Showing papers in "Journal of Cleaner Production in 2018"
TL;DR: Various fabrication techniques employed for the production of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites are discussed and a detailed review of the research devoted to the analysis of their structure and properties by a variety of characterization techniques are presented.
Abstract: The world is in need of more eco-friendly material, therefore researchers around the globe focus on developing new materials that would improve the environmental quality of products. This need for new green materials has led to the utilization of composites made from raw natural fibers and polymer matrices, and this has become one of the most widely investigated research topics in recent times. Natural fiber composites are an alternative for replacing environmentally harmful synthetic materials and help control pollution problems. In addition, they are low cost, have better mechanical properties and require low production energy consumption. Also, using such materials in construction works, it is possible to improve the sustainability by eliminating construction wastes. Keeping in view all the benefits of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites, this paper first discusses various fabrication techniques employed for the production of these composites and then presents a detailed review of the research devoted to the analysis of their structure and properties by a variety of characterization techniques.
TL;DR: The Circular Economy (CE) is currently a popular notion within the policy and business advocacy groups as mentioned in this paper. But despite being visionary and provocative in its message, the research on the CE concept is eme...
Abstract: The Circular Economy (CE) is currently a popular notion within the policy and business advocacy groups. Despite being visionary and provocative in its message, the research on the CE concept is eme ...
TL;DR: In this article, the authors map the still small but expanding academic territory of consumer food waste by systematically reviewing empirical studies on food waste practices as well as distilling factors that foster and impede the generation of food waste on the household level.
Abstract: In recent years, food waste has received growing interest from local, national and European policymakers, international organisations, NGOs as well as academics from various disciplinary fields. Increasing concerns about food security and environmental impacts, such as resource depletion and greenhouse gas emissions attributed to food waste, have intensified attention to the topic. While food waste occurs in all stages of the food supply chain, private households have been identified as key actors in food waste generation. However, the evidence on why food waste occurs remains scattered. This paper maps the still small but expanding academic territory of consumer food waste by systematically reviewing empirical studies on food waste practices as well as distilling factors that foster and impede the generation of food waste on the household level. Moreover, we briefly discuss the contributions of different social ontologies, more particularly psychology-related approaches and social practice theory. The analysis reveals food waste as a complex and multi-faceted issue that cannot be attributed to single variables; this also calls for a stronger integration of different disciplinary perspectives. Mapping the determinants of waste generation deepens the understanding of household practices and helps design food waste prevention strategies. Finally, we link the identified factors with a set of policy, business, and retailer options.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the short and long run dynamic relationship between per capita GDP, per capita carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, financial development, total renewable energy consumption, hydropower consumption, alternative energy consumption and urbanization for Turkey during 1974-2014.
Abstract: In this study, the short- and long-run dynamic relationship between per capita GDP, per capita carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, financial development, per capita total renewable energy consumption, hydropower consumption, alternative energy consumption and urbanization was investigated by using ARDL bounds testing approach, Gregory-Hansen and Hatemi-J cointegration tests for Turkey during 1974–2014. The results of three cointegration test indicated that there was a long-run relationship between these variables. The coefficients obtained from the ARDL, fully modified least squares (FMOLS) and canonical cointegrating regression (CCR) estimators showed that economic growth, financial development, and urbanization increase environmental degradation, while total renewable energy consumption, hydropower consumption, and alternative energy consumption had no effect on CO2 emissions. The findings showed that economic growth caused the greatest increases in CO2 emissions, followed by urbanization and financial development. However, renewable energy consumption was not at a desirable level to reduce CO2 emissions. The study also support environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis, which establishes an inverted U-shaped relationship between economic growth and CO2 emissions. The turning points of per capita GDP obtained from long-run regressions were found to be around 13523–14077 US Dollars, outside the sample period. The overall results indicated that Turkey has not reached the level of per capita GDP that can reduce environmental pollution and renewable energy consumption is not a solution to reduce CO2 emissions.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors provide a review of the literature, using a systematic database search and cross-reference snowballing, and identify a research gap and deduct research questions to address the gap.
Abstract: The capability to rapidly and successfully move into new business models is an important source of sustainable competitive advantage and a key leverage to improve the sustainability performance of organisations. However, research suggests that many business model innovations fail. Despite the importance of the topic, the reasons for failure are relatively unexplored, and there is no comprehensive review of the sustainable business model innovation literature. This research provides a review of the literature, using a systematic database search and cross-reference snowballing. Its key contributions are: (1) a review of the key underlying concepts, discussing their similarities and differences and offer new definitions where there is an identified need; (2) we identify a research gap; and (3) we deduct research questions to address the gap.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the sustainability performance of the circular business models (CBM) and circular supply chains necessary to implement the concept on an organisational level and propose a framework to integrate circular business model and supply chain management towards sustainable development.
Abstract: The Circular Economy is increasingly seen as a possible solution to address sustainable development. An economic system that minimises resource input into and waste, emission, and energy leakage out of the system is hoped to mitigate negative impacts without jeopardising growth and prosperity. This paper discusses the sustainability performance of the circular business models (CBM) and circular supply chains necessary to implement the concept on an organisational level and proposes a framework to integrate circular business models and circular supply chain management towards sustainable development. It was developed based on literature analysis and four case studies. The proposed framework shows how different circular business models are driving circular supply chain in different loops: closing loops, slowing loops, intensifying loops, narrowing loops, and dematerialising loops. The identified circular business models vary in complexity of the circular supply chain and in the value proposition. Our research indicates circular business and circular supply chain help in realising sustainability ambitions.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used activated carbon (AC) derived from waste rubber tires was loaded with cobalt and copper nanoparticles for simultaneous adsorptive desulfurization of sulfur compounds.
Abstract: The removal of sulfur from petroleum products is an important step in the refining process. Several techniques have been developed to address the limitations of hydrodesulfurization, including adsorptive desulfurization. One of the requirements of the adsorptive desulfurization process is the use of efficient and cost-effective materials. In this work, activated carbon (AC) derived from waste rubber tires was loaded with cobalt and copper nanoparticles. The prepared materials were evaluated for their efficiency in batch and fixed-bed systems for the simultaneous adsorptive desulfurization of thiophene (T), benzothiophene (BT), dibenzothiophene (DBT), 5-methyl-1-benzothiophene (MBT), 4-methyldibenzothiophene (MDBT), and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (DMDBT). AC loaded with cobalt and copper (CoCu/AC) showed enhanced simultaneous adsorptive desulfurization of the sulfur compounds in the order of DBT > MDBT > DMDBT > MBT > BT > T. The adsorption experimental data showed the closest match with the pseudo-second-order kinetic. The intraparticle diffusion indicates that other mechanisms may be included in the adsorption process along with the intraparticle diffusion. Simultaneous adsorptive desulfurization in fixed bed models indicated the following trend in breakthroughs: DBT > MDBT > DMDBT > MBT > BT > T. A mechanism proposed via the π-complexation and the direct S-M interaction could justify the trend in adsorption capacity.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present the status of construction and demolition waste generation around the world and subsequently provide a critical review of the recent studies conducted to improve the properties of recycled aggregate concrete through different supplementary materials.
Abstract: Concrete production and construction and demolition waste generation are some of the main contributors of constant carbon dioxide emission into the atmosphere. The main aim of this review is to present the status of construction and demolition waste generation around the world and subsequently provide a critical review of the recent studies conducted to improve the properties of recycled aggregate concrete through different supplementary materials. Information from 40 countries within six continents have been collated, critically analysed with the central focus being on the current construction and demolition waste generation and different policies adopted by the relevant government bodies. The future goals and targets of each country are briefly discussed. The overall construction and demolition waste generation in 40 countries worldwide reached more than 3.0 billion tonnes annually until 2012 and this trend is increasing constantly. The developing countries including India and China need to develop comprehensive system to monitor and utilize their huge C&D waste and government level initiative is required for mass awareness. Recycled aggregates obtained through construction and demolition waste are of inferior quality and use of different pozzolanic materials are recommended by several researchers to enhance its properties. Furthermore, it was also suggested to use the recycled aggregates from 30 to 50% to achieve the strength equivalent to natural aggregate concrete with supplementary cementitious materials. More research is imperative in the area of unconventional supplementary materials in recycled aggregate concrete and full structural analysis on long term scale. The uncertainty of its quality and absence of proper standards hinder its way of common adoption in real-world applications. Therefore, further research is necessary to endorse this waste in the construction industry and develop proper standards for its use in low-risk structural applications.
TL;DR: In this article, a review of the literature on textile reuse and recycling is presented, where the authors provide a summary of the current knowledge and point out several areas for further research.
Abstract: This paper reviews studies of the environmental impact of textile reuse and recycling, to provide a summary of the current knowledge and point out areas for further research. Forty-one studies were reviewed, whereof 85% deal with recycling and 41% with reuse (27% cover both reuse and recycling). Fibre recycling is the most studied recycling type (57%), followed by polymer/oligomer recycling (37%), monomer recycling (29%), and fabric recycling (14%). Cotton (76%) and polyester (63%) are the most studied materials. The reviewed publications provide strong support for claims that textile reuse and recycling in general reduce environmental impact compared to incineration and landfilling, and that reuse is more beneficial than recycling. The studies do, however, expose scenarios under which reuse and recycling are not beneficial for certain environmental impacts. For example, as benefits mainly arise due to the avoided production of new products, benefits may not occur in cases with low replacement rates or if the avoided production processes are relatively clean. Also, for reuse, induced customer transport may cause environmental impact that exceeds the benefits of avoided production, unless the use phase is sufficiently extended. In terms of critical methodological assumptions, authors most often assume that textiles sent to recycling are wastes free of environmental burden, and that reused products and products made from recycled materials replace products made from virgin fibres. Examples of other content mapped in the review are: trends of publications over time, common aims and geographical scopes, commonly included and omitted impact categories, available sources of primary inventory data, knowledge gaps and future research needs. The latter include the need to study cascade systems, to explore the potential of combining various reuse and recycling routes.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated empirically the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis and found that there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between environmental degradation and economic growth.
Abstract: This study reinvestigates empirically the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between environmental degradation and economic growth. The available EKC literature, in general, employs CO2 emissions as a proxy for environmental degradation. Unlike the current studies, this study employs the Ecological Footprint (EF hereafter) variable, instead of CO2 emissions, as an indicator of environmental deterioration. Then, this research observes the countries which are classified into three income groups in order to investigate EKC hypothesis. In conclusion, following the second generation panel data techniques, this paper reaches its best fitted model among the models of continuously updated fully modified (CUP-FM) and continuously updated bias corrected (CUP-BC) models, and, reveals that EKC hypothesis is confirmed by low income, middle income and high income group countries’ data.
TL;DR: In this article, a scientometric review of global trend and structure of sustainability research in 1991-2016 using techniques such as co-author, coword, co-citation, clusters, and geospatial analyses is presented.
Abstract: The concept of sustainable development has gained worldwide attention in recent years which had enhanced its implementation. However, few studies have attempted to map the global research of sustainability. This study utilizes scientometric review of global trend and structure of sustainability research in 1991–2016 using techniques such as co-author, co-word, co-citation, clusters, and geospatial analyses. A total of 2094 bibliographic records from the Web of Science database were analyzed to generate the study's research power networks and geospatial map. The findings reveal an evolution of the research field from the definition of its concepts in the Brundtland Commission report to the recent development of models and sustainability indicators. The most significant contributions in sustainability research have originated primarily from the United States, China, United Kingdom and Canada. Also, existing studies in sustainability research focus mainly on subject categories of environmental sciences, green & sustainable science technology, civil engineering, and construction & building technology. Emerging trends in sustainability research were sustainable urban development, sustainability indicators, water management, environmental assessment, public policy, etc.; while the study generated 21 co-citation clusters. This study provides its readers with an extensive understanding of the salient research themes, trends and pattern of sustainability research worldwide.
TL;DR: In this paper, the pyrolysis dependent properties of rapeseed stem biochar were investigated under various temperatures (200-700°C, in 50°C intervals), heating rates (1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 20°C/min), and residence times (10,20, 40, 60, 80, 100min).
Abstract: Uncontrolled open burning of unwanted rapeseed stems is often performed in China, resulting in resource wastage and substantial air pollution. The pyrolysis of rapeseed stem renders biochar, which can improve soil structure and reduce heavy metal(loid) leaching. However, due to a lack of experimental evidence, the relationship between the physicochemical properties of rapeseed stem biochar and its pyrolysis conditions remains unclear. Here we show pyrolysis dependent properties of rapeseed stem biochar pyrolyzed under various temperatures (200–700 °C, in 50 °C intervals), heating rates (1, 5, 10, 15, 20 °C/min), and residence times (10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 min). A statistical analysis of other biochar data reported in the literature found that pyrolysis temperature is significantly correlated to biochar yield, pH, fixed C and surface area. Pyrolysis temperature was also found to be the most influential parameter on rapeseed stem biochar; demonstrating a positive relationship with pH, microporous structure, surface area, fixed C, and ash content, whilst having a negative relationship with yield, average pore size, functional groups, volatile matter, O and H mass fractions, and the number and density of functional groups. In comparison to other reported biochars, the rapeseed stem biochar generally had higher pH values and lower yield, ash content, and O/C ratios. N2 adsorption/desorption analysis showed that a microporous biochar was achieved at pyrolysis temperatures of 450 °C or higher. The surface area and morphology were significantly influenced by residence time, which is often overlooked in the literature. The results of this study have elucidated the relationship between rapeseed stem biochar and its pyrolysis conditions. A step towards sustainability can now be achieved by optimized pyrolysis of rapeseed stems, to produce biochar with enhanced properties for environmental management.
TL;DR: The results point out the lack of consensus on terminologies and definitions, thus, based on semantic analysis, a definition is proposed and a definition of “circular economy” is proposed.
Abstract: Among scholars, politicians and practitioners, the term “circular economy” (CE) has become increasingly familiar, but the concept comes from different epistemological fields and there is still a lack of consensus and convergence in the literature. This paper investigates the trends and gaps on the pathways convergence of the circular economy literature. The research method is a combination of semantic analysis, bibliometrics, networks and content analysis in a systematic literature review. The sample is composed of 327 articles extracted from the Web of Science and Scopus database. The results point out the lack of consensus on terminologies and definitions, thus, based on semantic analysis, a definition is proposed. In addition, the literature shows two main clusters, with different backgrounds, of different leading research groups in distinctive geographic regions. One cluster focuses on ecoparks and industrial symbiosis, mostly in the context of China. The second cluster is concerned with supply chains, material closed loops and business models.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors assess the global carbon footprint of the overall ICT industry, including the contribution from the main consumer devices, the data centers and communication networks, and compare it with the to the total worldwide GHGE.
Abstract: In light of the concerted efforts to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) per the so-called Paris Agreement, the Information and Communication Industry (ICT) has received little attention as a significant contributor to GHGE and if anything is often highly praised for enabling efficiencies that help reduce other industry sectors footprint. In this paper, we aim at assessing the global carbon footprint of the overall ICT industry, including the contribution from the main consumer devices, the data centers and communication networks, and compare it with the to the total worldwide GHGE. We conduct a detailed and rigorous analysis of the ICT global carbon footprint, including both the production and the operational energy of ICT devices, as well as the operational energy for the supporting ICT infrastructure. We then compare this contribution to the global 2016-level GHGE. We have found that, if unchecked, ICT GHGE relative contribution could grow from roughly 1–1.6% in 2007 to exceed 14% of the 2016-level worldwide GHGE by 2040, accounting for more than half of the current relative contribution of the whole transportation sector. Our study also highlights the contribution of smart phones and shows that by 2020, the footprint of smart phones alone would surpass the individual contribution of desktops, laptops and displays. Finally, we offer some actionable recommendations on how to mitigate and curb the ICT explosive GHGE footprint, through a combination of renewable energy use, tax policies, managerial actions and alternative business models.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors summarized recent development and findings on application of activated carbon synthesized from biowaste in wastewater treatment and tabulated the adsorption efficiencies of newly developed activated carbons in treatment of different pollutants (including dyes, metal ions, pharmaceutical and personal care products, organic pollutants).
Abstract: Rapid population growth and the resultant pollution of freshwater sources are expected to create water stress conditions on the world in the near future. Adsorption technique is a popular method in reducing the amount of pollutants that enter water bodies, and researchers are focusing on development of activated carbons from cheap sources to replace costly commercial activated carbons. Remediation of wastewater using activated carbon from biowaste (defined in this paper as waste material derived from living organisms or of organic origin, and capable of decomposing under anaerobic or aerobic conditions) is gaining attention among researchers, as such technology reduces the cost of activated carbon production while reducing the cost on biowaste disposal. This paper summarizes recent development and findings on application of activated carbon synthesized from biowaste in wastewater treatment. Adsorption efficiencies of newly developed activated carbons in treatment of different pollutants (including dyes, metal ions, pharmaceutical and personal care products, organic pollutants) in simulated and real wastewater are also tabulated for easy reference. The potential of activated carbons modified with magnetic materials is also discussed, followed by recent advances and challenges in applications of activated carbons derived from biowaste in wastewater treatment.
TL;DR: The goal of this paper is to comprehensively review the different estimation models to predict SOH, and RUL in a comparative manner and identify the classifications, characteristics and evaluation processes with advantages and disadvantages for EV applications.
Abstract: Electric vehicles (EVs) have become increasingly popular due to zero carbon emission, reduction of fossil fuel reserve, comfortable and light transport However, EVs employing lithium-ion battery are facing difficulties in terms of predicting accurate health and remaining useful life states due to various internal and external factors Currently, very few papers are addressed to summarize the state of health (SOH) and remaining useful life (RUL) estimation approaches In this regard, the goal of this paper is to comprehensively review the different estimation models to predict SOH, and RUL in a comparative manner The results identify the classifications, characteristics and evaluation processes with advantages and disadvantages for EV applications The review also investigates the issues and challenges with possible solutions Furthermore, the review provides some selective proposals for the further technological development of SOH, and RUL estimation for lithium-ion batteries All the highlights insight this review will hopefully lead to the increasing efforts towards the development of the advanced SOH and RUL methods for future EV uses
TL;DR: Zhang et al. as mentioned in this paper divided environmental regulation into three types: command-and-control regulation, market-based regulation and voluntary regulation, and employed the STIRPAT model to test the effects of these three environmental regulations on eco-efficiency in the eastern, central and western regions of China.
Abstract: The improvement of regional eco-efficiency is a significant approach to achieve coordinated development of China's economic development and environmental protection, and an effective environmental regulation system is a crucial driver to the improvement of regional eco-efficiency. Based on the panel data of China's 30 provinces during 2000–2013, this paper divides environmental regulation into three types: command-and-control regulation, market-based regulation and voluntary regulation. STIRPAT model is employed to test the effects of these three environmental regulations on eco-efficiency in the eastern, central and western regions of China. Research results turn out that: (1) in the eastern region, market-based and voluntary environmental regulation have a positive impact on eco-efficiency improvement while command-and-control environmental regulation has no significant impact, and (2) in the central region, command-and-control and market-based environmental regulation can promote eco-efficiency more significantly compared with voluntary environmental regulation, and (3) in the western region, command-and-control environmental regulation plays a positive role in eco-efficiency improvement whilst market-based and voluntary environmental regulation have no significant impacts. These findings indicate that the effects of different types of environmental regulation on eco-efficiency apparently differ in regions. Finally, to optimize and adjust the environmental regulation tools, policy recommendations targeting different regions are concluded.
TL;DR: In this article, a facile sol-gel method was used to enhance degradation of single and binary methylene blue and methyl orange by ultraviolet photocatalysis, and the results showed that the prepared materials were easier to separate from the treated liquid using a simple sedimentation or filtration method than P25 TiO2.
Abstract: This work prepared palladium-doped titanium dioxide (Pd-doped TiO2) catalysts by a facile sol-gel method to enhance degradation of single and binary methylene blue and methyl orange by ultraviolet photocatalysis. The physicochemical properties of Pd-doped TiO2 particles were analyzed by a X-ray powder diffractometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, UV–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscope, sorptiometer, and transient photocurrent spectroscope. More efficient degradation was achieved in acidic and basic/neutral media for methyl orange and methylene blue, respectively. Also, methylene blue was always degraded faster than methyl orange. The highest degradation efficiency of both dyes in single and binary systems was obtained using 0.5 wt.% and 0.75 wt.% Pd TiO2, respectively. The degradation pathways of single methylene blue and methyl orange with Pd-doped TiO2 and commercial P25 TiO2 were proposed and compared by identifying reaction intermediates produced during photocatalysis. Recycling tests have confirmed excellent stability of Pd TiO2 materials. Also, the prepared materials were easier to separate from the treated liquid using a simple sedimentation or filtration method than P25 TiO2. In particular, the use of sol-gel method could readily synthesize a large number of catalysts, which was beneficial for scale up consideration. All these factors highlighted their potential and prospect in practical applications for water reuse.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the causal linkage among CO2 emissions per capita, energy intensity, real GDP, industrialization, urbanization, and renewable energy consumption in China over the period from 1970 to 2015.
Abstract: This study investigates the causal linkage among CO2 emissions per capita, energy intensity, real GDP per capita, industrialization (share of industrial value added in GDP), urbanization (share of urban population in total population), and share of renewable energy consumption in China over the period from 1970 to 2015. We employ autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) technology to test the co-integration and short- and long-run estimates, and apply the vector error correction model (VECM) to analyze the directional causality among the time series data. The estimates of long-run parameters indicate that 1% augments of energy intensity, real GDP, industrialization, and urbanization increase CO2 emissions by 1.1%, 0.6%, 0.3%, and 1.0%, respectively. Long-run feedback Granger causalities exist among emissions, real GDP, and industrialization. Thus, our main policy suggestions are as follows: (i) to encourage green and sustainable urbanization, as it increases economic growth but not at the expense of environmental degradation; (ii) to strategically adjust and optimize the industrial structure; (iii) to improve the efficiency of energy use and technological innovation; and (iv) to increase the proportion of renewable energy in total energy consumption.
TL;DR: In this article, a hybrid support vector machine (SVM) model was proposed to forecast both solar and wind energy resources for most of the locations in the United States, where the authors highlighted main problems, opportunities and future work in this research area.
Abstract: Conventional fossil fuels are depleting daily due to the growing human population. Previous research has proved that renewable energy sources, especially solar and wind, can be suitable alternatives to the conventional energy sources that could satisfy global demand and protect the atmospheric environment. There are many factors that influence the performance of solar and wind energy predicting tools. The accurate forecasting of solar and wind energy resources is highly needed for the optimum utilization of these resources. Different methods have been applied to forecast solar and wind energy resources. Prediction performance of the support vector machine modeling approach found to be better than other modeling approaches. The support vector machine is fast, simple-to-use, reliable and provides accurate results. Findings based on critical analysis suggests that the hybrid support vector machine models can reach much higher accuracies than other models for both solar and wind energy predictions for most of the locations. This investigation highlighted main problems, opportunities and future work in this research area. Novel hybrid models are proposed for further investigation for more accurate predictions of solar and wind energy resources.
TL;DR: In this article, the impact of green human resource management and green supply chain management practices on the Triple Bottom Line of sustainable performance in the manufacturing sector in Palestine has been investigated using the partial least squares structural equation modeling.
Abstract: This study aims at investigating the linkage between green human resource management bundle practices and green supply chain management (i.e. external and internal practices), as well as their impact on the Triple Bottom Lines of sustainability performance (i.e. environmental, social, and economic performance). A quantitative method is applied in which data is collected from a customized survey with 121 firms functioning in the most pollutant manufacturing sectors (i.e. food, chemical, and pharmaceutical sectors) in Palestine. The data analysis was conducted using the partial least squares structural equation modeling. The results from data analysis show that both of green human resource management and green supply chain management practices have a positive effect to sustainable performance in a joint manner. In fact, the results revealed that green human resource management practices have a direct effect on the sustainable performance, with the green supply chain management practices mediating this effect. In particular, internal green supply chain management practices positively mediate between green human resources management practices and sustainable performance, whereas external green supply chain management practices mediate only the relationship between GHRM bundle practices and environmental dimension of sustainable performance, thus suggesting absence of awareness among manufacturers regarding the effectiveness of this type of GSCM practices for an improved economic and social dimensions of sustainable performance, and calling for more attention from green training programs. This study is considered as the first empirical study exploring the impact of green human resource management and green supply chain management on components of sustainable performance in Palestine, adding great value to the current green human resource management-green supply chain management literature via responding to recent calls to test the combined impact of both practices on TBL of sustainability performance. At the end, the theoretical and managerial implications, limitations of the current study and future research directions have been discussed.
National Research Council1, Newcastle University2, University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne3, Technical University of Madrid4, University of Trento5, Nova Southeastern University6, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic7, University of Tartu8, Umeå University9, Aalborg University10, University of the Basque Country11, VU University Amsterdam12, Luleå University of Technology13, Energy Institute14, Frederick University15, University of Piraeus16, Erasmus University Rotterdam17
TL;DR: In this paper, the state of local planning for climate change by collecting and analysing information about local climate mitigation and adaptation plans across 885 urban areas of the EU-28 was reported.
Abstract: The Paris Agreement aims to limit global mean temperature rise this century to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels. This target has wide-ranging implications for Europe and its cities, which are the source of substantial greenhouse gas emissions. This paper reports the state of local planning for climate change by collecting and analysing information about local climate mitigation and adaptation plans across 885 urban areas of the EU-28. A typology and framework for analysis was developed that classifies local climate plans in terms of their alignment with spatial (local, national and international) and other climate related policies. Out of eight types of local climate plans identified in total we document three types of stand-alone local climate plans classified as type A1 (autonomously produced plans), A2 (plans produced to comply with national regulations) or A3 (plans developed for international climate networks). There is wide variation among countries in the prevalence of local climate plans, with generally more plans developed by central and northern European cities. Approximately 66% of EU cities have a type A1, A2, or A3 mitigation plan, 26% an adaptation plan, and 17% a joint adaptation and mitigation plan, while about 33% lack any form of stand-alone local climate plan (i.e. what we classify as A1, A2, A3 plans). Mitigation plans are more numerous than adaptation plans, but planning for mitigation does not always precede planning for adaptation. Our analysis reveals that city size, national legislation, and international networks can influence the development of local climate plans. We found that size does matter as about 80% of the cities with above 500,000 inhabitants have a comprehensive and stand-alone mitigation and/or an adaptation plan (A1). Cities in four countries with national climate legislation (A2), i.e. Denmark, France, Slovakia and the United Kingdom, are nearly twice as likely to produce local mitigation plans, and five times more likely to produce local adaptation plans, compared to cities in countries without such legislation. A1 and A2 mitigation plans are particularly numerous in Denmark, Poland, Germany, and Finland; while A1 and A2 adaptation plans are prevalent in Denmark, Finland, UK and France. The integration of adaptation and mitigation is country-specific and can mainly be observed in two countries where local climate plans are compulsory, i.e. France and the UK. Finally, local climate plans produced for international climate networks (A3) are mostly found in the many countries where autonomous (type A1) plans are less common. This is the most comprehensive analysis of local climate planning to date. The findings are of international importance as they will inform and support decision-making towards climate planning and policy development at national, EU and global level being based on the most comprehensive and up-to-date knowledge of local climate planning available to date.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the relationship among the drivers, eco-innovation behavior, and firm performance and found that competitive pressure provided firms with the greatest incentive to adopt ecoinnovation, followed by a market-based instrument, technological capabilities, customer green demand, and environmental organization capabilities.
Abstract: This study sheds light on the driving forces of eco-innovation and the effects on firm performance. We focus on eco-innovation, which provides customer and business value, and contributes to sustainable development while decreasing environmental costs and impacts. The study uses data collected from 442 Chinese firms to investigate the relationship among the drivers, eco-innovation behavior, and firm performance. The results reveal that certain factors (i.e., technological capabilities, environmental organizational capabilities, a market-based instrument, competitive pressures, and customer green demand) contribute to the development of eco-innovation. Competitive pressure provides firms with the greatest incentive to adopt eco-innovation, followed by a market-based instrument, technological capabilities, customer green demand, and environmental organization capabilities. The market-based instrument is effective in inducing eco-innovation, while a command and control instrument does not. With regard to the adoption of eco-innovation, we show that eco-innovation behavior can significantly enhance a firm's environmental performance, and, through environmental performance, has an indirect positive impact on its economic performance. These findings support the “Porter hypothesis,” and have several implications for both policy makers and business managers.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors construct the extended Crepon-Duguet-Mairesse (CDM) model and employ the panel data of Chinese manufacturing industries during 2003-2014 to examine the effects of environmental regulation on industrial innovation and green development.
Abstract: As for the academics and policymakers, more attention has been given to the issue on how to drive green development of the manufacturing through regulations and innovations. We construct the extended Crepon-Duguet-Mairesse (CDM) model and employ the panel data of Chinese manufacturing industries during 2003–2014 to examine the effects of environmental regulation on industrial innovation and green development. The findings reveal that (1) in the long term, environmental regulation has crowded out R&D investment. (2) Environmental regulation has inhibited patent outputs so that the “weak” version of Porter hypothesis is not underpinned. (3) In the short term, environmental regulation has promoted the improvements of labor productivity, energy efficiency and environmental efficiency in the manufacturing industry excluding green total factor productivity (GTFP), whereas in the long term, environmental regulation only has increased energy efficiency while it has obstructed labor productivity, which provides no support for the “strong” version of Porter hypothesis. (4) Different innovation outputs have distinct influences on labor productivity, energy efficiency, environmental efficiency and GTFP. Finally, this paper provides pertinent policy implications.
TL;DR: In this article, an econometric model has been estimated using a linear regression by ordinary least squares using as independent variables the expenditure on R&D and the energy consumption in the European Union (15), United States and China between 1990 and 2013.
Abstract: In recent decades the sustainability of economic growth has become a critical objective for most world economies. To achieve this objective it is necessary to stabilize or reduce Green House Gas emissions, which involves making a transition to a low or zero carbon production system. Within this framework, innovation has emerged as a key factor in achieving an efficient energy market and, at the same time, ensuring the sustainable development of any economy. The main objective of this work is to empirically verify that efforts in innovation have a positive effect on reducing CO2 emissions. To this end, an econometric model has been estimated. The scope of this work includes the European Union (15), the United States and China between 1990 and 2013. The estimate is performed using a linear regression by ordinary least squares using as independent variables the expenditure on R&D and the energy consumption. The results of the model support the hypothesis that spending on research and development contributes positively to the reduction of CO2 emissions for developed countries. Regarding the regions, the corrective effect in the European Union (15) compared to the figures in the United States is highlighted. With regard to energy consumption, the results show that this variable is linked to the growth of CO2 emissions so that increases in energy consumption translate into an increase in emissions. Again, European Union (15) is where the effect of this variable is the lowest, followed by the United States where energy consumption is more polluting. The results obtained for China are quite different, due to its economic and environmental performance. The results obtained provide additional arguments for public policy makers to promote research and development expenditure, both public and private. Since the net effects of innovation translate into a reduction of emissions, this appears as a suitable tool in the fight against climate change. In addition, our study highlights the need to reinforce measures to achieve a decoupling between energy consumption and emissions. In conclusion, this work shows that R&D spending can be recommended, not only as an engine of economic growth of any economy, but as a driver of sustainable development, where growth can be reconciled with lower CO2 emissions.
TL;DR: In this paper, a newly developed bootstrap ARDL bounds test with structural breaks was employed to investigate the nexus among clean energy consumption, economic growth and CO2 emissions, and the results of causality test showed that clean-energy consumption causes real GDP per capita for Canada, Germany, Italy, US and UK.
Abstract: To investigate the nexus among clean energy consumption, economic growth and CO2 emissions, a newly developed bootstrap ARDL bounds test with structural breaks is employed to survey the cointegration and causality for G7 countries. We find no cointegration among real GDP per capita, clean energy consumption and CO2 emissions in Canada, France, Italy, the US and the UK. However, cointegration exists in Germany when real GDP per capita and CO2 emissions serve as dependent variables and in Japan when CO2 emissions is the dependent variable. Regarding the results of causality test that we find clean energy consumption causes real GDP per capita for Canada, Germany and the US and CO2 emissions causes clean energy consumption for Germany. Besides, we find feedbacks between clean energy consumption and CO2 emissions for Germany, and unidirectional causality running from clean energy consumption to CO2 emissions for the US. Our study has important policy implications for G7 countries conducting efficient energy-use strategy to reduce CO2 emissions.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the effects of renewable energy consumption, agriculture production and forest on carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission in Pakistan using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag model to examine their long run and short-run impacts on CO 2 emission.
Abstract: The paper investigates the effects of renewable energy consumption, agriculture production and forest on carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission in Pakistan. To do so, we use annual data over the period of 1990–2014 and employ the Autoregressive Distributed Lag model to examine their long-run and short-run impacts on CO 2 emission. We find that in the long run, renewable energy consumption and forest have negative and significant effects on CO 2 emission, which indicates that CO 2 emission can be reduced by increasing renewable energy usage and forest area. In contrast, agricultural production positively and significantly affects CO 2 emission in the long run which implies that agriculture production is also a major carbon source in Pakistan. Moreover, in the short-run, renewable energy consumption and forest have shown similar results while the effects from agriculture become statistically insignificant. In addition, we also show that forest planting is more effective to reduce CO 2 emission relative to renewable energy and agriculture. Our results are robust to alternative model specifications.
TL;DR: In this paper, a potential design for a fossil-free steelmaking process based on direct reduction of iron ore with hydrogen was proposed and assessed, and it was shown that hydrogen direct reduction steelmaking needs 3.48 MWh of electricity per tonne of liquid steel, mainly for the electrolyser hydrogen production.
Abstract: Climate policy objectives require zero emissions across all sectors including steelmaking. The fundamental process changes needed for reaching this target are yet relatively unexplored. In this paper, we propose and assess a potential design for a fossil-free steelmaking process based on direct reduction of iron ore with hydrogen. We show that hydrogen direct reduction steelmaking needs 3.48 MWh of electricity per tonne of liquid steel, mainly for the electrolyser hydrogen production. If renewable electricity is used the process will have essentially zero emissions. Total production costs are in the range of 361–640 EUR per tonne of steel, and are highly sensitive to the electricity price and the amount of scrap used. Hydrogen direct reduction becomes cost competitive with an integrated steel plant at a carbon price of 34–68 EUR per tonne CO2 and electricity costs of 40 EUR/MWh. A key feature of the process is flexibility in production and electricity demand, which allows for grid balancing through storage of hydrogen and hot-briquetted iron, or variations in the share of scrap used.
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of algal biomass conversion methods into various biofuel products, including biodiesel, syngas, biogas, bioethanol, and emerging more sustainable biofuel/bioenergy production technologies are highlighted.
Abstract: Climate changes induced by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (mainly carbon dioxide) is one of the major threats of the modern era Primary causes are the high reliance on fossil fuels for power generation, transportation, manufacturing and the intensive land usage (deforestation) The current share of renewable biofuel production in the overall fuel demand has been found insufficient to replace fossil fuels Microalgae can deliver a sustainable and complementary biofuel platform with some important advantages This review aims to offer a state-of-the art review of algal biomass conversion methods into various biofuel products, including biodiesel, syngas, biogas, bioethanol Emerging more sustainable biofuel/bioenergy production technologies are highlighted Attention is also paid to sustainable cultivation methods, including wastewater treatment and bioremediation to capture CO2 and fix nitrogen and phosphorus, produced from industrial, agricultural and municipal sources Finally, a light is shed on the important role of algae metabolic engineering
TL;DR: In this article, a self-administered questionnaire was employed to gather data from 295 consumers purposively and subsequently analyzed using covariance-based structural equation modeling (SEM) for predicting the consumer's green hotel visit intention.
Abstract: The study, being explorative, attempts to extend the social-psychological behavioral model i.e. Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) by including two additional constructs viz. moral reflectiveness and conscientiousness to predict young Indian consumers' intention to visit green hotels. A self-administered questionnaire was employed to gather data from 295 consumers purposively and subsequently analyzed using covariance-based structural equation modeling (SEM). The attitude ranks high in merit for predicting the consumer's green hotel visit intention. Further, the relative importance of moral reflectiveness vis-a-vis conscientiousness has been observed more in predicting green hotel visit intention, however, vice versa is true while constituting attitude of consumers specific to green hotel choice intention. The findings also provide an extended support to the applicability and robustness of the TPB model in predicting young consumers' green hotel visit intention in the Indian context, as it has enhanced the predictive ability of the proposed conceptual model (from 37.5% to 42.1%). This study contributes to the existing theory and practice by providing useful insights about the attribution of conscientiousness and moral reflectiveness on young consumers' green hotel visit intention.