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Showing papers in "Journal of Egyptian Archaeology in 1939"




Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The stela of 'Iutsankhamun was found by the late Georges Legrain in July 1905,1 in the temple of Amiin at Karnak as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: THE stela of 'Iutsankhamun was found by the late Georges Legrain in July 1905,1 in the temple of Amiin at Karnak. It was lying in the north-east corner of the great Hypostyle Hall before the Third Pylon,\" Some years later it was brought to the Cairo'Museum, where it now bears the Inventory No. 41504. A fragment (50X 61 cm.) of a duplicate was found by Legrain in the foundations of the Temple of Montju at Karnak in 1907; it contains parts of lines 15-27, but unfortunately the help it gives us in restoring the lacunae in those lines is but trifling. Its Inventory No. in the Cairo Museum is 41565. The stela was first published with a good photograph by Legrain in 1907 (Rec. trav. 29, 162 ff.), but his copy of the text contains errors and his translation is out of date. In 1909 Lacau gave a good photograph and text in Steles du nouvel empire (CCG), 224 ff. with PI. 70, under the Catalogue No. 34183. The only other publication, that of Maspero (The Tombs oj Harmhabi and Touatdnkhamanou, 1912, 113 ff.), is incomplete but, although there are obvious mistakes, several lacunae have been restored plausibly. Partial translations have been made since Legrain's, but never a complete one; these were made by historians and others, who were interested in the development of particular ideas rather than in the inscription as a whole. Such translations occur in Grapow, ap. Hermann Haas, Textbuch z, Religionsgeschichte, 261, and Breasted, The Dawn of Conscience, 306. The fragment of a duplicate was published by Legrain in Ann. Servo 8, 256 ff.; and again by Lacau, op. cit., 230 f., under the Catalogue No. 34184.

44 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors compare the names of the Sea-peoples mentioned in Egyptian inscriptions of the New Kingdom with those of classical times, jumping over a period of nearly a thousand years.
Abstract: IN seeking for further light on the Sea-peoples mentioned in Egyptian inscriptions of the New'Kingdom there has hitherto been only one possibility open to us, and that has been to compare their names with those of classical times, jumping over a period of nearly a thousand years. This comparison has of course been helpful, suggesting as it does that at the time when we meet with them in Egyptian records some of the tribes were coming from the north of the Mediterranean and from Asia Minor, and were in the act of migrating to the homes where they were later to become famous. Such, for instance, have been the Sherden, the Shekelesh, the Peleset, the Al,raywash, and the Mashwash. But the fact that they were migrating has made it impossible to locate them exactly in Asia Minor, for by classical times many names have been duplicated-usually one in the north-west and another to the south or south-east. Thus, we have Cilicians in the Troad and Cilicians in Cilicia; Pedasos in the Troad and Pedasa in Caria; the well-known country of Lycia on the south coast and the country round the Aesepus River by the Troad which was also called Lycia.' At present it is impossible to say which was the place the Sea-raiders started from when we find them harrying Syria and Egypt. But within recent years the decipherment of the Hittite tablets from Boghaz Keui has begun to open up another line of inquiry. Quite a number of names of the Sea-peoples are to be clearly recognized there, and the evidence from these tablets will be more satisfactory than that from classical times, for the Hittite records are contemporary with the Egyptian, and often show who were the neighbours of the countries in question. These indications will one day enable us to fix their position at the time of their conflicts with the Egyptians. The difficulty of the problem at present is due to the fact that the study of Asianic geography is only in its infancy, and is still utterly chaotic. Thus, Abbiyawa is placed in Cilicia by Mayer and Garstang,2 and by Sommer.s but in Greece by Forrer' and less confidently by Gatze,S who later has put it doubtfully in the Troad, while Hrozny\" puts it in Rhodes. Forrer originally proposed to put it in Pamphylia, as did E. Meyer, but this has not been accepted,\" Similarly the Seba-riverlands, on the position of which much depends, are placed about the Sarus River in Cilicia by Mayer and Garstang,\" in Pisidia by Forrer,\" and between the Maeander and Hermus Rivers on the borders of Caria and Lydia by Gatze.10 In the course of time no doubt the sites of these regions will be accurately fixed, as

35 citations






Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The first season at 'Amarah West as discussed by the authorsounded on November 9, 1938, and ended on March 4, 1939, and was composed of Mr. H. Fairman, and Messrs. E. W. F. Walker, R. R. Harrison, the Assistant District Commissioner, and Dr. A. O. Crowther.
Abstract: THE first full season's work at 'Amarah West commenced on November 9, 1938, and ended on March 4, 1939. The party was composed of Mr. H. W. Fairman (Director) and Mrs. Fairman, and Messrs. E. D. Bell, surveyor; P. G. Fell, photographer; and J. G. MacDonald, who had previously worked with Mr. O. H. Myers for two years. We owe a deep debt of gratitude to those who by their donations rendered our work possible: to H.R.H. the Crown Prince of Sweden, who obtained for us a donation on behalf of the Stockholm Museum, to the Mus8e du Louvre, and above all to the Brooklyn Museum of Fine Arts without whose assistance, even more generous than in past years, the excavations would have been impossible. Our thanks are also due to Professor S. R. K. Glanville for giving us facilities for the developing and printing of our negatives in the photographic laboratory attached to the Department of Egyptology, University College, and to the authorities of University College for the use of a room for the exhibition of the antiquities. Once more we were deeply indebted to officials of the Sudan Government for their never-failing assistance and help, and in particular to Mr. G. W. Grabham, the Acting Conservator of Antiquities, his successor Mr. A. J. Arkell, Commissioner for Archaeology and Anthropology, and to Mr. A. C. Walker, the District Commissioner, Mr. R. Harrison, the Assistant District Commissioner, and Dr. H. M. Woodman of Wadi Halfa, During the season we were fortunate to receive visits also from the Deputy Governor of the Northern Province, Mr. W. F. Crawford, and Mrs. Crawford, Professor and Mrs. van Gronigen of Leyden, and Mr. H. O. Crowther. Before proceeding to describe the result of the work it is necessary to devote a few words to the vexed question of orientation. In our last report! it was stated that since the Nile at 'Amarah flows from west to east local compass points would be used in describing the site. There was some justification for this decision, for it is normal to regard the river as always flowing northwards, and it is now quite clear that the Ancient Egyptians when building the town and temple also used' local' compass points. On the other hand, it was realized that the use of true compass points upon plans and of 'local' points in descriptions is likely to cause confusion and uncertainty.: For this reason in this report all descriptions give the true compass points. It must therefore be borne in mind that at 'Amarah the north-south axis is at right angles to the course of the river. The ancient town of 'Amarah West lies on the left bank of the Nile, about 115 miles south of Wadi Halfa, The Town crowns a small mound close to the river and consists of a central mud-brick enclosure, from 100 to 150 m. square, and house-remains of uncertain extent outside the walls. On the high ground to the north of the town is the New Kingdom cemetery, partially robbed, and in the intervening dried-up watercourse are a number of small moundgraves of X-group type. In a wide semicircle at least a mile to west, north, and east of the town are other ancient remains. These have not yet been examined by excavation, but

18 citations





Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Glanville et al. as mentioned in this paper showed that these two textiles at least could have been made on a loom with no more than four heddles, and they hope that this discovery may give a clue to the future understanding of the more difficult pieces in the group.
Abstract: THE two textiles described here are of a class usually described as 'draw-loom weaves in wool'.1 These are all characterized by a regular repetition of small decorative motifs, suggesting a mechanical adaptation of the loom for the purpose, and these motifs are often rather complicated. In other examples of this class, however, the designs are so simple as to suggest that they might have been produced in some easier way than by the use of a draw-loom.s The study we have now made shows that these two textiles at least could have been made on a loom with no more than four heddles, and we hope that this discovery may give a clue to the future understanding of the more difficult pieces in the group. Textile No.1 is from the Petrie Collection at University College, London; its provenance is unknown. Textile No.2, also acquired by Sir Flinders Petrie, from ~1i.w in Upper Egypt, is in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London (No. T. 239-1923). We are most grateful to Professor S. R. K. Glanville for the facilities so kindly given for studying Textile 1, and to the authorities at the Victoria and Albert Museum for facilities given for study and permission to publish the photographs of Textile 2.



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The only commodity which was shipped from Egypt to Greece in any quantity, after the fall of the Mycenaean kingdom and before the establishment of that of Alexander, was corn.
Abstract: THOUGH much information concerning the foreign trade of Egypt after the Greek conquest has been obtained in late years, chiefly from papyri, there has been less derived from Egyptian sources relating to earlier periods; on the other hand, exploration in Greek lands has produced a fair amount of evidence which throws light on the nature of the connexions between the two countries. In the first place, the contents of the trade carried on during the period in question may be reviewed. So far as the exports of Egypt are concerned, the list is brief: the only commodity which was shipped from Egypt to Greece in any quantity, after the fall of the Mycenaean kingdom and before the establishment of that of Alexander, was corn. At a later time there were considerable exports of glass, linen, and papyrus; but the manufacture of glass on a large scale was not developed till the Ptolemaic dynasty at Alexandria, and the export probably did not become important till the Roman period j! linen was not a dress-fabric which was popular among the Greeks, and there is no suggestion that the coarse sail-cloths for which flax was chiefly used in Greece were obtained from Egypt;2 and papyrus, though it was certainly known to the Greeks at an early date, does not seem to have been commonly employed amongst them before the Hellenistic age.s The transit trade in goods from the Sudan and the East, which was an important part of the business of Alexandria under the Ptolemies and the Romans, and continued throughout the Middle Ages, had flourished also in earlier times; but towards the end of the eighth century B.C. the passage of goods down the Nile valley was interrupted by political changes. The Assyrian invasion of Egypt under Esarhaddon in 671 and the sack of Thebes by Ashurbanipal in 661 were the culmination of a series of attacks which had begun with the victory of Sargon at Raphia in 720, and created a definite separation between the upper and the lower ends of the Nile valley, which had for centuries before been either under one rule or on terms of commercial intercourse. The Indian trade was probably diverted to the Persian Gulf, and that from the Sudan to the line of oases on the west of the valley, along which it passed to Cyrene; thus the Assyrian conquest of Egypt may have been a reason for the choice of Cyrene as the site of a Greek colony thirty years later, which would have as much weight as the export of wool from the Libyan sheep-farms suggested by the Delphian oracles quoted by Herodotus.\" The only commodities which Egypt then had available for




Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Queen's College, Oxford, acquired five Egyptian Etruscan stelae from Abydos in 1841 under the will of the Rev. Robert Mason as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: THE five stelae which are the subject of this article have been in the possession of The Queen's College, Oxford, for nearly a hundred years, for it was in 1841 that they came to the College together with a large number of other objects, under the will of the Rev. Robert Mason. The title of the old inventory of this collection runs as follows: 'Queen,s College Oxford. A List of the collection of . Egyptian Etruscan. Greek. Roman British and other Antiquities Form,d by the Late BevRobert Mason D .. D.. From the collections of Messrs. Belzoni Salt. Burton. Millengen & Others. 1822. to . 1839.' Our five stelae are listed as 'Paintings on Stone--5 '. As this appears to be the only record of them, it cannot be ascertained which of the early collectors brought them from Egypt. But a companion to No.1 is now in the British Museum, and two other stelae which were made for the same persons as our Nos. 2 and 3 are now in the Museum fiir Volkerkunde, Stuttgart. All eight doubtless originally came from Abydos. We are greatly indebted to the Provost and Fellows of The Queen's College for permission to publish these monuments, and to Prof. Gunn for suggesting this work and for a number of helpful criticisms. Stelae Nos. 1 and 2 are here dealt with by Smither, and Nos. 3, 4, and 5 by Dakin. No.1 Catalogue No. 1109.1 Round-topped stela of white limestone (PI. xx, 1); height, 49 om.: width, 30 cm.: present thickness, 3·2 cm.2 The figure of the man and the hieroglyphs are boldly incised, and although there is no attempt to render interior detail, the formaof the signs and their grouping are on the whole good. There are no traces of paint. It may be dated to the end of the Twelfth or to the Thirteenth Dynasty. The inscription is a copy of the well-known hymn to Osiris, edited by Selim Hassan in Hymnes religieux du Moyen Empire, 5 ff.3 The most interesting feature of the stela is its very close resemblance to another one now in the British Museum (Reg. No. 243).4 Both were made for the same man, a certain Khentekhtayeml,1et, and their dimensions appear to have been the same.5 The following differences have, however, been noted. On the British Museum stone the wig and skirt of the man are modelled differently, there is no framing-line before him, and he occupies a rectangular space to the left of II. 5-9, instead of 11. 4-9 as on our stela. The line-to-line arrangement of the text and the grouping of some of the signs also vary. But on the whole


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, Fisher et al. describe a scene of a religious procession in which the barks of Miit and Khons are carried by sixteen porters of the inferior clergy, marked by their white shoulder-sashes.
Abstract: THE tomb in question (No. 284) is one of those excavated by Dr. Fisher for the University of Philadelphia, all of which are still unpublished. It belonged to one Pahomneter (~ (1 V, 'scribe of the god's offerings of the divine lords ofThebes', with a wife named Bekwerel (? ~=~;7',~) and a father Ra




Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the article as discussed by the authors, the authors describe the removal of two holes from a statue of Senusert II or III of the XIIth Dynasty from a vestibule of a temple dedicated to Arsaphes at Ahnas el-Medinah.
Abstract: EXCAVATING for the Egypt Exploration Fund in the season of 1891 at Ahnas el-Medinah, the site of the ancient Heracleopolis, Dr. Naville discovered, in a vestibule of a temple dedicated to Arsaphes, a statue bearing the names and titles of Ramesses II (see PIs. i-iii),! It was acquired by the University Museum, Philadelphia, as a gift of Mrs. John Harrison in 1891, and bears the number E. 635. In the original publication Naville stated: 'It is of good Nineteenth Dynasty workmanship.f Professor Petrie, however, excavating in the same site in 1904, found a fellow statue badly broken up, and wrote: 'The statue found by Dr. Naville ... is not \"of Rameses II ... of good XIXth Dynasty workmanship\".... both are older works than Ramessu II, but appropriated by him. On Dr. Naville's statue the traces of older sculpture are shown (Almas 1, C.), and similar lines of the earlier design, and erasure of an earlier name from the belt, are on the second statue. Probably both statues are of Senusert II or III of the XIIth Dynasty, whose names occur here.\" It must be said in passing that the drawing, Ahnas, PI. i, C, mentioned in this passage cannot represent the statue in the University Museum, for the inscription on our statue is not the same, and our statue, as far as I have been able to discern, contains no trace of earlier sculpture. It would seem that this drawing, Ahnas, PI. i, C, and Ehnasya, Pl. xix, reproduce the left side of the throne of the second statue discovered years later by Petrie. The Philadelphia statue is of unpolished light yellow quartzite, the entire body and face, and the sides of the throne, being painted red, and the stripes of the head-cloth alternately blue and yellow, now much faded. Its maximum measurements are: height, 2·26 m. j width (at bottom), 0·73 m. j depth (at bottom), 1·46 m. Its weight is about four tons. There are several peculiarities that it may be well to note at this point. 'l'here is a holeabout 0'075 m. deep and 0·06 m. in diameter on the left side of the base, a few inches nearer the back than the front. There is another hole4 about 0·033 m. deep and 0·04 m, in diameter on the side of the left foot near the heel, and a third, about 0·155 m. deep, on the front righthand corner of the base (which apparently caused the breaking away of this corner of the base). The two first-mentioned holes were still filled-in when the statue was found, as may be seen in the original photograph.P The hole on the front right-hand corner was evidently also filled in, because plaster can be felt if one sticks a finger into the opening. These holes were evidently filled in anciently with plaster which was picked out by an attendant of our Museum. 'fhat he picked some more plaster out of this statue will be seen below. It occurred to me at first that these holes might have been made for the transportation of the statue, but Our chemist, Mr. Horton, has convinced me that they are too rough and irregularly shaped inside to have been drilled, and that they are solution-holes which were there before