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Showing papers in "Journal of entomology and zoology studies in 2014"


Journal Article
TL;DR: Insect’s immune responses as melanization, lysozyme level and phenoloxidase (PO) modify the physiology and morphological behavior against different factors like diets, gases and chemicals, which influence the insects and their population dynamics.
Abstract: Insects are powerful and rapid adaptive organisms with high fecundity rate and short life cycle. Due to human interruption in agro-ecosystem and global climatic variations are disturbing the insect ecosystem. Erosion of natural habitats, urbanization, pollution and use of chemicals in agroecosystem manifold the intensity of environmental variations. Both a-biotic (temperature, humidity, light) and biotic (host, vegetative biodiversity, crowding and diets) stresses significantly influence theinsects and their population dynamics. In response to these factors insect may prolong their metamorphic stages, survival and rate of multiplication. Insect’s immune responses as melanization,lysozyme level and phenoloxidase (PO) modify the physiology and morphological behavior against rndifferent factors like diets, gases and chemicals.

82 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: Light is shed on deltamethrin induced various toxicities during acute and chronic exposure in different species.
Abstract: Pyrethroids are synthetic organic compounds synthesized from chrysanthemum flowers that are used extensively as household and commercial insecticides. The keto-alocoholic esters of chrysanthemic and pyrethroic acid being lipophilic are responsible for its insecticidal properties. Pyrethroids are broadly classified into first and second generation pyrethroids. The first generation (Type 1) pyrethroids are less toxic to mammals than the second generation (Type II) pyrethroids. Mainly Type II pyrethroids cause paresthesia, which is characterized by transient burning/tingling/itching sensation of the exposed skin. Also, it has been suggested that some pyrethroids cause developmental neurotoxicity, but available evidence has been judged to be insufficient. While some pyrethroids have been shown to cause tumors in rodent models, the tumor induction does not appear to reflect a common carcinogenic endpoint for this particular subset of compounds. Deltamethrin is an alpha-cyano pyrethroid insecticide used extensively in pest control. Although initially thought to be least toxic, a number of recent reports showed its toxicity in mammalian and non-mammalian laboratory and wildlife animal species. The article sheds light on deltamethrin induced various toxicities during acute and chronic exposure in different species.

58 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: TLC depicted significant increase in all fishes following exposure to Manganese, and DLC was observed to register an increase in number of lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils but a decrease in neutrophils, basophils and thrombocyte population.
Abstract: In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the effect of heavy metal Manganese (MnSO4) on the haematological parameters of fish Garra gotyla gotyla for 9 weeks experimental duration. 96 hours LC50 value of Manganese for G. gotyla gotyla was found to be 3.2 mg/l and three concentrations viz. 20%, 40% and 60% of LC50 were employed during experimental period. The parameters evaluated include total erythrocyte count (TEC), haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), total leucocyte count (TLC) and differential leucocyte count (DLC). Compared to control groups, TEC, Hb and Hct were found to exhibit significant decline whereas MCV and MCH exhibited overall increase in all concentration groups while MCHC contrarily exhibited fluctuating pattern. TLC depicted significant increase in all fishes following exposure to Manganese. DLC was observed to register an increase in number of lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils but a decrease in neutrophils, basophils and thrombocyte population.

34 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: Role of House fly as a disease vector of humans and livestock is explained and combinations of several methods like Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program is recommended for the effective and efficient results.
Abstract: Housefly, Musca domestica, has a long history of association with animals, which still are suffering from its harmful impacts. It occupies human and livestock premises and acts as a source of nuisance and annoyance to them. The present bibliographical study explains role of House fly as a disease vector of humans and livestock. This article highlights various aspects of the life of the said pest that includes its general description-morphology, biology, life cycle, its pest status and major control strategies. The pest is cosmopolitan in nature and shows holometabolous metamorphosis as it passes through all stages of development like egg, larva, pupa and adult which takes 10 to 14 days for its completion. Its life span is between 15 to 30 days. With respect to control strategies of the said pest, it was reviewed that chemical control is the most common and efficient technique but dependence on insecticide for fly control isrndecreasing due to increased insecticide resistance and environmental constraints. Biological control with natural enemies also provides reasonable results for outdoor control. Indoors control is mainly dependent on light and odor baited traps. Therefore combinations of several methods for the control of House fly population like Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program is recommended for the effective and efficient results.

27 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Sexual Size Dimorphism (SSD) was investigated in the millipede genus Chersastus and an allometric coefficient of 0.85 found corroborates Rensch’s rule in this genus.
Abstract: Sexual Size Dimorphism (SSD) was investigated in the millipede genus Chersastus. Mass, length and width were used to compare intraspecific variation in four species. Interspecific variation in volume was calculated in 18 species and an allometric coefficient of 0.85 found, which corroborates Rensch’s rule in this genus.

27 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: The present investigation was conducted to study the diversity of nectariferous and polleniferous bee flora and to develop a floral calendar for Anjaneri and Dugarwadi hills and revealed that 52 plant species were useful to honeybees, out of which 29 were agricultural crops and 23 wild plants.
Abstract: The present investigation was conducted to study the diversity of nectariferous and polleniferous bee flora and to develop a floral calendar for Anjaneri and Dugarwadi hills. The flowering plants were visited and observed for the presence and foraging activities of honeybees. Plants were scored as bee foraging species when at least three honeybees had visited to the flowers within the period of 10 minutes. The results revealed that 52 plant species were useful to honeybees, out of which 29 were agricultural crops and 23 wild plants. The identified flora was further grouped into pollen, nectar and both pollen and nectar yielding plants. Mid-December to February and mid-July to September were identified as honey flow periods and mid -April to midJune were the critical dearth periods during the year. Based on the availability, utility status and flowering duration of flora, floral calendar was developed for the study area.

26 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, a review of mudskipper species and their potential use as an ecological indicator in coastal waters has been presented, which will lead to new researches, methodologies, discussions and efforts to overcome the global problem of coastal water pollution and degradation of coastal ecosystems.
Abstract: Mudskippers are important for their biological and eco-toxicological studies and recognized as potential bio-indicator in environmental monitoring and assessments of coastal waters and tropical or subtropical soft bottom intertidal systems. Mudskippers are very sensitive to ambient environment and this potential would be beneficial for new researches on this species especially its ecological importance in detecting pollution levels in coastal water ecosystems. Using these organisms as bio-indicator of pollution, environmental quality programme could be established. Regularly discharged pollutants have imminent detrimental effect on the flora and fauna of coastal ecosystems especially mangrove ecosystems and tropical mudflats. Abundance and distribution of mudskippers on land as well as in coastal waters could be considered as a direct indicator of habitat health. Protecting and improving the state of coastal waters and mangrove forests ecosystems which are the natural habitat for mudskippers, mudskipper populations can be protected. Controlling garbage, untreated waste waters, pollutants, nutrients directly into the coastal waters will definitely help in protecting mudskippers. The review contains an update on our knowledge of mudskipper species and its related research fields in special reference to their potential use as an ecological indicator in coastal waters. The contents of this review will leads to new researches, methodologies, discussions and efforts to overcome the global problem of coastal water pollution and degradation of coastal ecosystems.

26 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors reviewed the record and feasible use of different predator species belonging to several insect orders and families, as well as some arachnid species against tomato leafminer T. absoluta in different parts of the world, especially the tomato producing countries.
Abstract: Although the tomato leafminer T. absoluta is a native pest to South America, it invaded many countries in center and north Europe and North Africa. Moreover, it has become an economically important insect in the major tomato-producing countries because its larvae reduce tomato yield and cause great losses of the fruit quality. The use of predators, as biocontrol agents, is an important alternative to the chemical insecticides. The present article reviewed the record and feasible use of different predator species belonging to several insect orders and families, as well as some arachnid species. This review provided, also, an insight on the predator as potential biocontrol agents againstrnT. absoluta in different parts of the world, especially the tomato producing countries. In addition, the integration between predators and some other biocontrol agents, and conservation of the indigenousrnnatural predators in relation to T. absoluta had been discussed.

22 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: The growth retardation, including reduced weight and prolongation of larvae may possibly interrupt the production of insect hormoneecdysone level in insect body which also delayed the pupation.
Abstract: Methanolic extract of different parts of Artemisia annua, (Leaf, shoot, and seed) and essential oil were evaluated for their effect on growth and development of larvae of Helicoverpa armigera. The experiments were done by the incorporation of different extracts and essential oil in semi- synthetic diet at two percent concentration. Among leaf, stem, seed extract and essential oil treatments the larval weight was reduced by diet containing essential oil (69.71%) and leaf extract of A. annua (60.21%) as compared to control. The prolongation of larval and pupal period and an average more than fifty percent IGR activity was recorded by the treatments of A. annua extract and essential oil. The growth retardation, including reduced weight and prolongation of larvae may possibly interrupt the production of insect hormone- ecdysone level in insect body which also delayed the pupation. Physiological effects found in treated larvae included formation of larva pupa intermediate and adultoids.

20 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: A survey of 49 species of butterflies under 5 families and 36 genera were recorded during May, 2013 to April, 2014 in the Sarojini Naidu College campus, Dum Dum, Kolkata as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Butterflies are one of the most important assemblages of insects that act as biodiversity indicators as well as nature’s gardeners. Owing to habitat destruction for developmental activities in urban environment and unscientific management of natural resources, much of our native butterflies are fast disappearing and at present, their survival is under threat. The objective of the present survey is focussed on the assessment of the diversity and seasonal abundance of butterfly with vegetation composition of habitat and conservation priorities in the study area. A total of 49 species of butterflies under 5 families and 36 genera were recorded during May, 2013 to April, 2014 in the Sarojini Naidu College campus, Dum Dum, Kolkata. Nymphalidae was recorded as the most dominant family in terms of number of species, represented by 20 species followed by Lycaenidae (12), Pieridae (10), Papilionidae (6) and Hesperiidae (1). Out of these 49 species, five species come under the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. This study is aimed towards contributing to the plan of biodiversity restoration in our campus and development of management strategies so as to ensure sustenance of butterflies and ecosystem services derived from them.

19 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: The study showed that bee colonies were performing well probably that the African honeybees is adaptive and coexist with the mites, and authorities are advised to come up with an urgent monitoring programme to determine mite infestation levels and its effects to honeybee colonies in the managed and feral colonies.
Abstract: Assessment of parasitic mites (Varroa spp) infesting the colonies of African honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata) was conducted in 25 districts of Tanzania mainland from August, 2010 - May, 2012. The research investigated the occurrence, prevalence and examined diagnostic features of Varroa mite’s infestation in colonies. Purposive sampling was used in each district; three apiaries and hives were randomly selected for inspection. Interviews, direct observation and experimental set up were the main data collection techniques used to gather the information. The results revealed the presence of Varroa mites in honeybee in 23 (92%) out of 25 studied districts. Out of 175 inspected honeybee colonies, 85 (48%) were found infected with mites. Infestation levels showed significant relationship with changing altitudes, being highest (219 mite count) at altitudes ranging between 1201 and 1500 m a.s.l. The study showed that bee colonies were performing well probably that the African honeybees is adaptive and co-exist with the mites. Authorities are advised to come up with an urgent monitoring programme to determine mite infestation levels and its effects to honeybee colonies in the managed and feral colonies.

Journal Article
TL;DR: Five species of jumping spiders are being described from South India, among these, Viciria diatreta Simon, 1902 has been reported after a span of 112 years from its first description, and two new species namely Chrysilla jesudasi sp.
Abstract: Five species of jumping spiders are being described from South India. Among these, Viciria diatreta Simon, 1902 has been reported after a span of 112 years from its first description, two species Phintella volupe (Karsch, 1879) and Thyene bivittata Xie & Peng, 1995 are new records in India, and two new species namely Chrysilla jesudasi sp. nov. and Stenaelurillus sarojinae sp. nov. are being described and illustrated. This artilce has been updated on the World Spider Catalog at following web page: http://wsc.nmbe.ch/refincluded/12736. Following LSID were given to the new species: Chrysilla jesudasi LSID: [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:047200] Stenaelurillus sarojinae LSID: [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:047201]

Journal Article
TL;DR: The haematological and serum biochemical parameters of two catfishes Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus of Odisha were investigated and compared using One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey’s pair wise comparison tests.
Abstract: Aim of this study was to investigate the haematological and serum biochemical parameters of two catfishes Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch, 1794) and Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758) of Odisha. In this study, the estimated values were compared between the two species of catfishes as well as with respect to sex. Haematological parameters such as haemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leucocyte count(TLC), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) and the serum biochemical parameters like protein, albumin, globulin, glucose and cholesterol were measured and compared between and within the species as well as with respect to sex using One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey’s pair wise comparison tests. All haematological parameters differ significantly (p<0.001) between C. batrachus and H. fossilis except PCV and MCV. Except albumin all biochemical parameters differ significantly between C. batrachus and H. fossilis.

Journal Article
TL;DR: Results suggest a safer potential of these natural extracts toward disturbing the biology and invasion of stored product pest, T. castaneum and indicate a definite potential towards incorporation of these extracts in pest management programs and towards optimizing food security through utilizing them as bio-pesticides.
Abstract: Acetone based plant extracts of Nigella sativa, Syzygium aromaticum and Trachyspermum ammi was assessed against the stored pest of processed commodities, Tribolium castaneum. Periodic analysis for the repellence, by impregnating half-filter paper disc and at various concentrations (5, 10, 15%), was done. Trials showed significant repellent effects as T. ammi (76.67%) followed by S. aromaticum (76.54%) and N. sativa (64.32%). Overall, the T. ammi extracts were proved to be more repellent followed by S. aromaticum and N. sativa. Results suggest a safer potential of these natural extracts toward disturbing the biology and invasion of stored product pest, T. castaneum. Results also indicate a definite potential of these extracts towards incorporation of these extracts in pest management programs and towards optimizing food security through utilizing them as bio-pesticides.

Journal Article
TL;DR: It can be concluded that both the botanicals can be used as effective tool against T. castaneum along-with other IPM tactics.
Abstract: Study was aimed at the use of indigenous medicinal plants to check the invasion of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) against wheat grains. Acetone leaf extracts of turmeric (Curcuma longa) and garlic (Allium sativum) were used to evaluate their antifedant, toxicant, and growth regulatory effects against adults of T. castaneum. Four concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20 %) of each extractalong-with a control treatment with five replications were applied. Thirty adults of T. castaneum were subjected to different treatments. Results painted that percent mortality was directly proportional to increasing concentration of extracts. Both A. sativum and C. longa significantly reduced the larval, pupal and adult emergence as well as percent weight loss (at α 5%) but A. sativum performed better as compared to the C. longa. Hence it can be concluded that both the botanicals can be used as effective tool against T. castaneum along-with other IPM tactics.

Journal Article
TL;DR: Halomma anatolicum anatolicUM and Rhipicephalus (Boophlilus) microplus are the most common vector species infesting buffalo and cattle in this state and the seasonal epidemiology of ticks and the associated management practices to adopt are discussed.
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the diversity and intensity of hard tick species infesting domestic buffalo and cattle from Haryana, India. A total of 17 collections were performed from 10 allopatric populations during the study period of August 2011 to January 2013. Out of a total number of 662 animals surveyed, 309 animals were found infested with ticks from three different genera of family Ixodidae and a total of 867 ticks were collected and identified. The genera recorded were Hyalomma Koch, 1844, Rhipicephalus Koch, 1844 and Dermacentor Koch, 1844. Tick species identified of the three genera were Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum Koch, 1844, Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum Koch, 1844, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini, 1888), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (Koch, 1844) and Dermacentor spp. The present study revealed that Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Rhipicephalus (Boophlilus) microplus are the most common vector species infesting buffalo and cattle in this state. The level of infestation, the seasonal epidemiology of ticks and the associated management practices to adopt are discussed.

Journal Article
TL;DR: This review summarizes some of the important reproductive strategies in phytophagous acarine pest, Tetranychus urticae, which is an economically important agricultural pest with a global distribution which feeds on a wide range of host plant species throughout the world.
Abstract: This review summarizes some of the important reproductive strategies in phytophagous acarine pest, Tetranychus urticae Koch 1836. It is an economically important agricultural pest with a global distribution which feeds on a wide range of host plant species throughout the world. The rapid developmental rate, high reproductive potential, and arrhenotokous parthenogenesis in T. urticae allows them to achieve damaging population levels very quickly when growth conditions are good, resulting in an equally rapid decline of host plant quality. Moreover, webbing, habitat preference on the underside of leaves, ballooning and high dispersal rate provide additional benefit to the expanding populations of two spotted spider mite, T. urticae.

Journal Article
TL;DR: According to the positive cases between the patients, there should be some regular screen programs to recognize the chronic and acute infections especially in pregnant women.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine seroprevalence of and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii among pregnant women in Karaj township of Alborz province by ELISA method. The blood samples were taken from 400 pregnant women referred to the health centers of Karaj township. IgM and IgG titers and effects of some factors on incidence of the disease were appraised. Anti Toxoplasma IgM and IgG were positive in 1% and 29% respectively. Seropositive subjects were more frequently seen in women with age >30 years compared to younger women. No significant relationship was found among the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection and level of education, residence area, history of abortion and gestational age. According to the positive cases between the patients, there should be some regular screen programs to recognize the chronic and acute infections especially in pregnant women.

Journal Article
TL;DR: The lack of adequate sanitary conditions in the area could be responsible for the large number of mosquitoes collected and health education could help in sensitizing the inhabitants.
Abstract: Nigeria has a high burden of vector borne diseases such as malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF). This study aimed to determine the species composition of mosquitoes in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria as well as determine their role in malaria and LF transmission. Adult mosquitoes were collected by Pyrethrum Spray Catch (PSC) and identified and graded according to their abdominal conditions. The mosquitoes were dissected to determine the parity status and to check for microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti. The presence of circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum was examined using ELISA. A total of 1600 mosquitoes were collected of which 31 (1.9%) were Anopheles gambiae s.l. while 1756 (98%) were Culex sp. None of the mosquitoes examined was positive for Plasmodium falciparum and Wuchereria bancrofti. The lack of adequate sanitary conditions in the area could be responsible for the large number of mosquitoes collected. Health education could help in sensitizing the inhabitants.

Journal Article
TL;DR: Bamboo glasses was the richest habitat from where 4 species were recovered while no larvae were found in the tyres, and Aedes albopictus was found to be the dominant and frequently distributed specie.
Abstract: A study of mosquitoes was conducted to identify the population dynamics, relative abundance, distribution and habitat preferences of mosquitos of University of Peshawar Campus. Six habitats including discarded containers, waste water open drains, bamboo glasses, rain water pools, flower vases and tyres were used for the collection of immature stages of mosquitoes. A total of 2419 adult mosquitoes (1433 females and 985 males) comprising six species viz. Aedes albopictus (57.1%), Aedes unilineatus (2.52%), Aedes walbus (2.8%), Armigeres subalbatus (3.84%), Culex quinquefasciatus (33.7%) and Anopheles stephensi (0.04%) were recovered from all studied habitats. Ae. Albopictus was found to be the dominant and frequently distributed specie. Cx. Quinquefasciatus was the second dominant specie with moderate distribution. Ar. Subalbatus, Ae. unilineatus and Ae. W-albus were all identified as sub-dominant species with the former two as infrequent and the later one as sporadic species. An. stephensi was identified as satellite cum sporadic species during the study. Bamboo glasses were the richest habitat from where 4 species were recovered while no larvae were found in the tyres. The highest number of mosquitoes were detected during October (481) while the lowest in December (224).

Journal Article
TL;DR: The variation in abundance of different species of insectivorous birds was found to be dependent on the availability of variety of crops, number of nesting sites and density of perching trees in the vicinity of agro-ecosystems.
Abstract: A majority of bird species are insectivorous that check the buildup of insect pest species in agro-ecosystems. A study on insectivorous bird communities was conducted at selected ten major agro-ecosystems in the Bengaluru region. Thirty eight species of insectivorous birds belonging to 17 families under 26 genera were recorded. The number of insectivorous bird species was highest in Chandapura, Hesaraghatta and Thippagondanahalli and lowest at Sarjapura regions. The percentage of population density of insectivorous birds was highest in Hesaraghatta (14.23) and lowest at Somanahalli (6.99). The relative percent abundance of Apus affinis was highest (8.36) and it was recorded lowest (0.01) for Parus nuchalis. Muscicapidae was the most abundant family. Maximum insectivorous bird species belonged to Motacillidae and Muscicapidae (six each). The variation in abundance of different species of insectivorous birds was found to be dependent on the availability of variety of crops, number of nesting sites and density of perching trees in the vicinity of agro-ecosystems. The current study will be helpful for preparing and implementing the explicit conservation plans for insectivorous avifauna in different agro-ecosystems.

Journal Article
TL;DR: The present findings indicated that the essential oil of A. conyzoides aerial parts and two major constituents have potential for use in control of Ae.
Abstract: During our mass screening program for new agrochemicals from the wild plants and Chinese medicinal herbs, essential oil of Ageratum conyzoides L. (Compositae)aerial parts at flowering stage exhibited strong larvicidal activity against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. Essential oil of A. conyzoides aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. A total of 32 components of the essential oil were identified and the principal compounds in the essential oil were precocene II (45.75%), precocene I (14.09%), and caryophyllene (12.13%) followed by germacrene D (4.18%) and caryophyllene oxide (4.06%). The essential oil had higher content (59.84%) of phenylpropanoids than monoterpenoids (3.70%) and sesquiternoids (33.01%). The essential oil of A. conyzoides aerial parts exhibited larvicidal activity against Ae. albopictus with an LC50 value of 61.22 μg/ml while the two major constituents, precocene I and precocene II had LC50 values of 43.55 μg/ml and 41.63 μg/ml, respectively. The present findings indicated that the essential oil of A. conyzoides aerial parts and two major constituents have potential for use in control of Ae. albopictus larvae and could be useful in search of newer, safer and more effective natural compounds as larvicides.

Journal Article
TL;DR: Salinity was determined to be the most important environmental variable affecting ostracod species distribution and its relation to environmental factors (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and salinity) by using Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA).
Abstract: This study was carried out in order to determine Ostracoda fauna of Lake Bafa (Aydin-Mugla, Turkey) and investigate their distribution from 20 sites in February, May, July and September of 1997. The ostracods assemblages comprised a mixture of 14 freshwater and brackish-marine origin species. The most common and abundant species were the brackish-water ostracods Cyprideis torosa and Loxoconcha elliptica. According to Shannon-Weiner diversity index, it was found that Lake Bafa had a mean diversity value of H’= 0.85. The ostracod abundance showed an increase in the warmer period starting from late spring and reached maximum values in May. We analysed the dominance and distribution of ostracod assemblages and their relation to environmental factors (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and salinity) by using classification and ordination techniques. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to characterize the relationship between ostracods and the environmental variables. According to the first axis of CCA, we determined salinity to be the most important environmental variable affecting ostracod species distribution. According to Jaccard similarity coefficient (Jaccard Index) analysis results, sampling stations and ostracod species assemblage were clustered into two groups with the non-weighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean based on presence/absence of species. Besides multivariate analysis, Spearman correlation analysis indicated that some species (Cyprideis torosa. torosa, Loxoconcha elliptica, Cytheroisrnfischeri, and Leptocythere lacertosa) had a positive correlation with salinity, whereas there are strong negative correlations between salinity and other nine species, which are, more related to freshwater environments

Journal Article
TL;DR: The Crimson rose (Pachliopta hector Linnaeus, 1758) was the most abundant among all the recorded butterfly species in the Sundarbans.
Abstract: A total 37 species of butterflies under 7 families were recorded during June 2011 to March 2013 in the Sundarbans mangrove forest of Bangladesh. Out of this total, 10 species were newly recorded. Among the 37 recorded butterflies, 8 species belong to Nymphalidae, 6 to Danaidae, 3 to Papilionidae, 5 to Pieridae, 8 to Lycaenidae, 5 to Satyridae, and 2 to Hesperidae family. Large numbers of butterflies were observed during summer season (April to June). The Crimson rose (Pachliopta hector Linnaeus, 1758) was the most abundant among all the recorded butterfly species in the Sundarbans. The present list of butterfly is not exhaustive and future exploration will be continued to update this checklist. Habitat destruction is the major threat to butterflies similar to other wild animals and some evidences of such activities were recorded during this study.

Journal Article
TL;DR: The results revealed that the extracts of the two plant species caused a considerable reduction in the number of weevils and the combination of neem seed kernel extract and leaf extract of M. koenigii was the most effective in checking insect infestation and allowing the least number of F1 adults to emerge from the seeds over other treatments.
Abstract: A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the efficacy of different plant derivatives against the development of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)fed on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (W) seeds. The leaf extracts of romatic plants, Murraya koenigii and Azadirachta indica (A.Juss) were evaluated for their growth, adult mortality and oviposition inhibition of C. maculatus. The results revealed that the extracts of the two plant species caused a considerable reduction in the number of weevils. The combination of neem seed kernel extract and leaf extract of M. koenigii was the most effective in checking insect infestation and allowing the least number of F1 adults to emerge from the seeds over other treatments. Acetone leaf extracts of M. koenigii were more toxic to adult beetles compared to ethanolic extracts. Thus, the botanicals acted as insect antifeedant and the order of toxicity of various treatments on cowpea weevil were: combination of neem seed kernel extract + M. koenigii leaf extract > neem > M. koenigii.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, an attempt has been made to study culture of lac in non-conventional method of cultivation in peripheral and buffer zones of Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR) where farmers are practicing in a conventional way.
Abstract: The lac insect, Kerria lacca Kerr (Coccoidea: Homoptera) is well known for its valuable resin. It thrives on host plants like Palas, Kusum and Ber. An attempt has been made to study culture of lac in non-conventional method of cultivation in peripheral and buffer zones of Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR) where farmers are practicing in a conventional way. The initial density of settlement of larva ranged between 92.58-126.74 no. /cm2 and 93.12-109.62 no. /cm2 in Kusmi strain on Kusum and Ber trees, respectively. For Rangeeni strain it was 82.67-118.32 no. /cm2. The sex ratio (male: female) was found to be 1:3 for all the crops, strains and host plants. The range of resin output per cell was 17.00-21.40 mg for winter crop and 19.00-25.60 mg for summer crop of Kusmi strain on Kusum and Ber plants. For Rangeeni strain on Palas plant it was 05.30-11.20 mg for rainy crop and 18.72 -23.00 mg for summer crop. Moreover, the temperature influenced the life cycle, life span and resin output of this insect. Pruning of trees meet the firewood requirement as fuel and also for household uses, also prevents deforestation and conserve the forest ecosystem. Lac insect has some vertebrate predators like monkeys, squirrels, rats, lizards, woodpeckers, birds and insect predators are Lepidopterans (Eublemma amabilis, Pseudohypatopa pulverea) and Neuropterans (Chrysopa madestes, C. lacciperda). So directly or indirectly lac cultivation helps in conservation of

Journal Article
TL;DR: The petroleum ether and hexane root extracts proved to be the most effective ovicides against Ae.
Abstract: Laboratory evaluations were carried out to evaluate the oviposition altering and ovicidal efficacy of root extracts of Argemone mexicana against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti The extracts were prepared in five different solvents; petroleum ether, hexane, benzene, acetone and ethanol Our studies established the efficacy of the non-polar extracts over the polar extracts The oviposition deterrence studies established the petroleum ether root extract as the most efficient extract, with percent effective deterrence of 21% at 40 ppm reaching to 100% at 1000 ppm The petroleum ether root extract also showed a high effectual deterrence at 100 ppm (ED% - 73%) at which other extracts were rendered comparatively ineffective Most of the other extracts were not found to be significantly effective at lower concentration but showed gradual increase in the deterrent potential with increasing concentrations On 24 h exposure of freshly laid eggs of Ae aegypti with different root extracts, the non-polar extracts showed appreciable ovicidal potential at higher concentrations The petroleum ether and hexane root extracts proved to be the most effective ovicides against Ae aegypti eggs causing only 49 and 89% hatch respectively at the highest concentration The benzene root extracts showed an appreciable decrease in the egg hatchability at higher concentrations but could not sustain their ovicidal effect at lower concentrations The polar extracts, however, were the least effective ovicidal agents

Journal Article
TL;DR: Species richness and diversity of butterflies were investigated in and around Kumaun University, Nainital and Uttarakhand, India during the study period with maximum number of individuals and species of butterflies recorded during the rainy season followed by summer and winter.
Abstract: Species richness and diversity of butterflies were investigated in and around Kumaun University, Nainital and Uttarakhand, India. The study area was represented by sub temperate forest ecosystem and surrounded by a series of hills. A total of 897 individuals of butterflies belonging to 27 species and 8 families of the order Lepidoptera were recorded during the study period. Family Pieridae was the dominant family with 373 individuals representing 8 species and constituted 41.91% of the total individuals of butterflies recorded during the study period. Nymphalidae was the second most dominant family with 6 species, followed by Danaidae (4 species), Papilionidae (3 species), Satyridae, Lycaenidae (2 species each), Acraeidae and Erycinidae (1 species each). Pieris brassciae nepalensis Doubleday (Family: Pieridae) was the most dominant species and constituted 22.96% of the total individuals of butterflies recorded, followed by Aglais cashmirensis Kollar constituting 14.6% and Venessa indica Herbest which constituted 10.03% of the total individuals of butterflies collected. Maximum number of individuals and species of butterflies were recorded during the rainy season followed by summer and winter. Across the study maximum value of Shannon-Wiener diversity index was 2.375 and across the season maximum diversity was 0.987 recorded in the rainy season.

Journal Article
TL;DR: A comprehensive report of Acridid fauna of this region is given for the first time and localities surveyed and distribution of each species collected from Rajasthan is discussed.
Abstract: Thirty seven species of locusts and grasshoppers representing twenty five genera and eleven subfamilies belonging to the family Acrididae are reported from different localities of Rajasthan. Localities surveyed and distribution of each species collected from Rajasthan is discussed. Their distinguishing characters and keys to subfamilies, genera and species wherever necessary are given. A comprehensive report of Acridid fauna of this region is given for the first time.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the water quality and organic pollution of Shadegan and Hawr Al Azim wetlands by biological indices using insects during October 2011 to September 2012 were evaluated and the results of the biological monitoring working party index indicated that the abundance of family with medium or lower scores was high.
Abstract: In this study the water quality and organic pollution of Shadegan and Hawr Al Azim wetlands by biological indices using insects during October 2011 to September 2012 were evaluated. The results of the biological monitoring working party index indicated that the abundance of family with medium or lower scores was high. The evaluation results of water quality and organic pollution of these wetlands by Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera, average score per taxon and family biotic indexes indicated that the water quality had a fair to very poor condition assessing probable severe pollution, and likely substantial to severe organic pollution. Also the dominant family index indicated the community was under the influence of environmental stress in these wetlands. Totally assessing outcomes of these biological indices from these wetlands showed that their water quality had a poor condition and they can be used as valuable tools for evaluating the wetland water quality.