# Showing papers in "Journal of Chemical Physics in 1998"

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TL;DR: In this paper, time-dependent density-functional (TDDFT) methods are applied within the adiabatic approximation to a series of molecules including C70, and they provide an efficient approach for treating frequency-dependent response properties and electronic excitation spectra of large molecules.

Abstract: Time-dependent density-functional (TDDFT) methods are applied within the adiabatic approximation to a series of molecules including C70. Our implementation provides an efficient approach for treating frequency-dependent response properties and electronic excitation spectra of large molecules. We also present a new algorithm for the diagonalization of large non-Hermitian matrices which is needed for hybrid functionals and is also faster than the widely used Davidson algorithm when employed for the Hermitian case appearing in excited energy calculations. Results for a few selected molecules using local, gradient-corrected, and hybrid functionals are discussed. We find that for molecules with low lying excited states TDDFT constitutes a considerable improvement over Hartree–Fock based methods (like the random phase approximation) which require comparable computational effort.

4,559 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the performance of time-dependent density-functional response theory (TD-DFRT) for the calculation of high-lying bound electronic excitation energies of molecules is evaluated.

Abstract: This paper presents an evaluation of the performance of time-dependent density-functional response theory (TD-DFRT) for the calculation of high-lying bound electronic excitation energies of molecules. TD-DFRT excitation energies are reported for a large number of states for each of four molecules: N2, CO, CH2O, and C2H4. In contrast to the good results obtained for low-lying states within the time-dependent local density approximation (TDLDA), there is a marked deterioration of the results for high-lying bound states. This is manifested as a collapse of the states above the TDLDA ionization threshold, which is at ??HOMOLDA (the negative of the highest occupied molecular orbital energy in the LDA). The ??HOMOLDA is much lower than the true ionization potential because the LDA exchange-correlation potential has the wrong asymptotic behavior. For this reason, the excitation energies were also calculated using the asymptotically correct potential of van Leeuwen and Baerends (LB94) in the self-consistent field step. This was found to correct the collapse of the high-lying states that was observed with the LDA. Nevertheless, further improvement of the functional is desirable. For low-lying states the asymptotic behavior of the exchange-correlation potential is not critical and the LDA potential does remarkably well. We propose criteria delineating for which states the TDLDA can be expected to be used without serious impact from the incorrect asymptotic behavior of the LDA potential

4,480 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a modification of the exchange functional introduced by Perdew and Wang was proposed, which significantly enlarges its field of applications and allows to obtain remarkable results both for covalent and noncovalent interactions.

Abstract: Starting from an analysis of the low-density and large gradient regions which dominate van der Waals interactions, we propose a modification of the exchange functional introduced by Perdew and Wang, which significantly enlarges its field of applications. This is obtained without increasing the number of adjustable parameters and retaining all the asymptotic and scaling properties of the original model. Coupling the new exchange functional to the correlation functional also proposed by Perdew and Wang leads to the mPWPW model, which represents the most accurate generalized gradient approximation available until now. We next introduce an adiabatic connection method in which the ratio between exact and density functional exchange is determined a priori from purely theoretical considerations and no further parameters are present. The resulting mPW1PW model allows to obtain remarkable results both for covalent and noncovalent interactions in a quite satisfactory theoretical framework encompassing the free elec...

2,952 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a new theoretical procedure based on ab initio molecular-orbital theory for the calculation of molecular energies of compounds containing first (Li-F) and second row (Na-Cl) atoms is presented.

Abstract: Gaussian-3 theory (G3 theory) for the calculation of molecular energies of compounds containing first (Li–F) and second row (Na–Cl) atoms is presented. This new theoretical procedure, which is based on ab initio molecular-orbital theory, modifies G2 theory [J. Chem. Phys. 94, 7221 (1991)] in several ways including a new sequence of single point energy calculations using different basis sets, a new formulation of the higher level correction, a spin–orbit correction for atoms, and a correction for core correlation. G3 theory is assessed using 299 energies from the G2/97 test set including enthalpies of formation, ionization potentials, electron affinities, and proton affinities. This new procedure corrects many of the deficiencies of G2 theory. There is a large improvement for nonhydrogen systems such as SiF4 and CF4, substituted hydrocarbons, and unsaturated cyclic species. Core-related correlation is found to be a significant factor, especially for species with unsaturated rings. The average absolute devi...

2,620 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a medium basis set based upon contractions of Gaussian primitives was developed for the third-row elements K through Zn. The basis functions generalize the 6-31G and 631G* sets commonly used for atoms up to Ar.

Abstract: Medium basis sets based upon contractions of Gaussian primitives are developed for the third-row elements K through Zn. The basis functions generalize the 6-31G and 6-31G* sets commonly used for atoms up to Ar. They use six primitive Gaussians for 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, and 3p orbitals, and a split-valence pair of three and one primitives for valence orbitals, which are 4s and 5p for atoms K and Ca, and 4s, 4p, and 3d for atoms Sc through Zn. A 6-31G* set is formed by adding a single set of Gaussian polarization functions to the 6-31G set. They are Cartesian d-functions for atoms K and Ca, and Cartesian f-functions for atoms Sc through Zn. Comparison with experimental data shows relatively good agreement with bond lengths and angles for representative vapor-phase metal complexes.

1,709 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) exchange-correlation energy function was developed using a least-squares procedure involving numerical exchange correlation potentials and experimental energetics and nuclear gradients.

Abstract: We recently presented a new method for developing generalized gradient approximation (GGA) exchange-correlation energy functionals, using a least-squares procedure involving numerical exchange-correlation potentials and experimental energetics and nuclear gradients. In this paper we use the same method to develop a new GGA functional, denoted HCTH, based on an expansion recently suggested by Becke [J. Chem. Phys. 107, 8554 (1997)]. For our extensive training set, the new functional yields improved energetics compared to both the BLYP and B3LYP functionals [Phys. Rev. A 38, 3098 (1988); Phys. Rev. B 37, 785 (1988); J. Chem. Phys. 98, 5648 (1993); J. Phys. Chem. 98, 11623 (1994)]. The geometries of these systems, together with those of a set of transition metal compounds, are shown to be an improvement over the BLYP functional, while the reaction barriers for six hydrogen abstraction reactions are comparable to those of B3LYP. These improvements are achieved without introducing any fraction of exact orbital exchange into the new functional. We have also re-optimized the functional of Becke—which does involve exact exchange—for use in self-consistent calculations.

1,364 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors developed a method to study transition pathways for rare events in complex systems by turning the calculation of reactive flux correlation functions into the computation of an isomorphic reversible work.

Abstract: We have developed a method to study transition pathways for rare events in complex systems. The method can be used to determine rate constants for transitions between stable states by turning the calculation of reactive flux correlation functions into the computation of an isomorphic reversible work. In contrast to previous dynamical approaches, the method relies neither on prior knowledge nor on explicit specification of transition states. Rather, it provides an importance sampling from which transition states can be characterized statistically. A simple model is analyzed to illustrate the methodology.

980 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a self-consistent Kohn-sham algorithm is proposed to correct the asymptotic deficiency in the potentials of conventional exchange-correlation functionals.

Abstract: Conventional continuum exchange-correlation functionals (e.g., local density approximation, generalized gradient approximation) offer a poor description of many response properties, such as static polarizabilities and single photon vertical excitation energies to Rydberg states. These deficiencies are related to errors in the virtual Kohn–Sham orbitals and eigenvalues, which arise due to a fundamental deficiency in the potentials of conventional continuum functionals. Namely, although these potentials approximately average over the exact integer discontinuity in energetically important regions, they fail to do so asymptotically, because they vanish. Our recent functional HCTH [J. Chem. Phys. 109, 6264 (1998)] was designed with this deficiency in mind, although its potential still fails to exhibit the appropriate asymptotic form. In this paper, we present a new procedure that explicitly corrects this asymptotic deficiency for any continuum functional. Self-consistent Kohn–Sham calculations are performed us...

858 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulation method has been used to study mesophase formation of linear (AmBn) diblock copolymer melts.

Abstract: The dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulation method has been used to study mesophase formation of linear (AmBn) diblock copolymer melts. The polymers are represented by relatively short strings of soft spheres, connected by harmonic springs. These melts spontaneously form a mesocopically ordered structure, depending on the length ratio of the two blocks and on the Flory–Huggins χ-parameter. The main emphasis here is on validation of the method and model by comparing the predicted equilibrium phases to existing mean-field theory and to experimental results. The real strength of the DPD method, however, lies in its capability to predict the dynamical pathway along which a block copolymer melt finds its equilibrium structure after a temperature quench. The present work has led to the following results: (1) As the polymer becomes more asymmetric, we qualitatively find the order of the equilibrium structures as lamellar, perforated lamellar, hexagonal rods, micelles. Qualitatively this is in agreement wi...

810 citations

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TL;DR: The application of the zeroth-order regular relativistic approximation (ZORA) for molecular density functional calculations is investigated in this article, where the formulation of a geometry gradient is greatly facilitated using this formalism.

Abstract: The application of the zeroth-order regular relativistic approximation (ZORA) for molecular density functional calculations is investigated. By introducing a model potential to construct the kinetic energy operator, stationarity of the energy with respect to orbital variations is gained and most problems connected with gauge dependence of the regular approximation are eliminated. The formulation of a geometry gradient is greatly facilitated using this formalism. Calculations for the coinage metal hydrides (CuH, AgH, AuH) as well as for the homonuclear (Cu2, Ag2, Au2) and heteronuclear (CuAg, CuAu, AgAu) diatomics show that the results of ZORA calculations within the electrostatic shift approximation, as introduced by van Lenthe and co-workers, can be duplicated using the simpler scheme proposed in this work. Results for the coinage metal fluorides (CuF, AgF, AuF) and chlorides (CuCl, AgCl, AuCl) are presented as well. First-order relativistic calculations have been performed for all systems to assess the ...

735 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the blue-moon ensemble method was used to compute the potential of mean force and transmission coefficient of a given reaction coordinate in the case of an arbitrary reaction coordinate.

Abstract: Activated processes can be studied in the molecular dynamics (MD) approach by imposing a mechanical constraint on the corresponding reaction coordinate and by performing a kind of thermodynamic integration. The blue-moon ensemble method provides us with the correct algorithm for computing the potential of mean force and the transmission coefficient. Here we show a procedure for obtaining the mean force directly from the average force of constraint and a geometric correction term which is easy to compute in MD simulations. Previous work on the same problem will be also discussed.

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TL;DR: Koehl and Odom as discussed by the authors developed a new approximate form for the exchange-correlation energy functional, which is based on the density matrix expansion (DME), and a Kohn-Sham implementation of this functional is constructed.

Abstract: A new approximate form for the exchange-correlation energy functional is developed. The form is based on the density matrix expansion (DME) for the exchange functional [R. M. Koehl, G. K. Odom, and G. E. Scuseria, Mol. Phys. 87, 835 (1996)]. The nonlocal portion of the correlation energy is assumed to have the same general form as that derived for exchange, while the local portion is taken to be that of the uniform electron gas. The resulting formula does not resort to the use of exact-exchange mixing. A Kohn-Sham implementation of this functional is constructed and the parameters within the functional are adjusted to minimize the difference between the theoretical and the experimental data for a large set of atomic and molecular systems. The results are found to compare favorably with existing functionals, even those which include exact-exchange mixing.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors show that fair stability can be obtained by their optimization procedure for the extended G2 test set, which consists of the standard heats of formation of 148 molecules, with a maximum of 8.89 kcal/mol error for ozone molecule.

Abstract: A recently suggested procedure for the systematic optimization of gradient-corrected exchange-correlation functionals [A. D. Becke, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 8554 (1997)] has been applied to the extended G2 test set [L. A. Curtiss et al., J. Chem. Phys. 106, 1063 (1997)], which consists of the standard heats of formation of 148 molecules. The limit of reproduction of the experimental data in this test set is found to be 1.78 kcal/mol mean absolute error, with a maximum of 8.89 kcal/mol error for the ozone molecule. This compares rather well with previous results for G2 theory itself (1.58 and 8.2 kcal/mol, respectively). We show that fair stability can be obtained by our optimization procedure.

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TL;DR: This article investigates three algorithms for the FFT-accelerated Ewald sum, namely, the so-called particle–particle–part particle mesh (P3M), particle mesh Ewald (PME), and smooth PME method, and proposes a set of combinations of the individual components that it regard to be the most flexible.

Abstract: Standard Ewald sums, which calculate, e.g., the electrostatic energy or the force in periodically closed systems of charged particles, can be efficiently speeded up by the use of the fast Fourier transformation (FFT). In this article we investigate three algorithms for the FFT-accelerated Ewald sum, which have attracted widespread attention, namely, the so-called particle–particle–particle mesh (P3M), particle mesh Ewald (PME), and smooth PME method. We present a unified view of the underlying techniques and the various ingredients which comprise those routines. Additionally, we offer detailed accuracy measurements, which shed some light on the influence of several tuning parameters and also show that the existing methods — although similar in spirit — exhibit remarkable differences in accuracy. We propose a set of combinations of the individual components, mostly relying on the P3M approach, that we regard to be the most flexible. The issue of estimating the errors connected with particle mesh routines is reserved to paper II.

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TL;DR: The convergence of ab initio predictions to the one-and n-particle limits has been systematically explored for several conformational energy prototypes as mentioned in this paper, including the inversion barriers of ammonia, water, and isocyanic acid, the torsional barrier of ethane, and the E/Z rotamer separation of formic acid.

Abstract: The convergence of ab initio predictions to the one- and n-particle limits has been systematically explored for several conformational energy prototypes: the inversion barriers of ammonia, water, and isocyanic acid, the torsional barrier of ethane, the E/Z rotamer separation of formic acid, and the barrier to linearity of silicon dicarbide. Explicit ab initio results were obtained with atomic-orbital basis sets as large as [7s6p5d4f3g2h1i/6s5p4d3f2g1h] and electron correlation treatments as extensive as fifth-order Mo/ller–Plesset perturbation theory (MP5), the full coupled-cluster method through triple excitations (CCSDT), and Brueckner doubles theory including perturbational corrections for both triple and quadruple excitations [BD(TQ)]. Subsequently, basis set and electron correlation extrapolation schemes were invoked to gauge any further variations in arriving at the ab initio limit. Physical effects which are tacitly neglected in most theoretical work have also been quantified by computations of non...

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors compare dielectric relaxation τ(T) data of several low molecular weight glass-forming liquids with the predictions of the Adam-Gibbs theory using experimental data for the configurational entropy Sc(T).

Abstract: We compare dielectric relaxation τ(T) data of several low molecular weight glass-forming liquids with the predictions of the Adam–Gibbs theory using experimental data for the configurational entropy Sc(T). Combination of Adam–Gibbs and Vogel–Fulcher equations yields an expression for Sc(T) which can be compared with experimental data. Good agreement is found for a range of temperatures near Tg

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors performed long molecular dynamics simulations of water using four popular water models, namely simple point charge (SPC), Extended Simple Point Charge (EPC), SPC/E, TIP3P and TIP4P transferable intermolecular potentials.

Abstract: We have performed long molecular dynamics simulations of water using four popular water models, namely simple point charge (SPC), extended simple point charge (SPC/E), and the three point (TIP3P) and four point (TIP4P) transferable intermolecular potentials. System sizes of 216 and 820 molecules were used to study the dependence of properties on the system size. All systems were simulated at 300 K with and without reaction fields and with two different cutoff radii, in order to study the impact of the cutoff treatment on density, energy, dynamic, and dielectric properties. Furthermore we generated two special-purpose water models based on the SPC and TIP4P models, for use with a reaction field. The atomic charges and the Lennard-Jones C12 parameter were optimized to reproduce the correct energy and pressure using the weak coupling algorithm for parameters. Indeed, in simulations without parameter coupling of both new models the density and potential energy were found to be close to the experimental values...

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TL;DR: In this paper, the conductance spectrum (dI/dV vs. V) can be understood fairly well in terms of a relatively simple model, provided the spatial profile of the electrostatic potential under bias is properly accounted for.

Abstract: A relatively simple and straightforward procedure for characterizing molecular wires is to measure the conductance spectrum by forming a self-assembled ordered monolayer (SAM) on a metallic surface and using a high scanning-tunneling microscope resolution (STM) tip as the other contact. We find that the conductance spectrum (dI/dV vs. V) can be understood fairly well in terms of a relatively simple model, provided the spatial profile of the electrostatic potential under bias is properly accounted for. The effect of the potential profile is particularly striking and can convert a symmetric conductor into a rectifier and vice versa. The purpose of this paper is to (1) describe the theoretical model in detail, (2) identify the important parameters that influence the spectra and show how these parameters can be deduced directly from the conductance spectrum, and (3) compare the theoretical prediction with experimentally measured conductance spectra for xylyl dithiol and phenyl dithiol.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a set of 146 well-established ionization potentials and electron affinities is presented, referred to as the G2 ion test set, which includes the 63 atoms and molecules whose ionisation potentials were used to test Gaussian-2 (G2) theory.

Abstract: A set of 146 well-established ionization potentials and electron affinities is presented. This set, referred to as the G2 ion test set, includes the 63 atoms and molecules whose ionization potentials and electron affinities were used to test Gaussian-2 (G2) theory [J. Chem. Phys. 94, 7221 (1991)] and 83 new atoms and molecules. It is hoped that this new test set combined with the recently published test set of enthalpies of neutral molecules [J. Chem. Phys. 106, 1063 (1997)] will provide a means for assessing and improving theoretical models. From an assessment of G2 and density functional theories on this test set, it is found that G2 theory is the most reliable method. It has an average absolute deviation of 0.06 eV for both ionization potentials and electron affinities. The two modified versions of G2 theory, G2(MP2,SVP) and G2(MP2) theory, have average absolute deviations of 0.08–0.09 eV for both ionization potentials and electron affinities. The hybrid B3LYP density functional method has the smallest...

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TL;DR: The transmission coefficient for any conformation is defined to be the probability for a chain with the given conformation to fold before it unfolds, and two methods are presented by which to determine how closely any parameter of the system approximates the transmission coefficient.

Abstract: To understand the kinetics of protein folding, we introduce the concept of a “transition coordinate” which is defined to be the coordinate along which the system progresses most slowly. As a practical implementation of this concept, we define the transmission coefficient for any conformation to be the probability for a chain with the given conformation to fold before it unfolds. Since the transmission coefficient can serve as the best possible measure of kinetic distance for a system, we present two methods by which we can determine how closely any parameter of the system approximates the transmission coefficient. As we determine that the transmission coefficient for a short-chain heteropolymer system is dominated by entropic factors, we have chosen to illustrate the methods mentioned by applying them to geometrical properties of the system such as the number of native contacts and the looplength distribution. We find that these coordinates are not good approximations of the transmission coefficient and therefore, cannot adequately describe the kinetics of protein folding.

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Duke University

^{1}TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyzed the self-interaction error of widely used density functionals in describing the dissociation behavior of some homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomic radicals.

Abstract: The difficulty of widely used density functionals in describing the dissociation behavior of some homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomic radicals is analyzed. It is shown that the self-interaction error of these functionals accounts for the problem—it is much larger for a system with a noninteger number of electrons than a system with an integer number of electrons. We find the condition for the erroneous dissociation behavior described by approximate density functionals: when the ionization energy of one dissociation partner differs from the electron affinity of the other partner by a small amount, the self-interaction error will lead to wrong dissociation limit. Systems with a noninteger number of electrons and hence the large amount of self-interaction error in approximate density functionals arise also in the transition states of some chemical reactions and in some charge-transfer complexes. In the course of analysis, we derive a scaling relation necessary for an exchange-correlation functional to be self-interaction free.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the van't Hoff relationship was used to determine the hydrogen bond enthalpy of the Raman spectra from water in a range of conditions from ambient to above the critical point.

Abstract: The Raman spectrum from water was obtained for a range of conditions from ambient to above the critical point, 256 bar and 400 °C. A fluorescence-free sapphire high-pressure Raman cell was employed with which the Raman spectra from water were examined between 30 and 4000 cm−1. Computer deconvolution of the Raman OH-stretching contours allowed the hydrogen bond strength to be determined from the integrated component intensity ratios by use of the van’t Hoff relationship. This procedure yielded a hydrogen bond enthalpy of 2.53±0.10 kcal/mol which is in excellent agreement with previously reported values.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors used Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations to observe the self-assembly of the surfactant molecules into bilayer membranes and measured the interfacial tension and the compressibility modulus of these bilayers.

Abstract: Binary Lennard-Jones fluids consisting of “solvent” and “surfactant” molecules are studied as simplified model systems for amphiphilic molecules in solution. Using Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations, we observe the self-assembly of the surfactant molecules into bilayer membranes. These bilayers are fluid since the surfactants exhibit rapid lateral diffusion. We also measure the interfacial tension and the compressibility modulus of these bilayers. We show that they exhibit a tensionless state and characterize the corresponding stress profile. In this way, we bridge the gap between previous theoretical studies which were based (i) on discrete models with atomic resolution and (ii) on continuum models in which the bilayer membrane is treated as a smooth surface.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors observed visible light emission from nanosize gold clusters and found that relatively intense photoluminescence occurs only when the size of the metal nanocluster is sufficiently small (<5 nm.

Abstract: We have observed visible light emission from nanosize gold clusters. Liquid chromatographic analysis of the metal clusters shows that relatively intense photoluminescence occurs only when the size of the metal nanocluster is sufficiently small (<5 nm). The emission is strongly Stokes shifted and is assigned to radiative recombination of Fermi level electrons and sp- or d-band holes. The electron and/or hole states are perturbed by surface states, as indicated by the dependence of the emission spectrum on the nature of the cluster surface. Finally, we found that large, nonemitting gold clusters can also be made luminescent by partial dissolution using KCN.

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TL;DR: In this paper, an improved variant of the C7 pulse-sequence for efficient recoupling of spin-1/2 pair dipolar interactions in magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy is introduced.

Abstract: We introduce an improved variant of the C7 pulse-sequence for efficient recoupling of spin-1/2 pair dipolar interactions in magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The tolerance of C7 toward isotropic as well as anisotropic chemical shift offsets and rf inhomogeneity is improved considerably by replacing the original basic element Cφ44=(2π)φ(2π)φ+π with the cyclically permuted element Cφ143=(π/2)φ(2π)φ+π(3π/2)φ. The improved performance of this permutationally offset stabilized variant of C7 is analyzed by average Hamiltonian theory to fifth order, numerical simulations, and demonstrated by experiments on powder samples of doubly 13C-labeled barium oxalate hemihydrate and diammonium fumarate.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a computer-simulation study of homogeneous gas-liquid nucleation in a Lennard-Jones system was performed using umbrella sampling, and the free energy of a cluster was computed as a function of its size.

Abstract: We report a computer-simulation study of homogeneous gas–liquid nucleation in a Lennard-Jones system. Using umbrella sampling, we compute the free energy of a cluster as a function of its size. A thermodynamic integration scheme is employed to determine the height of the nucleation barrier as a function of supersaturation. Our simulations illustrate that the mechanical and the thermodynamical surfaces of tension and surface tension differ significantly. In particular, we show that the mechanical definition of the surface tension cannot be used to compute this barrier height. We find that the relations recently proposed by McGraw and Laaksonen [J. Chem. Phys. 106, 5284 (1997)] for the height of the barrier and for the size of the critical nucleus are obeyed.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a surface force balance with extremely high resolution in measuring shear forces has been used to study the properties of films of the simple organic solvents cyclohexane, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane, and toluene, confined in a gap between smooth solid surfaces.

Abstract: A surface force balance with extremely high resolution in measuring shear forces has been used to study the properties of films of the simple organic solvents cyclohexane, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane, and toluene, confined in a gap between smooth solid surfaces. We were able to probe in detail the transition between liquidlike and solidlike behavior of the films as the gap thickness decreased. Our results reveal that in such confined layers the liquids are fluid down to a film thickness of few molecular layers (typically seven, depending on the particular liquid examined). On further decreasing the gap thickness by a single molecular layer, the films undergo an abrupt transition to become solidlike in the sense that they are able to sustain a finite shear stress for macroscopic times. At the transition, the effective rigidity of the films, quantified in terms of an effective creep viscosity, increases by at least seven orders of magnitude. This sharp transition is reversible and occurs as a function of the confinement alone: it does not require external applied pressure. Following the transition the confined films behave under shear in a manner resembling ductile solids.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the shortsightedness of the XC potentials which are relatively insensitive to the polarization charge induced by the external electric field at the chain ends, and show that the overestimations are not related to the asymptotic behavior of the potential.

Abstract: DFT schemes based on conventional and less conventional exchange-correlation (XC) functionals have been employed to determine the polarizability and second hyperpolarizability of π-conjugated polyacetylene chains. These functionals fail in one or more of several ways: (i) the correlation correction to α is either much too small or in the wrong direction, leading to an overestimate; (ii) γ is significantly overestimated; (iii) the chain length dependence is excessively large, particularly for γ and for the more alternant system; and (iv) the bond length alternation effects on γ are either underestimated or qualitatively incorrect. The poor results with the asymptotically correct van Leeuwen–Baerends XC potential show that the overestimations are not related to the asymptotic behavior of the potential. These failures are described in terms of the separate effects of the exchange and the correlation parts of the XC functionals. They are related to the short-sightedness of the XC potentials which are relatively insensitive to the polarization charge induced by the external electric field at the chain ends.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a modified force field is proposed that provides good agreement with experimental phase equilibrium and second virial coefficient data over wide ranges of temperature and chain length over short and long alkanes.

Abstract: A Monte Carlo simulation study has been conducted to assess the ability of recently proposed force fields to predict orthobaric densities, second virial coefficients, and P-V-T data for short and long alkanes. A new, modified force field is proposed that provides good agreement with experimental phase equilibrium and second virial coefficient data over wide ranges of temperature and chain length.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a procedure that automatically identifies internal rotation modes and rotating groups during the normal mode vibrational analysis is outlined, and an improved approximation to the corrections for the thermodynamic functions is proposed.

Abstract: A procedure that automatically identifies internal rotation modes and rotating groups during the normal mode vibrational analysis is outlined, and an improved approximation to the corrections for the thermodynamic functions is proposed. The identification and the characterization of the internal rotation modes require no user intervention and make extensive use of the information imbedded in the redundant internal coordinates. Rigid-rotor internal rotation modes are obtained by fixing stretching, bending, and out-of-plane bending motions and solving the vibrational problem for the constrained system. Normal vibrational modes corresponding to internal rotations are identified by comparing them with the constrained modes. The atomic composition of the rotating groups is determined automatically and the kinetic energy matrix for internal rotation is given by either the constrained Wilson-G matrix or the Kilpatrick and Pitzer protocol. The potential periodicity, the rotating tops’ symmetry numbers, and the well-multiplicity are obtained using simple rules. These parameters can be altered by user input. An improved analytical approximation to the partition function for a one-dimensional hindered internal rotation has been developed that reproduces the accurate values tabulated by Pitzer and Gwinn to ±0.4% with a maximum error of 2.1%. This approximation is shown to behave better than previously available approximations over a wider range of regimes. The one-dimensional rotor treatment is generalized to give useful approximations to the multidimensional rotor thermodynamic functions that can be a good start for more thorough studies.