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Showing papers in "Journal of Construction Engineering and Management-asce in 2002"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an empirical research aimed at examining the relationship between the safety climate and safe work behavior in construction site environments has been conducted and the results corroborate the importance of the role of management commitment, communication, workers involvement, attitudes, competence, as well as supportive and supervisory environments, in achieving a positive safety climate.
Abstract: This paper discusses empirical research aimed at examining the relationship between the safety climate and safe work behavior in construction site environments. A literature review has identified a number of independent constructs with the potential to affect the safety climate. A research model was developed based on the hypothesis that safe work behaviors are consequences of the existing safety climate, which, in turn, is determined by the identified independent constructs. A questionnaire survey was used in order to facilitate the collection of information from construction sites. The model was tested using structural equation modeling. The paper presents the results of testing the research model. The results corroborate the importance of the role of management commitment, communication, workers’ involvement, attitudes, competence, as well as supportive and supervisory environments, in achieving a positive safety climate.

644 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the influence of different project types and procurement methods on rework costs in construction projects was investigated and the direct and indirect consequences of rework were analyzed and discussed, and it was found that rework contributed to 52% of a project's cost growth and 26% of the variance in cost growth was attributable to changes due to direct rework.
Abstract: While it is widely recognized that additional costs due to rework can have an adverse effect on project performance, limited empirical research has been done to investigate the influencing factors. The research presented in this paper aims to determine the influence of different project types and procurement methods on rework costs in construction projects. Using a questionnaire survey, rework costs were obtained from 161 Australian construction projects. The direct and indirect consequences of rework are analyzed and discussed. It is shown that, contrary to expectation, rework costs do not differ relative to project type or procurement method. In addition, it was found rework contributed to 52% of a project's cost growth and that 26% of the variance in cost growth was attributable to changes due to direct rework. To reduce rework costs and therefore improve project performance, it is posited that construction organizations begin to consider and measure them, so that an understanding of their magnitude can be captured, root causes identified, and effective prevention strategies implemented.

442 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, a 4D model for a commercial construction project was developed to detect the incompleteness of the original schedule, find inconsistencies in the level of detail among the schedule activities, and discover an impossible schedule sequence.
Abstract: This paper concludes that 4D models are a useful alternative to project scheduling tools like CPM networks and bar charts. They enable more people to understand a schedule quickly and identify potential problems. By developing a 4D model for a commercial construction project, we were able to detect the incompleteness of the original schedule, find inconsistencies in the level of detail among the schedule activities, and discover an impossible schedule sequence. We were also able to anticipate potential time-space conflicts and accessibility problems. The results of the case study show that 4D models are effective in evaluating the executability of a construction schedule. The case study also highlighted the need for improvements to 4D tools. 4D tools should include bar charts, component lists, and annotation tools in their graphical user interface. Automating schedule data preparation and 4D model generation in the design stages of a project can expedite 4D model development and use. Users need to be able to generate 4D models at multiple levels of detail and generate and evaluate alternative scenarios rapidly.

420 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the main results of two research studies carried out in Brazil that investigated the occurrence of material waste at 74 building sites located in different regions of that country are discussed.
Abstract: Material waste has been recognized as a major problem in the construction industry that has important implications both for the efficiency industry and for the environmental impact of construction projects. Moreover, waste measurement plays an important role in the management of production systems since it is an effective way to assess their performance, allowing areas of potential improvement to be pointed out. This paper describes the main results of two research studies carried out in Brazil that investigated the occurrence of material waste at 74 building sites located in different regions of that country. Some typical figures for the waste of some key construction materials are provided, and the main causes of waste in the sector are discussed. The results indicate that the waste of materials in the Brazilian building industry is fairly high and that a large variability in waste incidence is found across different projects. Most of this waste can be avoided by implementing inexpensive preventive measures, mostly related to managerial improvements.

372 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A survey of design engineers, general contractors, and subcontractors indicated that there is not uniform agreement on the site safety responsibilities that should be assumed by each of these groups as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: A survey of design engineers, general contractors, and subcontractors indicates there is not uniform agreement on the site safety responsibilities that should be assumed by each of these groups. Possible explanations for this lack of shared expectations regarding site safety roles are discussed. It is suggested that specific site safety responsibilities be assigned on future projects based on each group's ability to control the factors needed to prevent eight root causes of construction accidents.

297 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a generic project risk management process for construction projects is presented from the point of view of the owner and the consultant who may be assisting the owner, which can be adapted to the needs of other project participants.
Abstract: This article presents a generic project risk management process that has been particularized for construction projects from the point of view of the owner and the consultant who may be assisting the owner. The process could also be adapted to the needs of other project participants, and many points referred to in the article can be directly applied to them. Any project risk management process must be tailored to the particular circumstances of the project and of the organization undertaking it. First, the article explains a complete or generic project risk management process to be undertaken by organizations with the highest level of risk management maturity in the largest and most complex construction projects. After that, factors influencing possible simplifications of the generic process are identified, and simplifications are proposed for some cases. Then the application to a real project is summarized. As a final validation, a Delphi analysis has been developed to assess the project risk management methodology explained here, and the results are presented.

250 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comprehensive new approach, which addresses the complete needs of the construction simulationist, is detailed, based on several state-of-the-art concepts in addition to newly developed ones and described how all of these concepts can be combined together using object oriented principles.
Abstract: This paper discusses a new approach that will facilitate the use of simulation in the construction industry. Previous attempts in this regard have been hampered by the gap between the user and the simulation software, the power and flexibility of available tools, and the readiness of industry. A comprehensive new approach (referred to as the Unified Modeling Methodology), which addresses the complete needs of the construction simulationist, is detailed. It is based on several state-of-the-art concepts in addition to newly developed ones. This methodology also describes how all of these concepts can be combined together using object oriented principles. The methodology was used in the development of a complete simulation tool development and utilization environment called Simphony. Several case studies were performed to illustrate the advantages of the new approach.

196 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the relationship between variability and project performance to test the notion that reducing output variability will result in improved labor performance and concluded that variability in output is inevitable and that there is little correlation between output variability and Project performance, but variability in labor productivity is closely correlated to project performance.
Abstract: Variability is common on construction projects and must be managed effectively. New management thinking, like that of lean production, has suggested that better labor and cost performance can be achieved by reducing output variability. Efforts to utilize lean thinking in construction, so far, have generated limited evidence to support this claim. This paper investigates the relationship between variability and project performance to test the notion that reducing output variability will result in improved labor performance. Using productivity data from concrete formwork activities on multiple projects, various measures of output variability are tested against construction performance. It is shown that variability in output is inevitable and that there is little correlation between output variability and project performance, but that variability in labor productivity is closely correlated to project performance. It is concluded that lean improvement initiatives should be redirected to adaptable workforce management capabilities to reduce variability in labor productivity instead of output in order to improve project performance.

194 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a generic work space ontology and a project-specific IFC (industry foundation class) based 4D production model are used to automatically generate project specific work spaces.
Abstract: To provide a safe and productive environment, project managers need to plan for the work spaces required by construction activities. Work space planning involves representing various types of spaces required by construction activities in three dimensions and across time. Since a construction schedule consists of hundreds of activities requiring multiple types of spaces, it is practically impossible to expect project managers to specify manually the spatiotemporal data necessary to represent work spaces in four dimensions. This paper presents mechanisms that automatically generate project-specific work spaces from a generic work space ontology and a project-specific IFC (industry foundation class) based 4D production model. The generation of these work spaces leads to a space-loaded production model. Within this model, work spaces are represented as being related to the relevant construction activities and methods and as having attributes that describe when, where, and how long they exist, and how much volume they occupy. These space-loaded production models enable richer 4D CAD simulations, time-space conflict analysis, and proactive work space planning prior to construction.

194 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The relationship between the criteria used by customers in choosing suppliers and the factors driving satisfaction are examined, and results of two studies of factors involved in contractor selection and satisfaction are reviewed as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Construction has typically been viewed as a production process, with the product being the completed facility. In addition to providing this product, contractors also provide service. Construction is examined in terms of the service product, service delivery, and service environment. The concept of service encounters is examined in the context of perceived quality and customer satisfaction. Determinants of service quality are analyzed in terms of how they influence perceived quality. The relationship between the criteria used by customers in choosing suppliers and the factors driving satisfaction are examined, and results of two studies of factors involved in contractor selection and satisfaction are reviewed. These factors are the contractor-customer relationship, the contractor's project management skills, the contractor's safety performance, whether the contractor has a prepared/skilled workforce, and the cost of the work.

162 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, computer-aided design is integrated with scheduling software for the dynamic identification of space conflicts on the jobsite, and follow-up supplemental decision criteria are then provided for conflict analysis and resolution.
Abstract: Numerous workers, equipment, material, temporary facilities, as well as permanent structures share the limited space during construction. Since space constraints may affect productivity and the critical path, it is essential to organize the available space efficiently and minimize space conflicts. This study considers space availability due to time and scheduling, productivity loss due to space constraints and path interference, as well as the possibility of alternative space to resolve these conflicts and optimize space usage. Herein, computer-aided design is integrated with scheduling software for the dynamic identification of space conflicts on the jobsite. Follow-up supplemental decision criteria are then provided for conflict analysis and resolution. A prototype decision support system that combines the criteria was developed to solve this significant and complex problem more efficiently and precisely. A case study demonstrates the use and development of this system, which is very helpful to engineer...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an improvement methodology for the design process in construction projects is proposed, based on concepts and principles of lean production, the methodology considers design process as a set of three different models (conversion, flow, and value).
Abstract: An improvement methodology is proposed for the design process in construction projects. Based on concepts and principles of lean production, the methodology considers the design process as a set of three different models—conversion, flow, and value. Four stages are necessary to produce improvements and changes— ~1! diagnosis/evaluation; ~2! changes implementation; ~3! control; and ~4! standardization. The methodology suggests the application of seven tools in accordance to specific needs ~detected and desired! on five potential areas of improvement—client, administration, project, resources, and information. Results of an application included an increase of 31% in the share of value adding activities, 44% reduction of unit errors in the products, up to 58% decrease of waiting times in the process, and an expansion of the utilization in the cycle times. In this manner, not only did the efficiency and effectiveness of internal engineering products improve, but also the whole project, by improving one of the main suppliers of construction.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the mechanics of allocating a multiskilled workforce and developed a linear programming model to help optimize the multi-skilled workforce assignment and allocation process in a construction project, or between the projects of one company.
Abstract: Multiskilling is a workforce strategy that has been shown to reduce indirect labor costs, improve productivity, and reduce turnover. A multiskilled workforce is one in which the workers possess a range of skills that allow them to participate in more than one work process. In practice, they may work across craft boundaries. The success of multiskilling greatly relies on the foreman's ability to assign workers to appropriate tasks and to compose crews effectively. The foreman assigns tasks to workers according to their knowledge, capabilities, and experience on former projects. This research investigated the mechanics of allocating a multiskilled workforce and developed a linear programming model to help optimize the multiskilled workforce assignment and allocation process in a construction project, or between the projects of one company. It is concluded that the model will be most useful in conditions where full employment does not exist; however, it is also useful for short term allocation decisions. By running the model for various simulated scenarios, additional observations were made. For example, it is concluded that, for a capital project, the benefits of multiskilling are marginal beyond approximately a 20% concentration of multiskilled workers in a project workforce. Benefits to workers themselves become marginal after acquiring competency in two or three crafts. These observations have been confirmed by field experience. Extension of this model to allocation of multifunctional resources, such as construction equipment, should also be possible.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The basic principles that can be used in the development of a computerized LOB scheduling system that overcomes the problems associated with existing systems and creates solutions to problems encountered in the implementation of repetitive-unit construction are set down.
Abstract: The line-of-balance (LOB) method of scheduling is well suited to projects that are composed of activities of a linear and repetitive nature. The objective of this study is to set down the basic principles that can be used in the development of a computerized LOB scheduling system that overcomes the problems associated with existing systems and creates solutions to problems encountered in the implementation of repetitive-unit construction. The challenges associated with LOB scheduling include developing an algorithm that handles project acceleration efficiently and accurately, recognizing time and space dependencies, calculating LOB quantities, dealing with resource and milestone constraints, incorporating the occasional nonlinear and discrete activities, defining a radically new concept of criticalness, including the effect of the learning curve, developing an optimal strategy to reduce project duration by increasing the rate of production of selected activities, performing cost optimization, and improving the visual presentation of LOB diagrams.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the general site layout problem from both a theoretical and a practical point of view and propose genetic algorithms as a possible solution technique and include a theoretical example of positioning temporary facilities.
Abstract: Construction site layout is concerned with the existence, positioning, and timing of the temporary facilities that are used to carry out a construction project. Typically these problems are very complicated to formulate and difficult to solve. They are, however, very important to virtually any construction project, since the site layout can significantly affect the cost of the project. This paper describes the general site layout problem from both a theoretical and a practical point of view. It proposes genetic algorithms as a possible solution technique and includes a theoretical example of positioning temporary facilities. This is extended to a practical problem in which the cost of movement is modeled realistically using an augmented genetic algorithm. Some preliminary conclusions are drawn for the application of genetic algorithms to construction site layout problems.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors develop an alternative concession model for build operate transfer (BOT) infrastructure projects, which can be applied to determine the concession period of BOT infrastructure projects.
Abstract: This paper develops an alternative concession model for build operate transfer (BOT) infrastructure projects. The concession period is a measure for deciding when the project ownership will be transferred from the investor back to the government concerned; it also demarcates the benefits, authorities, and responsibilities between the government and private investors. Previous studies have developed various techniques and methods, mainly suggesting proper organization structure, contracting procedures, methods or project financing, and risk allocation strategies when BOT-contract projects are implemented. These works have provided effective methodologies for the development of BOT contracts. Nevertheless, it appears that little has been undertaken in studying the way to determine the concession period in a BOT contract. This paper critically reviews the principles of establishing the concession period in a BOT contract. Such a review leads to developing a quantitative model for determining a proper concession period that can protect the interest of both the government concerned and private investors. An example is given that indicates how the alternative model can be applied to determine the concession period of BOT infrastructure projects.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examine design professionals' efforts to pursue constructability and provide recommendations for performing constructability reviews in an efficient and effective manner, which is a subjective scale that depends basically on a number of interdependent project-related factors.
Abstract: The timely execution of a construction project is very important to the owner, who makes plans and commitments on the basis of the project’s anticipated completion date. Failure of design professionals to consider how a builder will implement the design can result in scheduling problems, delays, and disputes during the construction process. Constructability of design is a subjective scale that depends basically on a number of interdependent project-related factors. Many design firms have a formal (explicit) constructability program that is launched as early as the conceptual planning stage of the project. This research examines design professionals’ efforts to pursue constructability and provides recommendations for performing constructability reviews in an efficient and effective manner.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors quantify whether an electrical or mechanical project is impacted by a change order and use logistic regression techniques to predict the probability of a project being impacted by the change.
Abstract: Change, defined as any event that results in a modification of the original scope, execution time, or cost of work, is inevitable on most construciton projects due to the uniqueness of each project and the limited resources of time and money available for planning. Change may occur on a project for a number of reasons, such as design errors, design changes, additions to the scope, or unknown conditions. For each change, contractors are entitled to an equitable adjustment to the base contract price and schedule for all productivity impacts associated with the change. Changes may or may not have an impact on labor productivity. Existing literature uses subjective evaluation to determine whether the project is impacted. Projects impacted by change cause the contractor to achieve a lower productivity level than planned. The focus of this paper is to quantify whether an electrical or mechanical project is impacted by a change order. Through statistical hypothesis testing, groups of factors that correlate with whether a project is impacted by change orders were identified and used to develop a quantitative definition of impact. Logistic regression techniques were used to develop models that predict the probability of a project being impacted. The results of this research show that percent change, type of trade, estimated and actual peak manpower, processing time of change, overtime, overmanning, and percent change related to design issues are the main factors contributing to the project impact.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors draw from the recent resurgence in public-private partnerships for the procurement of large scale infrastructure, with a focus on Asian megaprojects BOT (build-operate-transfer)-type.
Abstract: Lessons are drawn from the recent resurgence in public-private partnerships for the procurement of large scale infrastructure, with a focus on Asian megaprojects BOT (build-operate-transfer)-type

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Physiological measures of energy expenditure, including oxygen consumption and heart rate data, were collected for 100 construction workers performing typical construction work indicating that a significant number of craft workers routinely exceed physiological thresholds.
Abstract: Notwithstanding the use of earthmoving equipment, cranes, and other machinery, physically strenuous and demanding tasks remain endemic to the construction industry. This research was motivated by t...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined the relationship between changes in equipment technology and partial factor productivity for 200 activities over a 22-year time period and found that activities that experienced a significant change in equipment technologies experienced substantially greater long-term improvements in partial factors productivity than those that did not experience a change.
Abstract: Despite a decrease in industry level measures in construction productivity, there has been a steady increase in construction productivity at the activity level. This research examines equipment technology as one factor that may explain that increase. The relationship between changes in equipment technology and partial factor productivity is examined for 200 activities over a 22 year time period. Specifically, the paper examines the relative impact of different types of equipment technology for five technology factors: energy, control, functional range, information processing, and ergonomics. Through ANOVA and regression analyses, it is found that activities that experienced a significant change in equipment technology also witnessed substantially greater long-term improvements in partial factor productivity than those that did not experience a change.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the concept of competitive positioning is explored in the context of the United States construction industry along two dimensionsscope and mode of competition, and the effects of competitive positionin...
Abstract: The concept of competitive positioning is explored in the context of the United States construction industry along two dimensionsscope and mode of competition. The effects of competitive positionin...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a hierarchical model is developed to organize attributes of ADR processes, including preservation of relationships, enforceability, neutrality, and consensus, and the experts also suggested means to establish these attributes.
Abstract: With the surge of increasingly complex and fast-track construction projects, disputes are inevitable. Skills in dispute resolution should be part of the tool kit of any practitioner in a managerial position. The perceived shortcomings of litigation and arbitration, with their concomitant rise in costs, delays, and adversarial relationships, have encouraged the rapid growth of alternative dispute-resolution processes, namely, conciliation, mediation, adjudication, and other hybrid processes that have been widely used and well received by the Hong Kong construction industry. For example, mediation is now an integral part of most conditions of contracts published by the government of the Hong Kong Special Administration Region. However, the last decade evidenced the incorporation of increasingly complex dispute-resolution clauses in construction contracts, typically involving several alternative dispute resolution (ADR) techniques and arbitration arranged in sequential tiers. These dispute-resolution procedures render the supposedly more economic and speedy ADR process ineffective. In this study, a hierarchical model is developed to organize attributes of ADR processes. This presentation fits with the use of analytical hierarchy process methodology by a panel of experts to prioritize ADR process attributes. The top-ranked attributes identified as critical include, among others, preservation of relationships, enforceability, neutrality, and consensus. The experts also suggested means to establish these attributes. By focusing on these critical attributes, the dispute-resolution process can be kept simple and effective.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A nonstructural fuzzy decision support system (NSFDSS) is proposed that integrates both experts’ judgment and computer decision modeling, making it suitable for the appraisal of complicated construction problems.
Abstract: Site layout planning can affect productivity and is crucial to project success. However, as construction is heterogeneous in the nature of its organizations, project designs, time constraints, environmental effects, etc., site layout planning for each project becomes unique. Affected by many uncertainties (variables) and variations, site layout planning is a typical multiobjective problem. To facilitate the decision-making process for these problems, a nonstructural fuzzy decision support system (NSFDSS) is proposed. NSFDSS integrates both experts’ judgment and computer decision modeling, making it suitable for the appraisal of complicated construction problems. The system allows assessments based on pairwise comparisons of alternatives using semantic operators that can provide a reliable assessment result even under the condition of insufficient precise information.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper formalizes a generic space description as a computer-interpretable ontology that is general, reusable, and comprehensive and uses this ontology to capture the spatial requirements associated with construction methods and to automate the generation of project-specific spaces represented in three dimensions and across time.
Abstract: Construction activities require a set of work spaces to be executed safely and productively. The locations and volumes of these spaces change in three dimensions and across time, according to project-specific design and schedule information. Previous research on construction space management requires users to specify the spatio-temporal data necessary to represent each project-specific space needed for construction. Since a construction schedule consists of hundreds of activities requiring multiple types of spaces, this approach is practically infeasible. There is a need for a generic (project-independent) representation of work spaces, from which the project-specific instances of spaces can be derived automatically based on project-specific design and construction schedule information. This paper formalizes such a generic space description as a computer-interpretable ontology. This ontology is general, reusable, and comprehensive. A prototype system developed uses this ontology to capture the spatial requirements associated with construction methods and to automate the generation of project-specific spaces represented in three dimensions and across time.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a constrained precast scheduling model that incorporates the key constraints and objectives considered by production schedulers is described, and a capacity-based backward-scheduling earliest due date rule and a constraint programming approach are developed to solve the model.
Abstract: Current scheduling practices in precast plants are fairly basic and depend greatly on experience. This may lead to inefficient resource utilization, over-inventory, and/or missing delivery dates. Computer assisted scheduling may therefore be useful in creating better production schedules. This paper illustrates how constraint programming (CP) can be used in production scheduling for precast plants. The paper describes a constrained precast scheduling model that incorporates the key constraints and objectives considered by production schedulers. A capacity-based backward-scheduling earliest due date rule and a CP approach are developed to solve the model. The CP approach is computationally efficient, even though it incorporates many problem-derived constraints. The efficiency of the CP approach lies in the fact that the representation (model) is separated from the algorithm (solver). Strategies to improve the performance of the CP approach are identified, and the CP approach is compared against commonly used heuristic rules on an example problem.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors report the results of collecting contingency management practices of real estate development project managers and a dynamic simulation model of contingency management is described and test hypotheses of the effectiveness of aggressive and passive management strategies on cost, timeliness, and facility value.
Abstract: Project managers use budgets to satisfy multiple objectives such as cost control, short durations, and high quality. Contin- gency funds are included in project budgets to manage risk and achieve project goals. Understanding how managers use budget contin- gencies requires a dynamic information processing model of how managers bridge the gap between high project complexity and limited managerial capacity. The results of collecting contingency management practices of real estate development project managers is reported and a dynamic simulation model of contingency management described. The model is used to test hypotheses of the effectiveness of aggressive and passive management strategies on cost, timeliness, and facility value. Managers were found to pursue general project objectives in their management of contingency. An aggressive strategy was found to be more robust but performed poorer than a passive strategy. Conclusions include the prevalence of trade-offs between robust and high-performance contingency management policies in construction projects and the importance of incorporating uncertainty into project planning and management.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a model for use in predicting potential cost overruns on engineering design projects is described, which is useful in assessing the amount of possible risk on a project and the likelihood of making a profit on the job.
Abstract: This paper describes a model for use in predicting potential cost overruns on engineering design projects. The output of the model is useful in assessing the amount of possible risk on a project and the likelihood of making a profit on the job. The model is intended for use by engineering consultants, i.e., structural, mechanical, and electrical engineers, in the building design industry. This research uses fuzzy logic to model the relationships between the characteristics of a project and the potential risk events that may occur, and the associated cost overruns caused by combinations of the project characteristics and risk events. This paper discusses the topic of scope creep and scope definition, which are significant causes of cost overruns on design projects; identifies the project characteristics and risk events used in the model; explains the structure of the model and the use of fuzzy logic; and provides recommendations for future research.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors identify those attributes that affect an architect's performance, and construct a model to predict his performance in design build (DB) projects, which can be categorized as hard or soft attributes.
Abstract: Certain attributes of an architect or engineer (AE) may be used to predict his performance. These attributes may be categorized as “hard” or “soft” attributes. Hard attributes include an AE’s cognitive ability, job knowledge, task proficiency, and job experience. Soft attributes include an AE’s conscientiousness, initiative, social skills, controllability, and commitment. The purpose of this study is to identify those attributes that affect an AE’s performance, and to construct a model to predict his performance in design build (DB) projects. Twenty-five attributes were generated using the hierarchy tree. The importance of these attributes was tested with designer/builders who select and hire AEs, using a standard questionnaire. A statistical test showed that 24 of these attributes are significantly important. Thirty AEs were evaluated by experienced designer/builders (experts) who have worked with them in completed DB projects. Besides giving a global performance score of the AE (dependent variable), each expert also evaluated the AE on the degree to which they exhibited the important attributes (independent variables). Based on these ratings, an optimum multiple regression performance prediction model was obtained. To validate the model, another group of experts used the optimum model to evaluate 18 other AEs. The resulting performance score as calculated by the model was compared to the global performance scores awarded by the designer/builders. This validation process showed the model to be robust. The results of the study reveal that an AE’s performance can be predicted by using just three attributes: AE’s problem-solving ability and project approach. AE’s speed in producing design drawings, and the AE’s level of enthusiasm in tackling a difficult assignment.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: IntelliCranes as mentioned in this paper is a prototype integrated crane selection tool that assists in both crane type and crane model selection based on a set of inputs describing the construction operation under consideration.
Abstract: Due to the central role of cranes in construction operations, specialists in the construction industries have cooperated in the development of structured methods and software for crane selection. Most of these software tools are for crane model selection, and integrated systems that handle both crane type and model selection are not readily available. This paper presents the crane type selection features of IntelliCranes, a prototype integrated crane selection tool that assists in both crane type and crane model selection based on a set of inputs describing the construction operation under consideration. By using historical data and advanced artificial intelligence computing tools such as artificial neural networks, IntelliCranes automates crane type selection. Crane type and crane model selection are seamlessly integrated in a comprehensive crane selection tool, and consistency in the selection of cranes for similar situations is increased.