Journal of Dermatology
Japanese Dermatological Association
About: Journal of Dermatology is an academic journal published by Japanese Dermatological Association. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Medicine & Psoriasis. It has an ISSN identifier of 0385-2407. Over the lifetime, 9753 publications have been published receiving 109599 citations. The journal is also known as: J. Dermatol..
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, the pathogenesis of psoriasis can be explained by dysregulation of immunological cell function as well as keratinocyte proliferation/differentiation, and it has been demonstrated that Th17 cells play a key role.
Abstract: The pathogenesis of psoriasis can be explained by dysregulation of immunological cell function as well as keratinocyte proliferation/differentiation. Recently, the immunological pathomechanism has been clarified substantially. Whereas T-helper (Th)1 overactivation was thought to induce occurrence of psoriasis, it has been demonstrated that Th17 cells play a key role. Th17 development is maintained by interleukin (IL)-23 mainly produced by dendritic cells. Th17 cells produce various cytokines, including IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22. IL-17A and IL-22 induce not only keratinocyte proliferation, but also tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)1 and CXCL8 production. TNF-α accelerates the infiltration of inflammatory cells, including lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils, from the peripheral blood into skin with dendritic cell activation. In addition, antimicrobial peptides are overexpressed in psoriatic skin lesions, and the antimicrobial peptide, LL-37, activates dendritic cells, which leads to the development of inflammation. Furthermore, activation of nuclear factor-κB signal induces the expression of keratins 6 and 16 in keratinocytes, which are associated with acanthosis and reduced turnover time in the epidermis. The progression of the pathomechanism contributes to the development of new therapies for psoriasis.
TL;DR: The ISSVA classification was accepted by the membership at the June 1996 Workshop in Rome and the president of the Scientific Committee of the ISSVA would like to present the classification system.
Abstract: In 1976, Mulliken and Young initiated an International Workshop for the Study of Vascular Anomalies. Biennial meetings were held in either a European or American city. In 1992, the decision was made to formalize the organization as the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA), and our first task was to establish a nosologic consensus. We accepted a general definition of \"anomaly\" as any vascular condition that was abnormal. We agreed that the suffix \"oma\" designates a vascular lesion that arises by cellular hyperplasia (proliferation, tumor). The ISSVA classification was accepted by the membership at the June 1996 Workshop in Rome. As the president of the Scientific Committee of the ISSVA, I would like to present our classification system.
TL;DR: The present standard therapies for AD consist of the use of topical corticosteroids and tacrolimus ointment as the main treatment for the inflammation, topical application of emollients to treat the cutaneous physiological dysfunction, systemic antihistamines and anti‐allergic drugs as adjunctive treatments for pruritus, avoidance of apparent exacerbating factors, psychological counseling and advice about daily life.
Abstract: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing eczematous skin disease characterized by pruritus and inflammation and accompanied by cutaneous physiological dysfunction (dry and barrier-disrupted skin). Most of the patients have atopic diathesis. A standard guideline for the management (diagnosis, severity classification and therapy) of AD has been established. In our guideline, the necessity of dermatological training is emphasized in order to assure diagnostic skill and to enable evaluation of the severity of AD. The definitive diagnosis of AD requires the presence of all three features: (i) pruritus; (ii) typical morphology and distribution; and (iii) chronic and chronically relapsing course. For the severity classification of AD, three elements of eruption (erythema/acute papules, exudation/crusts and chronic papules/nodules/lichenification) are evaluated in the most severely affected part of each of the five body regions (head/neck, anterior trunk, posterior trunk, upper limbs and lower limbs). The areas of eruption on the five body regions are also evaluated, and both scores are totaled (maximum 60 points). The present standard therapies for AD consist of the use of topical corticosteroids and tacrolimus ointment as the main treatment for the inflammation, topical application of emollients to treat the cutaneous physiological dysfunction, systemic antihistamines and anti-allergic drugs as adjunctive treatments for pruritus, avoidance of apparent exacerbating factors, psychological counseling and advice about daily life. Tacrolimus ointment (0.1%) and its low-density ointment (0.03%) are available for adult patients and 2-15-year-old patients, respectively. The importance of the correct selection of topical corticosteroids according to the severity of the eruption is also emphasized. Furthermore, deliberate use of oral cyclosporine for severe recalcitrant adult AD is referred.
TL;DR: Normalizing the pH by acidification through topical treatment helps to establish a physiological microbiota, to repair skin barrier, to induce epidermal differentiation and to reduce inflammation.
Abstract: The pH plays an important physiological role in nature and humans. pH varies from 1 to 8 in human organs with tight regulation in blood and epithelia of barrier organs. The physiological pH of the stratum corneum is 4.1-5.8 and several mechanisms contribute to its formation: filaggrin degradation, fatty acid content, sodium-hydrogen exchanger (NHE1) activation and melanosome release. First, the acidic pH of the stratum corneum was considered to present an antimicrobial barrier preventing colonization (e.g. by Staphylococcus aureus and Malassezia). Later on, it was found that the pH influences skin barrier function, lipid synthesis and aggregation, epidermal differentiation and desquamation. Enzymes of ceramide metabolism (e.g. β-glucocerebrosidase or acid sphingomyelinase) as well as proteases (e.g. chymotryptic enzyme or cathepsin D linked to epidermal differentiation and desquamation) are regulated by the pH. Experimental disruption of the physical barrier leads to an increase of pH, returning to normal levels only after many hours. Inflammatory skin diseases and diseases with an involvement of the epidermis exhibit a disturbed skin barrier and an increased pH. This is known for atopic dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, ichthyosis, rosacea and acne, but also for aged and dry skin. Normalizing the pH by acidification through topical treatment helps to establish a physiological microbiota, to repair skin barrier, to induce epidermal differentiation and to reduce inflammation.
TL;DR: It has been stated that a patient can live essentially a "normal" life with nonfunctioning melanocytes (oculocutaneous albinism) or without any cutaneous melanocytes at all (piebaldism or total vitiligo) because pigment and pigment cells are involved in many important activities of the skin and other organs.
Abstract: The total mass of pigment cells in the adult human is estimated to be about 1.5 grams (1). This mass of pigment cells is substantially larger than the pineal gland which weighs only 100 mg. Despite its small size, the pineal gland is responsible for adjusting the body's intrinsic cycles to daily and seasonal environmental variables such as sunlight, temperature and food availability (2). The pituitary gland, the reputed conductor of the endocrine orchestra, weighs about 500 mg. In contrast to these two glands, pigment cells are dispersed throughout many organs, for example the skin, eyes, ears. meninges and other tissues. Because they are scattered throughout the body, they are considered of little biological importance. There is a tendency for dermatologists to ignore the concept of a pigment system, and to think only of isolated pigment cells. It has been stated that a patient can live essentially a \"normal\" life with nonfunctioning melanocytes (oculocutaneous albinism) or without any cutaneous melanocytes at all (piebaldism or total vitiligo). This idea probably is incorrect because pigment and pigment cells are involved in many important activities of the skin and other organs.