scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question

Showing papers in "Journal of Educational Computing Research in 2000"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is found that three such factors—consistency in course design, contact with course instructors, and active discussion—have been consistently shown to significantly influence the success of online courses.
Abstract: This article looks at factors affecting the success of asynchronous online learning both through a review of the research literature and through an empirical investigation of student perceptions and course design factors in one of the largest asynchronous learning networks in the country. It finds that three such factors—consistency in course design, contact with course instructors, and active discussion—have been consistently shown to significantly influence the success of online courses. It is posited that the reason for these findings relates to the importance of building knowledge building communities in asynchronous online learning environments.

383 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examine barriers to technology adoption based on the literature and on data from two studies (the first with K-12 teachers and the second with higher education faculty in a state system).
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to examine barriers to technology adoption based on the literature and on data from two studies (the first with K-12 teachers and the second with higher education faculty in a state system). A product of this examination is a visual representation, a model of the interactions and the interdependence of elements that contribute to the construction of barriers to technology adoption. It is intended that the model will clarify internal and external obstacles, and serve as an aid to pre-service and in-service teacher education curriculum designers and developers as they plan for the successful infusion of newer technologies in the curriculum.

278 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results indicate that extensive use of hyperlinks to compare and contrast concepts when reading hypertext may inhibit learning.
Abstract: Advances in technology have enabled the development of hypertext-based instructional materials. These computerized information presentation systems are becoming increasingly popular as schools and businesses develop the technology infrastructure to support their use; however, before hypertext-based instruction completely takes over the classroom and the boardroom, a number of questions about the utility of this presentation medium must be answered. The present study is an examination of the effects of the cognitive load associated with using hypertext linking capabilities to “criss-cross the conceptual landscape” on student learning. Results indicate that extensive use of hyperlinks to compare and contrast concepts when reading hypertext may inhibit learning. Cognitive load theory is discussed as a possible explanation for these findings.

183 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The article prescribes three different approaches to integrating alternative assessment approaches into online learning environments: 1) cognitive assessment, 2) performance assessment, and 3) portfolio assessment.
Abstract: This article describes the need and prospects for alternative assessment approaches in online learning environments within the context of higher education. Assessment in higher education has tradit...

167 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A qualitative analysis of eighteen college students using different types of scaffolding (instructional supports) while working on a World Wide Web (WWW) project was conducted, finding the utility of scaffolds and WWW resources seem dependent on the ability of learners to readily grasp how the scaffold or resource could help them.
Abstract: A qualitative analysis of eighteen college students using different types of scaffolding (instructional supports) while working on a World Wide Web (WWW) project was conducted. Four different support mechanisms were examined: a) WWW resources; b) procedural guidelines for the instructional activity; c) student-student interactions; and d) instructor-student interactions. Three major findings related to use of the WWW as a resource-based learning environment are discussed: a) the utility of scaffolds and WWW resources seem dependent on the ability of learners to readily grasp how the scaffold or resource could help them; b) learners’ preconceptions and search strategies were difficult to alter, despite ongoing evidence that searching was not leading to project clarification; and c) social scaffolding based on face to face dialogue with instructors and peers was critical to helping learners manage the complexity of the open- ended project. Implications related to the role of instructional scaffolding in encouraging shared meaning and learning with WWW resources are considered.

156 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper looked back on the past three decades of educational technology research as a basis for discussing where this field of research is heading, and identifying some of the most promising directions for the future development of technology's role in education.
Abstract: This paper looks back on the past three decades of educational technology research as a basis for discussing where this field of research is heading, and identifying some of the most promising directions for the future development of technology's role in education. The collaborative efforts of the Center for Children and Technology and the Union City, New Jersey, school district are discussed to illustrate many of the lessons learned about how educational technology research and systemic school improvement efforts can best be coordinated with one another.

132 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article explores the nature of the relationships between gender, categories of computer use, and attitudes toward computers in a computer enriched environment where all students were provided with network access and laptop computers over a four year period.
Abstract: This article explores the nature of the relationships between gender, categories of computer use, and attitudes toward computers in a computer enriched environment where all students were provided with network access and laptop computers over a four-year period. The results indicate that women were less positive about computers than men, and the use level of computers by women were less frequent than for men. This change in the relationship is a throwback to the earlier days of computing when research had indicated that men were more positively disposed toward computers than women.

107 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A study of fifty-four female and fifty-nine male Gymnasium (high school) students from four ninth-grade classes oriented toward natural sciences and mathematics surveyed students' attitudes toward computers in relation to gender and computer experience and found that males showed a more positive attitude toward computers than females as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: A study of fifty-four female and fifty-nine male Gymnasium (high school) students from four ninth-grade classes oriented toward natural sciences and mathematics surveyed students' attitudes toward computers in relation to gender and computer experience and found that males showed a more positive attitude toward computers than females, even when computer experience was controlled. An additional study of fifty-one females and fifty-four males from the initial sample found that males did show more interest in computer science than females, but these differences could not explain gender differences in computer attitude.

105 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Pedagogical issues for intelligent agents to successfully serve as mentors for educational purposes are discussed, incorporating usability and human-computer interaction issues such as the anthropomorphic qualities of the agent and the social relationship between learner and agent.
Abstract: This article discusses pedagogical issues for intelligent agents to successfully serve as mentors for educational purposes. Broader issues about the nature or persona necessary for an intelligent agent as mentor are discussed, incorporating usability and human-computer interaction issues such as the anthropomorphic qualities of the agent and the social relationship between learner and agent. Overall, to be effective for learning, it is argued that there are three main requirements for agents as mentors: 1) regulated intelligence; 2) the existence of a persona; and 3) pedagogical control.

89 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined the extent and characteristics of Internet usage among 384 junior-high and high school students in Israel, focusing on the purpose and patterns of internet usage by twelve-and thirteen-year-olds.
Abstract: This study examines the extent and characteristics of Internet usage among 384 junior-high and high school students in Israel. Its focus is on the purpose and patterns of Internet usage by twelve- ...

81 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI®), a personality assessment tool, to look at online learning styles and found that MBTI is briefly explained and some work on how MBTI has been applied.
Abstract: The authors have used the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI®), a personality assessment tool, to look at online learning styles. MBTI is briefly explained and some work on how MBTI has been applied...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors adopt decision tree and data cube information processing methodologies to observe students' behavior patterns in Web logs to develop knowledge for applying proper teaching strategies according to available information in web logs.
Abstract: In conventional classrooms, teachers attempt to enhance instruction by monitoring students' learning processes and analyzing their performances by paper records and observation. Similarly, distance learning systems on the Web should be designed to record students' behaviors to assist teachers in assessing performance and making decisions related to curriculum. Recent developments in Web server systems can record the students' access to the learning systems in Web logs. Information processing analysis on the historical classroom processes can help teachers to develop knowledge for applying proper teaching strategies according to available information in Web logs. However, teachers cannot easily infer the pedagogical meaning of Web logs and discover the pedagogical rules of students' behavior patterns in the Web logs to refine teaching strategies. Therefore, to use Web logs for pedagogical purposes, this article adopts decision tree and data cube information processing methodologies to observe students' beh...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article presented a categorization by educational stages of the research into this topic, and an evaluation of the generalizability of findings to broader contexts, showing that the most extensive research on women in computing is done at the post-secondary stage, and uses students as non-randomly selected subjects.
Abstract: The proportions of Computer Science (CS) graduates who are women has been declining in the last fifteen years. At a time when the demand for computer programmers and systems analysts has been increasing, why are women becoming a smaller proportion of those enrolling in CS programs? This article presents a categorization by educational stages of the research into this topic, and an evaluation of the generalizability of findings to broader contexts. The categorization shows that the most extensive research on women in computing is done at the post-secondary stage, and uses students as non-randomly selected subjects. These studies are non-comprehensive, but where similar results are found in a number of studies, the findings are supported. The emphasis in research focuses on structural factors at the elementary stage, but by the post-secondary stage the emphasis is more likely to be on social psychological factors.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The effectiveness of simulations for teaching statistical concepts was compared to the effectiveness of a textbook and subjects trained by simulation performed significantly better than those trained with a textbook.
Abstract: The effectiveness of simulations for teaching statistical concepts was compared to the effectiveness of a textbook. The variable Medium (simulation versus textbook) and Question specificity (Specif...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results indicate improvement in various thinking skills and strategies, from basic recall to the higher level skills such as classification and inference, as well as in the children's usage of scientific language.
Abstract: The study investigated if young students internalized content and concepts embedded in a science computer microworld simulation as opposed to treating it as merely a game to be played. The article reports changes in the Grade Two students' cognitive outcomes and processes after learning with the software integrated within a thematic curriculum in a classroom over a period of six weeks. Results indicate improvement in various thinking skills and strategies, from basic recall to the higher level skills such as classification and inference, as well as in the children's usage of scientific language. Transfer occurred but was not significant thereby emphasizing the importance of providing numerous practices instead of relying on the software to teach higher order cognitive skills. Daily usage and a flexible paired working environment with the computer were pedagogical variables in the cognitive outcomes.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The popular stereotype of the frequent computer user persists to be one of a male, socially inadequate and isolated individual as discussed by the authors, a perception which has been found to cause many students to avoid computer use.
Abstract: The popular stereotype of the frequent computer user persists to be one of a male, socially inadequate and isolated individual—a perception which has been found to cause many students to avoid comi...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Through thick description of these environments and discussion of the emerging themes, this study hopes to provide a more contextualized picture of the implementation of technology in foreign language classes at a large research-oriented institution.
Abstract: One research perspective that has been overlooked in studies on technology in foreign language education is that offered by qualitative research. This study, focusing on learner interaction, aims t...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results indicate that a well-designed interactive video application can motivate, save time, and help address learner weaknesses, especially for students most in need of assistance.
Abstract: Research on computer-assisted and video-based educational techniques has almost invariably found that these media have positive effects on learner motivation. This article presents a study of integrated computer technology which incorporates pace-controlled syntactic chunking in a captioned video presentation. The results indicate that a well-designed interactive video application can motivate, save time, and help address learner weaknesses, especially for students most in need of assistance. In addition to increasing both student motivation and learning efficiency over time, the program supplied the least able students with the means to better understand and respond to foreign language discourse. The results achieved in this study were quite positive. Weaker students in the experimental group performed beyond their apparent ability levels. Additionally, both the teachers and the students reacted favorably to working with the technology. Finally, the experimental group was able to complete tasks more quic...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Experimental confirmation that program visualization tools aimed at novice programmers actually benefit from their use is presented, showing that students that used the glass-box interpreter achieved greater understanding of some programming concepts than those without access.
Abstract: It is widely agreed that learning to program is difficult. Program visualization tools make visible aspects of program execution which are often hidden from the user. While several program visualization tools aimed at novice programmers have been developed over the past decade there is little empirical evidence showing that novices actually benefit from their use [1]. In this article we describe a “Glass-box Interpreter” called Bradman. An experiment is presented which tests the efficacy of Bradman in assisting novice programmers learn programming concepts. We show that students that used the glass-box interpreter achieved greater understanding of some programming concepts than those without access. We also give evidence that the student's ability to assimilate new concepts was enhanced by exposure to the glass-box interpreter. This is experimental confirmation that such tools are beneficial in helping novices learn programming.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The data suggested a relationship between attitudes toward collaboration and use of Internet-based communication and test performance.
Abstract: This study investigated the use of asynchronous (mailing lists) and synchronous (chat sessions) Internet-based communication and its impact on teachers' attitudes toward collaboration, activity com...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results suggested that participant evaluations of the modules were comparably positive and that participants in the modules performed significantly better on the statistical comprehension posttest than those in the control group.
Abstract: This study evaluated three tutorial modules, equivalent in content but different in mode of presentation, for introducing elementary statistics concepts. In a single session, fifty-seven college st...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Two experiments presented here found compelling evidence that LSA analyses are a stronger reflection of the text-based knowledge represented by essays and recall protocols than conceptual knowledge.
Abstract: Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) is a statistical model of word usage that has been used for a variety of applications. One of these applications is the quantitative assessment of the semantic content within written text. While the technology has been successful in correlating with the qualitative ratings of human experts, it is unclear what aspect of knowledge is being reflected in an LSA output. The two experiments presented here were designed to address this general question. We were particularly interested in whether an LSA analysis more accurately reflects the factual or conceptual knowledge contained in written material. Experiment 1 explored this issue by comparing LSA analyses of essays to human-generated scores. It also compared the LSA output to several measures of conceptual structure. Experiment 2 correlated LSA analyses of transcribed recall protocols with a series of comprehension measures that were designed to vary in the degree to which they reflect conceptual or factual knowledge. We found ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study examines use of learning strategies by experienced adult learners of foreign languages to determine how they engage a multimedia environment, what strategies they employ, and how insights on strategy use can be useful for learners and teachers.
Abstract: This study examines use of learning strategies by experienced adult learners of foreign languages. The goal was to determine how these exemplary language learners engage a multimedia environment, what strategies they employ, and how insights on strategy use can be useful for learners and teachers.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a study of interactions among eight-year-old pupils working with computers and find that the children's communicative interactions in front of the computer are compared with interaction occurring in other kinds of activities.
Abstract: The article presents a study of interactions among eight-year-old pupils working with computers. The children's communicative interactions in front of the computer are compared with interaction occurring in other kinds of activities. Their verbal and non-verbal interaction has been studied by using videotapes. The children interacted more when they were using the computer; i.e., there are twice as many interactions in front of the computer compared with other activities. Most of this interaction is concerned with problem-solving, and there are hardly any interactions which do not concern the task. The children were also asked to comment on the results. According to them, they only talk about the task because they have a limited time for computer-work and therefore do not want to waste it on things that do not concern the task at hand. A basis for the study is that school education must allow students to develop strategies for learning through interaction, and that interaction and communication are given a...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, essential factors found in recent research for online student accomplishment and how these can be facilitated in the course level through instructional design, teaching, and technical assistance are discussed.
Abstract: Student success in Web-based degree programs depends on an individual's course learning experience as well as the academic and administrative services provided by a virtual institution throughout the degree. This article explains essential factors found in recent research for online student accomplishment and how these can be facilitated in the course level through instructional design, teaching, and technical assistance. Then it examines academic and administrative services at the institutional level. Online academic services include counseling and advising, prior learning assessment, discussion support, career facilities, and access to academic resources such as libraries and bookstores. Online administrative services include admissions, enrollment and registration, assistance service, financial aid, and records. Factors at both levels are explained with examples provided from several institutions offering online distance education.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe an evaluation program designed to assess the effectiveness of technology enhanced instruction (TEI) in secondary science education, which is situated within the context of the TESSI project, a seven-year, field-based research program of technology integration into secondary science.
Abstract: The paper describes an evaluation program designed to assess the effectiveness of Technology Enhanced Instruction (TEI). The study is situated within the context of the Technology Enhanced Secondary Science Instruction (TESSI) project, a seven-year, field-based research program of technology integration into secondary science (grades 9–12). Evaluation procedures include analyses of student enrollment and achievement, teacher-researcher reports, an independent ethnographic assessment, the project's scalability, and interviews with graduates from the program. Taken together, these evaluations of TESSI support claims that TESSI is a scaleable and reproducible model of successful TEI implementation, which encourages greater student enrollment and retention in senior science electives (i.e. greater success for more students), and prepares students for post-secondary education and the realities of an information-based workplace. The effectiveness of the project's implementation of technology is supported by bot...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The proposed standards are culled from existing standards created for educational technologies, information literacy, and the English language arts, and are offered as a starting point for thinking about expanding the notions of literacy and literacy instruction in the schools.
Abstract: This article suggests a set of cumulative standards for assessing the use of nonprint media and electronic technologies in elementary, middle, and high school classrooms. The proposed standards are...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Preliminary research concerning a specific population of learners: learners whose native language is not English and who attend school in the state of New York focuses on how English as a Second Language (ESL) teachers in thestate view and use technologies to help develop students' literacy skills.
Abstract: This report presents preliminary research concerning a specific population of learners: learners whose native language is not English and who attend school in the state of New York. Our research focused on how English as a Second Language (ESL) teachers in the state view and use technologies to help develop their students' literacy skills. Data from a statewide survey and from initial interviews with fifty-six ESL teachers who use technologies in their teaching are discussed.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effects of incorporating concept mapping into computer assisted instruction (CAI) were investigated for ten-year-old students in Singapore, in which they participated in the study.
Abstract: This study investigated the effects of incorporating concept mapping into computer assisted instruction (CAI). Ninety-one tenth-grade students in Singapore participated in the study, in which they ...