronger and stiffer than ten-millimeter patellar ligament grafts was tested biomechanically with use of tendons from cadavera. Methods: In the first part of the study, we measured the strength and stiffness of one, two, and four-strand hamstring grafts, from fresh-frozen cadaveric knees, that had been tensioned equally when clamped. In the second part of the study, we compared four-strand grafts to which tension had been applied by hand and then clamped with similar grafts to which tension had been applied with weights and then clamped. The grafts for the two experiments were obtained from thirty-four paired and ten unpaired knees. We also studied the effects of cooling on the biomechanical properties of grafts by comparing patellar ligament grafts tested at 13 degrees Celsius with those tested at room temperature. Results: Two equally tensioned gracilis strands had 185 percent of the strength and 210 percent of the stiffness (1550 ± 428 newtons and 336 ± 141 newtons per millimeter, respectively) of one gracilis strand (837 ± 138 newtons and 160 ± 44 newtons per millimeter, respectively). Two equally tensioned semitendinosus strands had 220 percent of the strength and 220 percent of the stiffness (2330 ± 452 newtons and 469 ± 185 newtons per millimeter, respectively) of one semitendinosus strand (1060 ± 227 newtons and 213 ± 44 newtons per millimeter, respectively). Four combined strands (two gracilis strands and two semitendinosus strands) that were equally tensioned with weights and clamped had the additive tensile properties of the individual strands. With the numbers available, four combined strands that were manually tensioned and clamped were not found to be significantly stronger or stiffer than two semitendinosus strands that were equally tensioned with weights (p > 0.07). Conclusions: Four combined strands that were equally tensioned with weights and clamped were stronger and stiffer than all ten-millimeter patellar ligament grafts that have been described in previous reports. All strands of a hamstring graft must be equally tensioned for the composite to have its optimum biomechanical properties. Clinical Relevance: Because of the well recognized donor-site morbidity associated with the use of patellar ligament grafts for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament, multiple-strand hamstring-tendon grafts have become an increasingly popular choice. Our data demonstrate that equally tensioned four-strand hamstring-tendon grafts have initial tensile properties that are higher than those reported for ten-millimeter patellar-ligament grafts; thus, from a biomechanical point of view, they seem to be a reasonable alternative.

610 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study demonstrated that BMP-2-producing bone-marrow cells created by means of adenoviral gene transfer produce sufficient protein to heal a segmental femoral defect in syngeneic rats.
Abstract: Background: Recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins (rhBMPs) can induce bone formation, but the inability to identify an ideal delivery system limits their clinical application. We used ex vivo adenoviral gene transfer to create BMP-2-producing bone-marrow cells, which allow delivery of the BMP-2 to a specific anatomical site. The autologous BMP-2-producing bone-marrow cells then were used to heal a critical-sized femoral segmental defect in syngeneic rats. Methods: Femoral defects in five groups of rats were filled with 5 x 106 BMP-2-producing bone-marrow cells, created through adenoviral gene transfer (twenty-four femora, Group I); twenty micrograms of rhBMP-2 (sixteen femora, Group II); 5 x 106 β-galactosidase-producing rat-bone-marrow cells, created through adenoviral gene transfer of the lacZ gene (twelve femora, Group III); 5 x 106 uninfected rat-bone-marrow cells (ten femora, Group IV); or guanidine hydrochloride-extracted demineralized bone matrix only (ten femora, Group V). Guanidine hydrochloride-extracted demineralized bone matrix served as a substrate in all experimental groups. Specimens that were removed two months postoperatively underwent histological and histomorphometric analysis as well as biomechanical testing. Results: Twenty-two of the twenty-four defects in Group I (BMP-2-producing bone-marrow cells) and all sixteen defects in Group II (rhBMP-2) had healed radiographically at two months postoperatively compared with only one of the thirty-two defects in the three control groups (β-galactosidase-producing rat-bone-marrow cells, uninfected rat-bone-marrow cells, and guanidine hydrochloride-extracted demineralized bone matrix alone). Histological analysis of the specimens revealed that defects that had received BMP-2-producing bone-marrow cells (Group I) were filled with coarse trabecular bone at two months postoperatively, whereas in those that had received rhBMP-2 (Group II) the bone was thin and lace-like. Defects that had been treated with bone-marrow cells producing β-galactosidase (Group III), uninfected bone-marrow cells (Group IV), or guanidine hydrochloride-extracted demineralized bone matrix only (Group V) demonstrated little or no bone formation. Histomorphometric analysis revealed a significantly greater total area of bone formation in the defects treated with the BMP-2-producing bone-marrow cells than in those treated with the rhBMP-2 (p = 0.036). Biomechanical testing demonstrated no significant differences, with the numbers available, between the healed femora that had received BMP-2-producing bone-marrow cells and the untreated (control) femora with respect to ultimate torque to failure or energy to failure. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that BMP-2-producing bone-marrow cells created by means of adenoviral gene transfer produce sufficient protein to heal a segmental femoral defect. We also established the feasibility of ex vivo gene transfer with the use of biologically acute autologous short-term cultures of bone-marrow cells. Clinical Relevance: Regional gene therapy is a novel approach to the treatment of bone defects. The limited duration of transgenic expression associated with first-generation adenoviral vectors is advantageous for this clinical application. This system of ex vivo gene transfer and the subsequent infection of bone-marrow cells with an adenovirus containing the BMP-2 cDNA could be adapted to enhance bone formation in humans.

517 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The SMFA questionnaire was evaluated for reliability, validity, and responsiveness in a population of 420 patients who had a musculoskeletal disease or injury and may be used in clinical settings to provide reliable and valid assessments of the health status of an individual patient.
Abstract: Background: A short questionnaire on functional status was designed for use in community-based outcome studies and in the management of individual patients who have musculoskeletal disease. As most musculoskeletal care is delivered in community practices, short, validated instruments are necessary to perform clinical studies on the effectiveness of treatment in this setting. Methods: A forty-six-item questionnaire was created as an extension of the work to develop the longer, 101-item Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (MFA) questionnaire. The Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) questionnaire consists of the dysfunction index, which has thirty-four items for the assessment of patient function, and the bother index, which has twelve items for the assessment of how much patients are bothered by functional problems. The SMFA questionnaire was evaluated for reliability, validity, and responsiveness in a population of 420 patients who had a musculoskeletal disease or injury. Results: The SMFA questionnaire demonstrated excellent internal consistency and stability, with most values greater than 0.90. Content validity for the dysfunction and bother indexes was supported with very little skew (less than 1.00), few ceiling effects (less than 5 percent), and no floor effects. Convergent validity was supported with significant correlations between the SMFA dysfunction and bother indexes and the physicians' ratings of patient function (for example, activities of daily living, recreational and leisure activities, and emotional function [rho ≥ 0.40]) and standard clinical measures (for example, grip strength and walking speed [r ≥ 0.40]). Convergent and discriminant construct validity of the SMFA indexes were demonstrated (p < 0.01) in comparisons with clinical, demographic, Short Form-36 (SF-36), and life-change data. The responsiveness of the SMFA questionnaire to change over time was demonstrated with standardized response means ranging from moderate (0.76) to large (-1.14) for patients who had changes in health status. Conclusions: The SMFA questionnaire may be used for clinical assessments of the impact of treatment in groups of patients who have musculoskeletal disease or injury. It also may be used in clinical settings to provide reliable and valid assessments of the health status of an individual patient.

513 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study retrospectively reviewed the cases of children who were evaluated at a major tertiary-care children's hospital between 1979 and 1996 and constructed a set of independent multivariate predictors that had excellent diagnostic performance in differentiating between septic arthritis and transient synovitis of the hip in children.
Abstract: Background: A child who has an acutely irritable hip can pose a diagnostic challenge. The purposes of this study were to determine the diagnostic value of presenting variables for differentiating between septic arthritis and transient synovitis of the hip in children and to develop an evidence-based clinical prediction algorithm for this differentiation. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the cases of children who were evaluated at a major tertiary-care children's hospital between 1979 and 1996 because of an acutely irritable hip. Diagnoses of true septic arthritis, presumed septic arthritis, and transient synovitis were explicitly defined on the basis of the white blood-cell count in the joint fluid, the results of cultures of joint fluid and blood, and the clinical course. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to compare groups. A probability algorithm for differentiation between septic arthritis and transient synovitis on the basis of independent multivariate predictors was constructed and tested. Results: Patients who had septic arthritis differed significantly (p < 0.05) from those who had transient synovitis with regard to the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum white blood-cell count and differential, weight-bearing status, history of fever, temperature, evidence of effusion on radiographs, history of chills, history of recent antibiotic use, hematocrit, and gender. Patients who had true septic arthritis differed significantly (p < 0.05) from those who had presumed septic arthritis with regard to history of recent antibiotic use, history of chills, temperature, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, history of fever, gender, and serum white blood-cell differential. Four independent multivariate clinical predictors were identified to differentiate between septic arthritis and transient synovitis: history of fever, non-weight-bearing, erythrocyte sedimentation rate of at least forty millimeters per hour, and serum white blood-cell count of more than 12,000 cells per cubic millimeter (12.0 x 109 cells per liter). The predicted probability of septic arthritis was determined for all sixteen combinations of these four predictors and is summarized as less than 0.2 percent for zero predictors, 3.0 percent for one predictor, 40.0 percent for two predictors, 93.1 percent for three predictors, and 99.6 percent for four predictors. The chi-square test for trend and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve indicated excellent diagnostic performance of this group of multivariate predictors in identifying septic arthritis. Conclusions: Although several variables differed significantly between the group that had septic arthritis and the group that had transient synovitis, substantial overlap in the intermediate ranges made differentiation difficult on the basis of individual variables alone. However, by combining variables, we were able to construct a set of independent multivariate predictors that, together, had excellent diagnostic performance in differentiating between septic arthritis and transient synovitis of the hip in children.

486 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There are few problems associated with the insertion of screws, provided that the surgeon is experienced and adheres to the principles and details of the operative technique, and a low rate of postoperative complications related to pedicle screws.
Abstract: Background: The safety and the effectiveness of pedicle-screw instrumentation in the spine have been questioned despite its use worldwide to enhance stabilization of the spine. This review was performed to answer questions about the technique of insertion and the nature and etiology of complications directly attributable to the screws. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all of the pedicle-screw procedures that were done by us from January 1, 1984, to December 31, 1993. We inserted 4790 screws during 915 operative procedures on 875 patients; 668 (76.3 percent) of the patients had a lumbosacral arthrodesis. The mean duration of follow-up was three years (range, two to five years). The accuracy of screw placement was assessed on intraoperative, immediate postoperative, and follow-up radiographs with use of a technique that was developed by one of us (F. D.); this technique has yet to be validated to determine the prevalence of various types of error. Results: Of the 4790 screws, 4548 (94.9 percent) had been inserted within the pedicle and the vertebral body. One hundred and thirty-four (2.8 percent) of the screws had perforated the anterior cortex, and this was the most common type of perforation. One hundred and fifteen (2.4 percent) of the screws were associated with complications that could be ascribed to the use of pedicle screws. The most common problem was late-onset discomfort or pain related to a pseudarthrosis or perhaps to the screws; this problem was associated with 1102 (23.0 percent) of the screws, used in 222 (24.3 percent) of the procedures. The symptoms necessitated removal of the instrumentation with or without repair of the pseudarthrosis. A pseudarthrosis was found during forty-six (20.7 percent) of the 222 procedures. Irritation of a nerve root occurred after nine procedures (1.0 percent) and was caused by eleven screws (0.2 percent); it was more commonly caused by medially placed screws. Three patients had residual neurological weakness despite removal of the screws. Twenty-five screws (0.5 percent), used in twenty procedures (2.2 percent), broke. The screws that broke were of an early design. A pseudarthrosis was found in thirteen of twenty patients who had broken screws. Sixteen of the twenty patients had an exploration; three of them were found to have a solid fusion, and thirteen were found to have a pseudarthrosis. The remaining four patients had evidence of a solid fusion on radiographs and had no pain. Conclusions: There are few problems associated with the insertion of screws, provided that the surgeon is experienced and adheres to the principles and details of the operative technique. Our review revealed a low rate of postoperative complications related to pedicle screws. The problem of late-onset pain may be related to the implants or to the stiffness of the construct; however, it is difficult to accurately identify its exact etiology.

475 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Evaluating the results of treatment of infection after total knee arthroplasty found four treatment protocols, which were based on the clinical setting of the infection, were successful for most patients.
Abstract: Background: The clinical presentation of an infection at the site of a total knee arthroplasty can be used as a guide to treatment, including the decision as to whether the prosthesis should be retained or removed. We reviewed the results of treatment of infection after total knee arthroplasty to evaluate the effectiveness of four treatment protocols based on the clinical setting of the infection. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the results of treatment of eighty-one infections in seventy-six consecutive patients who either had an infection after a total knee arthroplasty or had multiple positive intraoperative cultures of specimens of periprosthetic tissue obtained during a revision total knee arthroplasty performed because of presumed aseptic loosening. The patients were managed according to one of four protocols. Five infections in five patients who had positive intraoperative cultures were treated with antibiotic therapy alone. Twenty-three early postoperative infections in twenty-one patients were treated with debridement, antibiotic therapy, and retention of the prosthesis. Twenty-nine late chronic infections in twenty-eight patients were treated with a delayed-exchange arthroplasty after a course of antibiotics. Seven acute hematogenous infections in six patients were treated with debridement, antibiotic therapy, and retention of the prosthesis. Seventeen infections in seventeen patients were not treated according to one of the four protocols. Sixteen late chronic infections were treated either with an arthrodesis (five infections) or with debridement, antibiotic therapy, and retention of the prosthesis (eleven infections). One acute hematogenous infection was treated with resection arthroplasty because of life-threatening sepsis. Results: The mean duration of follow-up was 4.0 years (range, 0.3 to 14.0 years). Eleven patients who had an arthrodesis, a resection arthroplasty, or an above-the-knee amputation after less than two years of follow-up were included in the study as individuals who had a failure of treatment. In the group of patients who were managed according to protocol, the initial course of treatment was successful for all five infections that were diagnosed on the basis of positive intraoperative cultures, five of the ten deep early infections, all thirteen superficial early infections, twenty-four of the twenty-nine late chronic infections, and five of the seven acute hematogenous infections. Only one of eleven prostheses in patients who had a late chronic infection that was not treated according to protocol was successfully retained after debridement. Conclusions: Our treatment protocols, which were based on the clinical setting of the infection, were successful for most patients. A major factor associated with treatment failure was a compromised immune status. Bone loss and necrosis of the soft tissues around the joint also complicated the treatment of these infections.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The modified Mason-Allen stitch is a more secure method of achieving suture purchase in the tendon, and use of this stitch with cortical-bone augmentation yields a repair that is biologically well tolerated and stronger in vivo than a repair with the conventional technique.
Abstract: Background: The repair of chronic, massive rotator cuff tears is associated with a high rate of failure. Prospective studies comparing different repair techniques are difficult to design and carry out because of the many factors that influence structural and clinical outcomes. The objective of this study was to develop a suitable animal model for evaluation of the efficacy of different repair techniques for massive rotator cuff tears and to use this model to compare a new repair technique, tested in vitro, with the conventional technique. Methods: We compared two techniques of rotator cuff repair in vivo using the left shoulders of forty-seven sheep. With the conventional technique, simple stitches were used and both suture ends were passed transosseously and tied over the greater tuberosity of the humerus. With the other technique, the modified Mason-Allen stitch was used and both suture ends were passed transosseously and tied over a cortical-bone-augmentation device. This device consisted of a poly(L/D-lactide) plate that was fifteen millimeters long, ten millimeters wide, and two millimeters thick. Number-3 braided polyester suture material was used in all of the experiments. Results: In pilot studies (without prevention of full weight-bearing), most repairs failed regardless of the technique that was used. The simple stitch always failed by the suture pulling through the tendon or the bone; the suture material did not break or tear. The modified Mason-Allen stitch failed in only two of seventeen shoulders. In ten shoulders, the suture material failed even though the stitches were intact. Thus, we concluded that the modified Mason-Allen stitch is a more secure method of achieving suture purchase in the tendon. In eight of sixteen shoulders, the nonaugmented double transosseous bone-fixation technique failed by the suture pulling through the bone. The cortical-bone-augmentation technique never failed. In definite studies, prevention of full weight-bearing was achieved by fixation of a ten-centimeter-diameter ball under the hoof of the sheep. This led to healing in eight of ten shoulders repaired with the modified Mason-Allen stitch and cortical-bone augmentation. On histological analysis, both the simple-stitch and the modified Mason-Allen technique caused similar degrees of transient localized tissue damage. Mechanical pullout tests of repairs with the new technique showed a failure strength that was approximately 30 percent of that of an intact infraspinatus tendon at six weeks, 52 percent of that of an intact tendon at three months, and 81 percent of that of an intact tendon at six months. Conclusions: The repair technique with a modified Mason-Allen stitch with number-3 braided polyester suture material and cortical-bone augmentation was superior to the conventional repair technique. Use of the modified Mason-Allen stitch and the cortical-bone-augmentation device transferred the weakest point of the repair to the suture material rather than to the bone or the tendon. Failure to protect the rotator cuff postoperatively was associated with an exceedingly high rate of failure, even if optimum repair technique was used. Clinical Relevance: Different techniques for rotator cuff repair substantially influence the rate of failure. A modified Mason-Allen stitch does not cause tendon necrosis, and use of this stitch with cortical-bone augmentation yields a repair that is biologically well tolerated and stronger in vivo than a repair with the conventional technique. Unprotected repairs, however, have an exceedingly high rate of failure even if optimum repair technique is used. Postoperative protection from tension overload, such as with an abduction splint, may be necessary for successful healing of massive rotator cuff tears.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Patients with a high-grade chondrosarcoma managed at one institution could not detect a significant difference in the rates of pulmonary metastasis and death between the patients who had a grade-3 lesion and those who hadA grade- 3 lesion that was also dedifferentiated.
Abstract: Background: The data on 227 patients who had been managed for a chondrosarcoma at one institution were reviewed to determine the nature of the lesions, the predictors of outcome, and whether there were any ways to change the treatment approaches to improve the results. Methods: The patients were followed for a mean duration of six years (range, three to twenty-five years). The mean age of the patients was forty-seven years (range, nine to eighty-four years). The most prevalent sites of the tumors were the femur (seventy-eight), the pelvis (fifty-one), and the humerus (thirty-nine). The tumors were divided into two groups according to histological grade. Eighty-six tumors (sixteen atypical enchondromas and seventy grade-1 chondrosarcomas) that were locally destructive but were associated with a low likelihood of metastasis were considered to be low-grade. The remaining 141 lesions, which were locally destructive, potentially metastatic, and capable of causing death, were thought to be high-grade. One hundred and three of these 141 lesions were grade 2, and thirty-eight were grade 3 (eighteen of the thirty-eight were grade 3 only, and twenty were both grade 3 and dedifferentiated). Two hundred and twenty-four patients were managed with resection and a limb-sparing procedure; the remaining three patients had an amputation. Postoperative adjuvant radiation was used for fifty-six patients; chemotherapy, for thirty-five; and both radiation and chemotherapy, for nineteen. Flow cytometric patterns were analyzed for 105 patients. Results: The patients who had a high-grade tumor were older than those who had a low-grade tumor (mean age [and standard deviation], 50 ± 17.0 years compared with 40 ± 15.9 years; p < 0.001). Pathological fracture, metastasis, local recurrence, and death were more prevalent in the group that had a high-grade lesion (p < 0.001). Predictors of metastasis and death in that group of patients included local recurrence, a pelvic location of the tumor, a tumor that was more than 100 cubic centimeters in size, a ploidic abnormality (aneuploidy coupled with a high mean DNA index), a histological grade of 3, and a dedifferentiated type of tumor (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Although the data are suggestive, with the numbers available for study we could not detect a significant difference in the rates of pulmonary metastasis and death between the patients who had a grade-3 lesion and those who had a grade-3 lesion that was also dedifferentiated. However, the interval between diagnosis and death was 32 ± 22.8 months for the patients who had a grade-3 lesion compared with 5 ± 3.7 months for those who had a grade-3 lesion that was also dedifferentiated (p < 0.001). Overall, patients who had had a resection with wide margins (margins extending outside the reactive zone) had a longer duration of survival than did those who had had a so-called marginal resection (margins extending outside the tumor but within the reactive zone) or an intralesional resection (margins within the lesion) (p < 0.04). Adjunctive chemotherapy or radiation, or both (which, it must be noted, was used, without a protocol, in a relatively small number of patients), after an intralesional resection, for recurrent disease, or for distant metastasis did not appear to alter the outcome.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper focuses on studies in which the physiological, pathophysiological, biochemical, and histological effects of biomechanical loading on the peripheral nerves were evaluated in humans and animals.
Abstract: Nerve compression syndromes involve peripheral-nerve dysfunction that is due to localized interference of microvascular function and structural changes in the nerve or adjacent tissues. Although a well known example is compression of the median nerve at the wrist (carpal tunnel syndrome), other nerves, such as the ulnar nerve at the wrist or the elbow and the spinal nerve roots at the vertebral foramen, are vulnerable. This paper focuses on studies in which the physiological, pathophysiological, biochemical, and histological effects of biomechanical loading on the peripheral nerves were evaluated in humans and animals. When tissues are subjected to load or pressure, they deform and pressure gradients are formed, redistributing the compressed tissue toward areas of lower pressure. Nerve compression syndromes usually occur at sites where the nerve passes through a tight tunnel formed by stiff tissue boundaries. The resultant confined space limits movement of tissue and can lead to sustained tissue pressure gradients. Space-occupying structures or lesions (for example, lumbrical muscles, tumors, and cysts) can cause nerve compression injury, as can conditions associated with accumulation of fluid (for example, pregnancy, congestive heart failure, and muscle compartment syndromes) or accumulation of extracellular matrix (for example, acromegaly, myxedema hypothyroidism, and mucopolysaccharidosis)76. Although nerve injuries related to vibration occur near the region of exposure, the symptoms may be manifest at another site, where the nerve may be constricted. Other conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, may increase the likelihood that a compressed nerve will undergo a pathological response. In addition, there may be an inflammatory reaction that may impair the normal gliding of the nerve. Basic knowledge of the microanatomy of peripheral nerves and neurons and of their complex reactions to compression is essential to understanding, preventing, and treating nerve compression injuries. ### Microanatomy The neuron consists of the nerve cell body, located in the …

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors evaluated the prevalence of gap formation in a clinically relevant canine model and assessed the effect of gap size on the range of motion of the digits and the mechanical properties of the tendons.
Abstract: Background: Elongation (gap formation) at the repair site has been associated with the formation of adhesions and a poor functional outcome after repair of flexor tendons. Our objectives were to evaluate the prevalence of gap formation in a clinically relevant canine model and to assess the effect of gap size on the range of motion of the digits and the mechanical properties of the tendons. Methods: We performed operative repairs after sharp transection of sixty-four flexor tendons in thirty-two adult dogs. Rehabilitation with passive motion was performed daily until the dogs were killed at ten, twenty-one, or forty-two days postoperatively. Eight tendons ruptured in vivo. In the fifty-six intact specimens, the change in the angles of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints and the linear excursion of the flexor tendon were measured as a 1.5-newton force was applied to the tendon. The gap at the repair site was then measured, and the isolated tendons were tested to failure in tension. Results: Twenty-nine tendons had a gap of less than one millimeter, twelve had a gap of one to three millimeters, and fifteen had a gap of more than three millimeters. Neither the time after the repair nor the size of the gap was found to have a significant effect on motion parameters (p > 0.05); however, the ultimate force, repair-site rigidity, and repair-site strain at twenty newtons were significantly affected by these parameters (p < 0.05). Testing of the tendons with a gap of three millimeters or less revealed that, compared with the ten-day specimens, the forty-two-day specimens failed at a significantly (90 percent) higher force (p < 0.01) and had a significantly (320 percent) increased rigidity (p < 0.01) and a significantly (60 percent) decreased strain at twenty newtons (p < 0.05). In contrast, the tensile properties of the tendons that had a gap of more than three millimeters did not change significantly with time. Conclusions: Our data indicate that, in a dog model involving sharp transection followed by repair, a gap at the repair site of more than three millimeters does not increase the prevalence of adhesions or impair the range of motion but does prevent the accrual of strength and stiffness that normally occurs with time. Clinical Relevance: Tendons that have a large gap are at increased risk for rupture during early rehabilitation, and this risk of rupture does not decrease in the first six weeks.

Journal Article
TL;DR: Early restricted motion appears to shorten the time needed for rehabilitation, and there were fewer visible adhesions between the repaired tendon and the skin in the patients managed with early motion, and these patients were subjectively more satisfied with the overall result.
Abstract: Background: Different regimens of early motion of the ankle after operative treatment of a ruptured Achilles tendon have been suggested since the late 1980s. However, as far as we know, no controlled studies comparing these regimens with conventional immobilization in a cast have been reported. Methods: In a prospective study, seventy-one patients who had an acute rupture of the Achilles tendon were randomized to either conventional postoperative management with a cast for eight weeks or early restricted motion of the ankle in a below-the-knee brace for six weeks. The brace was modified with an elastic band on the posterior surface, in a manner similar to the principle of Kleinert traction. Metal markers were placed in the tendon, and the separation between them was measured on serial radiographs during the first twelve weeks postoperatively. The patients were assessed clinically when the cast or brace was removed, at twelve weeks postoperatively, and at a median of sixteen months postoperatively. Results: The separation between the markers at twelve weeks postoperatively was nearly identical in the two groups, with a median separation of 11.5 millimeters (range, zero to thirty-three millimeters) in the patients managed with early motion of the ankle and nine millimeters (range, one to forty-one millimeters) in the patients managed with a cast. The separation was primarily correlated with the initial tautness of the repair (r[S] = 0.45). No patient had excessive lengthening of the tendon. The patients managed with early motion had a smaller initial loss in the range of motion, and they returned to work and sports activities sooner than those managed with a cast. Furthermore, there were fewer visible adhesions between the repaired tendon and the skin in the patients managed with early motion, and these patients were subjectively more satisfied with the overall result. The patients in both groups recovered a median of 89 percent of strength of plantar flexion compared with that of the noninjured limb, as measured with an isometric strain-gauge at 15 degrees of dorsiflexion. The heel-rise index was similar for both groups: 0.88 for the patients managed with early motion and 0.89 for those managed with a cast. Conclusions: Early restricted motion appears to shorten the time needed for rehabilitation. There were no complications related to early motion in these patients. However, early unloaded exercises did not prevent muscle atrophy.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the ankle was placed in the tendon, and the separation between them was measured on serial radiographs during the first twelve weeks post-operatively, and at a median of sixteen months postoperatively.
Abstract: Background: Different regimens of early motion of the ankle after operative treatment of a ruptured Achilles tendon have been suggested since the late 1980s. However, as far as we know, no controlled studies comparing these regimens with conventional immobilization in a cast have been reported. Methods: In a prospective study, seventy-one patients who had an acute rupture of the Achilles tendon were randomized to either conventional postoperative management with a cast for eight weeks or early restricted motion of the ankle in a below-the-knee brace for six weeks. The brace was modified with an elastic band on the posterior surface, in a manner similar to the principle of Kleinert traction. Metal markers were placed in the tendon, and the separation between them was measured on serial radiographs during the first twelve weeks postoperatively. The patients were assessed clinically when the cast or brace was removed, at twelve weeks postoperatively, and at a median of sixteen months postoperatively. Results: The separation between the markers at twelve weeks postoperatively was nearly identical in the two groups, with a median separation of 11.5 millimeters (range, zero to thirty-three millimeters) in the patients managed with early motion of the ankle and nine millimeters (range, one to forty-one millimeters) in the patients managed with a cast. The separation was primarily correlated with the initial tautness of the repair (r[S] = 0.45). No patient had excessive lengthening of the tendon. The patients managed with early motion had a smaller initial loss in the range of motion, and they returned to work and sports activities sooner than those managed with a cast. Furthermore, there were fewer visible adhesions between the repaired tendon and the skin in the patients managed with early motion, and these patients were subjectively more satisfied with the overall result. The patients in both groups recovered a median of 89 percent of strength of plantar flexion compared with that of the noninjured limb, as measured with an isometric strain-gauge at 15 degrees of dorsiflexion. The heel-rise index was similar for both groups: 0.88 for the patients managed with early motion and 0.89 for those managed with a cast. Conclusions: Early restricted motion appears to shorten the time needed for rehabilitation. There were no complications related to early motion in these patients. However, early unloaded exercises did not prevent muscle atrophy.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The present study confirms the observation of Gilbert and Tassin that it is rare for infants who have recovery of biceps function after the age of three months to have complete neurological recovery.
Abstract: Background: The purposes of this study were to document the natural history of brachial plexus birth palsy, in relation to the recovery of biceps function, in the first six months of life; to assess the outcome after microsurgical repair of the brachial plexus in patients who had no recovery of biceps function at six months; and to compare the results of transfer of the latissimus dorsi and teres major tendons with the results of derotation osteotomy of the humerus and to compare the results of the tendon transfers and the osteotomy with the natural history of the disorder. Methods: Sixty-six patients (sixty-seven lesions) who had brachial plexus birth palsy were seen for an initial evaluation when they were less than three months old. The time of recovery of biceps function was recorded for each month of life for six months from the date of birth. The patients were divided into groups according to the month of life during which recovery of biceps strength was noted. A physical examination and an assessment with use of the functional criteria of Mallet were performed each month. Microsurgical repair of the brachial plexus was performed in six infants who had no evidence of biceps function within the first six months of life. Another group of twenty-seven patients were referred for evaluation of chronic neuropathy after they were six months old. A transfer of the latissimus dorsi and teres major tendons to the rotator cuff was performed in nine of these patients and a derotation osteotomy of the humerus was performed in seven because of an internal rotation contracture or functional weakness of the external rotators of the shoulder. Results: Twenty-two infants had recovery of biceps function within the first three months of life and had normal function at the time of the latest evaluation. Infants who had recovery of biceps function during the fourth, fifth, or sixth month of life later had significantly worse function, according to the criteria described by Mallet, than those who had had recovery in the first three months (p < 0.005). The clinical results for the six patients who had had microsurgical repair six months after birth were significantly better (p < 0.04) than those for the fifteen patients who had had recovery of biceps function in the fifth month of life. However, the results for the patients who had had repair of the brachial plexus were not found to be better than those for the eleven patients who had had recovery of biceps function in the fourth month of life. The improvement in function, as assessed with use of the Mallet criteria, after tendon transfer (p < 0.001) and humeral osteotomy (p < 0.0001) was significant. Conclusions: The present study confirms the observation of Gilbert and Tassin that it is rare for infants who have recovery of biceps function after the age of three months to have complete neurological recovery. Microsurgical repair was effective in improving function in the small subgroup of patients who had no evidence of recovery of biceps function within the first six months of life.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Inpatient programs providing treatment with either enoxaparin or adjusted-dose warfarin for a mean of 7.3 days afforded protection against venous thromboembolic disease, with overall rates of morbidity and mortality of 3.7 and 0.6 percent, respectively, and a very low rate of major bleeding complications for three months after total hip arthroplasty.
Abstract: Background: Venous thromboembolic disease in the form of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism is a major risk after a total hip arthroplasty. Enoxaparin, a low-molecular-weight heparin, has been shown to reduce the prevalence of deep venous thrombosis after total hip arthroplasty. Warfarin, an orally administered anticoagulant, has been used historically to reduce the risk of deep venous thrombosis after total hip arthroplasty. Methods: We compared enoxaparin and adjusted-dose warfarin with respect to their safety and their efficacy in the prevention of clinically important venous thromboembolic disease, defined as distal or proximal deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, or both, during hospitalization after total hip arthroplasty. We also evaluated the prevalence of complications and mortality from venous thromboembolic disease within three months after discharge. Results: Three thousand and eleven patients at 156 centers were randomly assigned to prophylactic treatment with injection of enoxaparin or oral administration of adjusted-dose warfarin during hospitalization. During the study, fifty-five (3.6 percent) of the 1516 patients who were managed with enoxaparin and fifty-six (3.7 percent) of the 1495 patients who were managed with warfarin had venous thromboembolic disease. Twenty-one patients (0.7 percent), which included four (0.3 percent) of those managed with enoxaparin and seventeen (1.1 percent) of those managed with warfarin (p = 0.0083), had venous thromboembolic disease during hospitalization. After discharge from the hospital, venous thromboembolic disease developed in ninety patients (3.0 percent): fifty-one (3.4 percent) of those managed with enoxaparin and thirty-nine (2.6 percent) of those managed with warfarin. One patient who had been managed with enoxaparin died because of a pulmonary embolism, which was confirmed at autopsy. Three additional patients (one who had been managed with enoxaparin and two who had been managed with warfarin) died, and the deaths were attributed to venous thromboembolic disease; however, no autopsies were performed. Twenty-six patients (0.9 percent) (eighteen managed with enoxaparin and eight managed with warfarin) had clinically important bleeding. Conclusions: Inpatient programs providing treatment with either enoxaparin (thirty milligrams every twelve hours) or adjusted-dose warfarin for a mean of 7.3 days afforded protection against venous thromboembolic disease, with overall rates of morbidity and mortality of 3.7 and 0.6 percent, respectively, and a very low rate of major bleeding complications (0.9 percent) for three months after total hip arthroplasty. During hospitalization, the patients managed with enoxaparin had a lower rate of venous thromboembolic disease than those managed with adjusted-dose warfarin (p = 0.0083). This benefit was lost after the medication was discontinued, with no difference in the prevalences of venous thromboembolic disease between the two groups at three months after discharge from the hospital.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The purpose of the current review is to summarize the information in the literature with regard to the background, rationale, indications, techniques, results, and possible future developments of interbody arthrodesis for reconstruction of the spine.
Abstract: During the last five years, surgeons around the world have inserted more than 80,000 lumbar interbody fusion cages; in the United States alone, an estimated 5000 such devices are implanted each month. The recent interest in performing lumbar interbody arthrodesis with use of cages is attributable to three factors: the high rate of failure associated with use of bone graft alone3,22,26,45,46,71,82,84,94,96,106,107; the high rate of failure associated with use of posterior pedicle-screw instrumentation39,97,102; and the high rate of success associated with use of so-called stand-alone anterior fusion cages and autogenous bone graft, obviating the need to perform a 360-degree (combined anterior and posterior) lumbar arthrodesis with use of posterior instrumentation77. The purpose of the current review is to summarize the information in the literature with regard to the background, rationale, indications, techniques, results, and possible future developments of interbody arthrodesis for reconstruction of the spine. Early techniques of arthrodesis with use of allograft or autogenous graft and without instrumentation were associated with a high rate of failure. In a classic study, Stauffer and Coventry96 reported on eighty-three patients who had had an anterior interbody arthrodesis between 1959 and 1967. Of seventy-seven patients who were followed clinically for an average of 3.75 years after the procedure, twenty-eight (36 percent) had good (76 to 100 percent) relief of pain, fifteen (19 percent) had fair (26 to 75 percent) relief, and thirty-four (44 percent) had poor (0 to 25 percent) relief. Thirty (44 percent) of sixty-eight patients who were evaluated radiographically at a minimum of eighteen months postoperatively had a pseudarthrosis. Stauffer and Coventry defined radiographic fusion as “a pattern …

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TL;DR: It is suggested that arthroscopic microdiscectomy may be useful for the operative treatment of specific symptoms, including radiculopathy, that are caused by lumbar disc herniation, provided that patients are properly selected.
Abstract: BackgroundThe usefulness of video-assisted arthroscopic microdiscectomy for the treatment of a herniated lumbar disc has been studied previously. In the current prospective, randomized study, the results of this procedure were compared with those of conventional open laminotomy and discectom

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results of the present study suggest that the risk of local recurrence after curettage with a high-speed burr and reconstruction with autogenous graft with or without allograft bone is similar to that observed after use of cement and other adjuvant treatment.
Abstract: Background: The use of curettage, phenol, and cement is accepted by most experts as the best treatment for giant-cell tumor of bone. The present study was performed to evaluate whether equivalent results could be obtained with curettage with use of a high-speed burr and reconstruction of the resulting defect with autogenous bone graft with or without allograft bone. Methods: The prospectively collected records of patients who had a giant-cell tumor of a long bone were reviewed to determine the rate of local recurrence after treatment with curettage with use of a high-speed burr and reconstruction with autogenous bone graft with or without allograft bone. All of the patients were followed clinically and radiographically, and a biopsy was performed if there were any suspicious changes. Results: Fifty-nine patients met the criteria for inclusion in the study. According to the grading system of Campanacci et al., two patients (3 percent) had a grade-I tumor, twenty-nine (49 percent) had a grade-II tumor, and twenty-eight (47 percent) had a grade-III tumor. Seventeen patients (29 percent) had a pathological fracture at the time of presentation. The mean duration of follow-up was eighty months (range, twenty-eight to 132 months). Seven patients (12 percent) had a local recurrence. Six of these seven were disease-free at the latest follow-up examination after at least one additional treatment with curettage or soft-tissue resection (one patient). One patient had resection and reconstruction with a prosthesis after a massive local recurrence and pulmonary metastases. Conclusions: Despite the high rates of recurrence reported in the literature after treatment of giant-cell tumor with curettage and bone-grafting, the results of the present study suggest that the risk of local recurrence after curettage with a high-speed burr and reconstruction with autogenous graft with or without allograft bone is similar to that observed after use of cement and other adjuvant treatment. It is likely that the adequacy of the removal of the tumor rather than the use of adjuvant modalities is what determines the risk of recurrence.

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TL;DR: Arthroscopic drilling for the treatment of medial osteochondral lesions of the talus does not require osteotomy of the medial malleolus or postoperative immobilization; thus, the procedure is less invasive than other types of operative treatment for the condition and it allows early resumption of daily activities and sports.
Abstract: Background: An osteochondral lesion of the talus is a relatively rare disorder of the ankle. While a number of treatment options have been reported, it appears to be difficult to manage all lesions with a single approach. We evaluated the indications for and the results of arthroscopic drilling for the treatment of an osteochondral lesion of the talus. Methods: Eighteen ankles (seventeen patients) with a symptomatic osteochondral lesion of the talus were examined. The ages of the patients ranged from ten to seventy-eight years (mean, 28.0 years) at the time of the operation, and the patients were followed postoperatively for two to 9.5 years (mean, 4.6 years). After the continuity of the cartilage overlying the lesion and the stability of the lesion had been confirmed, arthroscopic drilling was performed with use of a Kirschner wire that was 1.0 to 1.2 millimeters in diameter. A cast was not applied postoperatively, and full weight-bearing was allowed six weeks after the procedure. Results: The clinical result was good for thirteen ankles and fair for five; all ankles had improvement. Twelve of the thirteen ankles that were in patients who were less than thirty years old had a good result. In contrast, only one of the five ankles in patients who were fifty years old or more had a good result. Thus, the clinical results tended to be better for younger patients. Improvement was seen radiographically in fifteen ankles. However, the three ankles in patients who were more than sixty years old were found to have no improvement on radiographic examination. Analysis of the group of patients who had a history of trauma revealed that the mean interval between the injury and the operation was 6.3 months for the three ankles that had a good radiographic result and 11.3 months for the six that had a fair result. Thus, the radiographic results tended to be better when the interval between the injury and the operation was shorter. Conclusions: Arthroscopic drilling for the treatment of medial osteochondral lesions of the talus does not require osteotomy of the medial malleolus or postoperative immobilization; thus, the procedure is less invasive than other types of operative treatment for the condition and it allows early resumption of daily activities and sports. On the basis of the results in this study, we believe that the procedure is effective and useful in young patients, especially those who have not yet had closure of the epiphyseal plate. A specific indication for the procedure is an early lesion with only mild osteosclerosis of the surrounding talar bone, continuity of the cartilaginous surface, and stability of the osteochondral fragment.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results indicate that patients who have varus gonarthrosis may benefit significantly from use of a knee brace in addition to standard medical treatment.
Abstract: Background: The purpose of this study was to compare a custom-made valgus-producing functional knee (unloader) brace, a neoprene sleeve, and medical treatment only (control group) with regard to their ability to improve the disease-specific quality of life and the functional status of patients who had osteoarthritis in association with a varus deformity of the knee (varus gonarthrosis). Methods: The study design was a prospective, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial. Patients who had varus gonarthrosis were screened for eligibility. The criteria for exclusion included arthritides other than osteoarthritis; an operation on the knee within the previous six months; symptomatic disease of the hip, ankle, or foot; a previous fracture of the tibia or femur; morbid obesity (a body-mass index of more than thirty-five kilograms per square meter); skin disease; peripheral vascular disease or varicose veins that would preclude use of a brace; a severe cardiovascular deficit; blindness; poor English-language skills; and an inability to apply a brace because of physical limitations such as arthritis in the hand or an inability to bend over. Treatment was assigned on the basis of a computer-generated block method of randomization with use of sealed envelopes. The patients were stratified according to age (less than fifty years or at least fifty years), deformity (the mechanical axis in less than 5 degrees of varus or in at least 5 degrees of varus), and the status of the anterior cruciate ligament (torn or intact). The patients were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: medical treatment only (control group), medical treatment and use of a neoprene sleeve, or medical treatment and use of an unloader brace. The disease-specific quality of life was measured with use of the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and the McMaster-Toronto Arthritis Patient Preference Disability Questionnaire (MACTAR), and function was assessed with use of the six-minute walking and thirty-second stair-climbing tests. The primary outcome measure consisted of an analysis of covariance of the change in scores between the baseline and six-month evaluations. Results: One hundred and nineteen patients were randomized. The control group consisted of forty patients (thirty-one men and nine women; mean age, 60.9 years); the neoprene-sleeve group, of thirty-eight patients (twenty-seven men and eleven women; mean age, 58.2 years); and the unloader-brace group, of forty-one patients (twenty-eight men and thirteen women; mean age, 59.5 years). Nine patients withdrew from the study. At the six-month follow-up evaluation, there was a significant improvement in the disease-specific quality of life (p = 0.001) and in function (p ≤ 0.001) in both the neoprene-sleeve group and the unloader-brace group compared with the control group. There was a significant difference between the unloader-brace group and the neoprene-sleeve group with regard to pain after both the six-minute walking test (p = 0.021) and the thirty-second stair-climbing test (p = 0.016). There was a strong trend toward a significant difference between the unloader-brace group and the neoprene-sleeve group with regard to the change in the WOMAC aggregate (p = 0.062) and WOMAC physical function scores (p = 0.081). Conclusions: The results indicate that patients who have varus gonarthrosis may benefit significantly from use of a knee brace in addition to standard medical treatment. The unloader brace was, on the average, more effective than the neoprene sleeve. The ideal candidates for each of these bracing options remain to be identified.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results of this study suggest that peak pressures on the plantar aspect of the forefoot are significantly reduced following percutaneous lengthening of the Achilles tendon in diabetic patients who are at high risk for ulceration of the foot.
Abstract: Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which pressure on the plantar aspect of the forefoot is reduced following percutaneous lengthening of the Achilles tendon in diabetic patients who are at high risk for ulceration of the foot. Methods: Ten diabetic patients who had a history of neuropathic plantar ulceration of the forefoot were enrolled in a laboratory gait trial. A repeated-measures design and a computer analysis of force-plate data were used to examine dynamic pressures on the forefoot, with the patient walking barefoot, immediately before percutaneous lengthening of the Achilles tendon and at eight weeks afterward. Although the wound in each patient had healed at least one month before the operation, we considered the patients to be at high risk for ulceration because they had had an ulcer previously. Results: The mean peak pressure (and standard deviation) on the plantar aspect of the forefoot decreased significantly from 86 ± 9.4 newtons per square centimeter preoperatively to 63 ± 13.2 newtons per square centimeter at eight weeks postoperatively (p < 0.001). Commensurately, the mean dorsiflexion of the ankle joint increased significantly from 0 ± 3.1 degrees preoperatively to 9 ± 2.3 degrees at eight weeks postoperatively (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that peak pressures on the plantar aspect of the forefoot are significantly reduced following percutaneous lengthening of the Achilles tendon in diabetic patients who are at high risk for ulceration of the foot. We are unaware of any other reports in the medical literature that describe such findings. These data may lend support to studies that have indicated that this procedure should be used as an adjunctive therapeutic or prophylactic measure to reduce the risk of neuropathic ulceration.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Progression of the curve was most rapid during the adolescent growth spurt and stopped only at skeletal maturity, and there was no relationship between the severity of the kyphosis and its location in the spine.
Abstract: Background: Congenital kyphosis and kyphoscoliosis are much less common than congenital scoliosis. However, they are potentially more serious because compression of the spinal cord and paraplegia sometimes develop. The goals of the present study were to document the natural history of congenital kyphosis and kyphoscoliosis and to determine the stage at which the natural progression should be interrupted by treatment. Methods: We reviewed the medical records and radiographs of the spine of 112 consecutive patients. Sixty-eight patients had a type-I kyphosis due to an anterior failure of vertebral-body formation, twenty-four had a type-II kyphosis due to an anterior failure of vertebral-body segmentation, and twelve had a type-III kyphosis due to a combination of anomalies; the deformities of the remaining eight patients could not be classified. Eighty-five skeletally immature, untreated patients were first evaluated at a mean age of six years and nine months (range, two months to sixteen years and three months), and twenty-seven patients were skeletally mature at the time of the first visit. Sixty-three of the eighty-five skeletally immature patients were observed without any treatment for a mean period of six years and six months (range, one to sixteen years) before skeletal maturity, and the remaining twenty-two patients had a posterior arthrodesis of the spine soon after the initial visit. At skeletal maturity, forty-one patients had not been treated and sixty-eight had had an arthrodesis of the spine. The remaining three patients had not yet reached skeletal maturity at the time of the most recent follow-up. Results: The apex of the kyphosis was seen at all levels but was most frequent between the tenth thoracic and the first lumbar level (seventy-four patients; 66 percent). There was no relationship between the severity of the kyphosis and its location in the spine. Progression of the curve was most rapid during the adolescent growth spurt and stopped only at skeletal maturity. Progression was most rapid and the magnitude of the curve was the greatest in type-III kyphosis (twelve patients) followed by type-I kyphosis due to a posterolateral quadrant vertebra (thirty-nine patients), a posterior hemivertebra (eight patients), a butterfly vertebra (fifteen patients), and a wedged vertebra (six patients). A kyphosis due to two adjacent type-I vertebral anomalies progressed more rapidly and produced a more severe deformity than did a similar single anomaly. The prognosis for type-II kyphosis was variable and was much more severe when an anterolateral unsegmented bar had produced a kyphoscoliosis (nine patients) than it was when a midline anterior bar had produced a pure kyphosis (fifteen patients), which usually progressed slowly. Spontaneous neurological deterioration due to compression of the spinal cord occurred in ten patients (seven of whom had a type-I kyphosis and three of whom had an unclassifiable anomaly) at a mean age of thirteen years and eight months, and one other patient (with an unclassifiable anomaly) had spastic paraparesis at the age of twenty-eight years. Conclusions: Congenital kyphosis and kyphoscoliosis are uncommon deformities with the potential to progress rapidly, resulting in severe deformity and possible neurological deficits. A thorough knowledge of the natural history is essential in the planning of appropriate and timely treatment to prevent progression of the deformity and neurological complications.

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TL;DR: The results of this study demonstrate that pyrolytic carbon is a biologically and biomechanically compatible, wear-resistant, and durable material for arthroplasty of the metacarpophalangeal joint.
Abstract: BackgroundThe metacarpophalangeal joint is the most commonly involved joint when rheumatoid arthritis affects the hand. Many prosthetic implants have been designed for the replacement of this joint. Although studies of these implants have shown relief of pain, they have generally demonstrate

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The second-generation metal-on-metal implant Metasul has been used in over 60,000 hip replacements as mentioned in this paper, and it has a self-polishing capacity.
Abstract: Osteolysis is due to particulate wear debris and is responsible for the long-term failure of total hip replacements. It has stimulated the development of alternative joint surfaces such as metal-on-metal or ceramic-on-ceramic implants. Since 1988 the second-generation metal-on-metal implant Metasul has been used in over 60 000 hips. Analysis of 118 retrieved specimens of the head or cup showed rates of wear of approximately 25 μm for the whole articulation per year in the first year, decreasing to about 5 μm per year after the third. Metal surfaces have a ‘self-polishing’ capacity. Scratches are worn out by further joint movement. Volumetric wear was decreased some 60-fold compared with that of metal-on-polyethylene implants, suggesting that second-generation metal-on-metal prostheses may considerably reduce osteolysis.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The use of fibrin tissue adhesive in total knee arthroplasty seems to be an effective and safe means with which to reduce blood loss and blood-transfusion requirements despite preoperative thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin.
Abstract: Background: Total knee arthroplasty is associated with major postoperative blood loss of approximately 800 to 1200 milliliters, and blood transfusion is frequently required. With the increased concern about the risks of blood transfusion, various methods of blood conservation in orthopaedic surgery have been studied. The most appropriate solution, however, is to reduce the loss of blood during and after an operation. The present prospective, controlled, randomized study was designed to evaluate the hemostatic efficacy of the use of fibrin tissue adhesive in patients managed with total knee arthroplasty. Methods: Fifty-eight patients who were scheduled to have a total knee arthroplasty were randomly divided into two groups: a control group, in which the standard means of hemostasis were applied, and a treatment group, in which the standard means to control local bleeding were applied and a fibrin tissue adhesive was sprayed on the internal aspects of the operative field before skin closure. All operations were performed in a bloodless field with use of a pneumatic tourniquet. All patients received low-molecular-weight heparin as thromboprophylaxis twelve hours before the operation and every twelve hours postoperatively. Blood loss during the operation was evaluated by measuring the volume in the suction apparatus and by estimating the amount of lost blood in the swabs at the end of the operation. The apparent postoperative lost blood was determined by measuring the volume in the suction-drain bottles. All blood transfusions were recorded. Results: The mean apparent postoperative blood loss (and standard deviation) in the fibrin-tissue-adhesive group was 360 ± 287.7 milliliters compared with 878 ± 403.0 milliliters in the control group, with a mean difference of 518 milliliters (p < 0.001). The decrease in the level of hemoglobin was 25 ± 10 grams per liter in the treatment group compared with 37 ± 12 grams per liter in the control group (p < 0.001). Sixteen patients (55 percent) in the control group required a blood transfusion and eight (28 percent) required two units of blood, whereas only five (17 percent) of the patients in the fibrin-tissue-adhesive group required a blood transfusion and only one (3 percent) required two units (p = 0.004). The number of adverse events was comparable between the two groups. None of the adverse events were considered to be related to the use of fibrin tissue adhesive. One death, which was due to massive pulmonary embolism, was reported in the control group. No seroconversion was reported at three and six months after the operation. Conclusion: The use of fibrin tissue adhesive in total knee arthroplasty seems to be an effective and safe means with which to reduce blood loss and blood-transfusion requirements. Furthermore, the importance of these findings was enhanced by a significant reduction in blood loss, in the postoperative decrease in the level of hemoglobin, and in blood-transfusion requirements despite preoperative thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin.