scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question

Showing papers in "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology in 1974"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new sex-role inventory is described that treats masculinity and femininity as two independent dimensions, thereby making it possible to characterize a person as masculine, feminine, or "androgynous" as a function of the difference between his or her endorsement of masculine and feminine personality characteristics.
Abstract: This article describes the development of a new sex-role inventory that treats masculinity and femininity as two independent dimensions, thereby making it possible to characterize a person as masculine, feminine, or "androgynous" as a function of the difference between his or her endorsement of masculine and feminine personality characteristics. Normative data are presented, as well as the results of various psychometric analyses. The major findings of conceptual interest are: (a) the dimensions of masculinity and femininity are empirically as well as logically independent; (6) the concept of psychological androgyny is a reliable one; and (c) highly sex-typed scores do not reflect a general tendency to respond in a socially desirable direction, but rather a specific tendency to describe oneself in accordance with sex-typed standards of desirable behavior for men and women. Both in psychology and in society at large, masculinity and femininity have long been conceptualized as bipolar ends of a single continuum; accordingly, a person has had to be either masculine or feminine, but not both. This sex-role dichotomy has served to obscure two very plausible hypotheses: first, that many individuals might be "androgynous" ; that is, they might be both masculine and feminine, both assertive and yielding, both instrumental and expressive—depending on the situational appropriateness of these various behaviors; and conversely, that strongly sex-typed individuals might be seriously limited in the range of behaviors available to them as they move from situation to situation. According to both Kagan (1964) and Kohlberg (1966), the highly sex-typed individual is motivated to keep his behavior consistent with an internalized sex-role standard, a goal that he presumably accomplishes by suppressing any behavior that might be con

7,984 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A scale designed to quantify hopelessness was administered to several diverse samples of patients to assess its psychometric properties and was found to have a high degree of internal consistency and showed a relatively high correlation with the clinical ratings of hopelessness and other self-administered measures of despair.
Abstract: A scale designed to quantify hopelessness was administered to several diverse samples of patients to assess its psychometric properties. This scale was found to have a high degree of internal consistency and showed a relatively high correlation with the clinical ratings of hopelessness and other self-administered measures of hopelessness. Furthermore, the scale was sensitive to changes in the patient's state of depression over time. An affective, a motivational, and a cognitive factor were extracted.

4,754 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The investigation utilizes partners' observations of exchanged pleasurable and unpleasurable events as well as daily ratings of quality of outside experience to identify the relative contribution or weighting of specified classes of exchanged behavioral events and quality of experience outside of one's relationship.
Abstract: : A study has sought to identify the relative contribution or weighting of specified classes of exchanged behavioral events and quality of experience outside of one's relationship believed to be of importance conceptually to the reported satisfaction provided by a dyadic relationship While previous studies have relied essentially upon retrospective reporting, the investigation utilizes partners' observations of exchanged pleasurable and unpleasurable events as well as daily ratings of quality of outside experience The study also has sought to illuminate reciprocity between dyadic exchange of pleasant and unpleasant events or consequences (Author)

295 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The effect of labels on clinicians' judgments was assessed in a 2 X 2 factorial design and the interviewee was described as fairly well adjusted by the behavioral therapists regardless of the label supplied; this was not the case, however, for the more traditional therapists.
Abstract: The effect of labels on clinicians' judgments was assessed in a 2 X 2 factorial design. Clinicians representing two different schools of thought, behavioral and analytic, viewed a single videotaped interview between a man who had recently applied for a new job and one of the authors. Half of each group was told that the interviewee was a "job applicant," while the remaining half was told that he was a "patient." At the end of the videotape, all clinicians were asked to complete a questionnaire evaluating the interviewee. The interviewee was described as fairly well adjusted by the behavioral therapists regardless of the label supplied. This was not the case, however, for the more traditional therapists. When the interviewee was labeled "patient," he was described as significantly more disturbed than he was when he was labeled "job applicant." The fact that labels create sets that influence subsequent perception has long been established. Researchers have generally studied these effects by providing different labels and observing the reactions they occasion in their subjects. Kelley (1950), extending Asch's (1946) work, has shown that by assigning the label warm/cold to a lecturer, one could significantly affect another's perceptions of that person. A more recent study (Huguenard, Sager, & Ferguson, 1970) demonstrated the same result in simulated employment interviews. Along with varying the interviewer's initial set (warm/cold), they also varied the length of the interview (10, 20, or 30 minutes). While the interviewer's initial set significantly affected his after-interview ratings, the length of the interview did not. Thus, the effect of labels is pervasive and not readily overridden by the additional information that may be provided by a prolonged interaction. In another study of this kind (Rapp, 1965), the researcher had pairs of subjects describe a child's behavior. One member of

258 citations