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Showing papers in "Journal of Experimental Medicine in 1910"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The first avian tumor that has proved transplantable to other individuals was reported in this article, which was accomplished by the use of fowls of pure blood from the small, intimately related stock in which the growth occurred.
Abstract: In this paper is reported the first avian tumor that has proved transplantable to other individuals. It is a spindle-celled sarcoma of the hen, which thus far has been propagated into its fourth tumor generation. This was accomplished by the use of fowls of pure blood from the small, intimately related stock in which the growth occurred. Market-bought fowls of similar variety have shown themselves insusceptible, as have fowls of mixed breed, pigeons and guinea-pigs. The percentage of successful transplantations has been small, but in the individuals developing a tumor its growth has been fairly rapid. Young chickens are more susceptible than adults. The reinoculation of negative fowls has never resulted in a growth. Throughout, the sarcoma has remained true to type. It is infiltrative and destructive. Metastasis has been observed once (to the heart). Experiments to determine whether the growth may be transmitted by cell-fragments have not yet been made. Repeated bacteriological examinations have yielded negative results. In its general behavior, so far as tested, this avian tumor closely resembles the typical mammalian neoplasms that are transplantable.

346 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A group of tumors, the nature of which has hitherto escaped general recognition, is called attention, and their distinguishing characteristics are pointed out.
Abstract: The object of this paper is to call attention to a group of tumors, the nature of which has hitherto escaped general recognition, and to point out their distinguishing characteristics. These tumors are rich in cells which may vary nmch in size and shape. They may be pervaded by connective tissue by which the cells are arranged in more or less definite alveoli. Blood vessels accompanied by connective tissue are also present. The essential cells of the tumor are considered to be more or less undifferentiated nerve cells or neurocytes or neuroblasts, and hence the names neurocytoma and neuroblastoma. They are considered to be neurocytes or neuroblasts for the following reasons: I. The cells, at least in places, are associated with delicate fibrils,. often of considerable length, which do not stain like neuroglia, collagen or fibroglia fibrils by Mallory's methods, and which are like the fibrils occurring in the \"an lage\" of the sympathetic nervous system. 2. The cells associated with these fibrils have the same morphology as the cells from which the sympathetic nervous system and the medulla of the adrenal develop, and which are regarded by embryologists as arising from migrated primitive nerve cells. They are generally small, with round nuclei rich in chromatin, and have a relatively small or imperceptible amount of cytoplasm. Some of them may be of piroform shape and their cytoplasm may be prolonged into filamentous processes like the fibrils referred to above. 3The cells and fibrils are arranged in places in ways more or

191 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The chain of symptoms which occur in highly sensitized guinea-pigs shortly after an intravenous or intracardiac injection of the toxic dose and usually end in death are defined.
Abstract: 1. By an immediate anaphylactic reaction we mean the chain of symptoms which occur in highly sensitized guinea-pigs shortly after an intravenous or intracardiac injection of the toxic dose and usually end in death. 2. Immediate anaphylactic death occurs three to five minutes after the toxic injection in highly sensitized guinea-pigs. 3. Immediate anaphylactic death in guinea-pigs is caused by asphyxia; cessation of respiration is secondary to this asphyxia. 4. This asphyxia is apparently produced by a tetanic contraction of the smooth muscles of the bronchioles, which occludes their lumen gradually, so that finally no air enters or leaves the lung, in spite of violent respiratory efforts; the animal is strangulated. 5. The stage of complete broncho-constriction is preceded by a short broncho-dilatation, if the bronchioles have been in a state of tonus previous to the injection of the toxic dose. 6. Anatomically, the lungs of these guinea-pigs are typical and may be used as an indicator of the immediate anaphylactic state when the animal has been immobilized by curarin or by pithing. 7. The lungs of a guinea-pig killed by immediate anaphylaxis are distended and in an inspiratory position so that the diaphragm is pushed down; no marked collapse occurs when the chest is opened and when the lungs are excised in toto; their color is a pale bluish-pink ; the surfaces and borders are smooth; no foam is in the trachea or large bronchi; pieces of lung cut off do not collapse, float lightly on water, and contain a good amount of air and little fluid which escapes on pressure. The blood in the lungs and heart is black when the autopsy is made at once after the cessation of respiration. 8. Section of the vagi in the neck, or curarin (artificial respiration) exerts no appreciable effect on the development of immediate anaphylaxis. 9. This immobilization of the lungs, which is due to a broncho-constriction, is of peripheral origin, for destruction of the spinal cord and medulla affects in no appreciable way the promptness and extent of the typical lung response to the injection of the toxic dose. Artificial respiration is, of course, necessary. At the present time we do not care to state whether the toxic dose exerts its effects upon the bronchial muscles alone or upon the vagus motor endings or upon both structures. 10. The blood pressure in immediate anaphylaxis first shows a rise, which may be considerable; a short maintenance of this high level and then a gradual drop to IO to 20 millimeters of mercury and even less, within ten minutes after injection of the toxic dose. 11. Shortly after injection of the toxic dose a heart block develops, so that auricles and ventricles may beat in a 3:I rhythm; the block is probably due to asphyxia. 12. The cardiac vagus gradually loses its irritability after injection of the toxic dose. 13. Cooling of the guinea-pig delays the reaction to the toxic injection.

107 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The nature of the virus has been discovered, many of its properties have been ascertained, some of its immunity effects have been established, the clinical and pathological peculiarities of the disease have been elucidated, and a basis has been secured to develop measures of prevention.
Abstract: The experimental study of poliomyelitis has yielded a large number of important facts relating to the spontaneous disease in man. The nature of the virus has been discovered, many of its properties have been ascertained, some of its immunity effects have been established, the clinical and pathological peculiarities of the disease have been elucidated, and a basis has been secured on which to develop measures of prevention.

70 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that arteries can be preserved outside of the body in a condition of unmanifested actual life and the transplantation of preserved vessels can be used with some safety.
Abstract: When a segment of artery, killed by heat, formalin or glycerin is transplanted, it undergoes a rapid degeneration. Its muscle fibers disappear while the tissue of the host reacts by building a new wall of connective tissue. When the transplanted vessel has been preserved in a condition of latent life, no degeneration of the wall occurs, or the wall undergoes only partial degeneration. The muscle fibers can keep their normal appearance, even for a long time after the operation. It is, therefore, demonstrated that arteries can be preserved outside of the body in a condition of unmanifested actual life. The best method of preservation consists of placing the vessels, immersed in vaselin, in an ice box, the temperature of which is slightly above the freezing point. From a surgical standpoint, the transplantation of preserved vessels can be used with some safety. When the arteries were kept in defibrinated blood or vaselin and in cold storage, the proportion of positive results was 75 and 80 per cent., and this can probably be increased.

45 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It was shown that individuals differ as hosts for transplanted embryo, some being naturally resistant to its growth, and some favorable, just as is known to be the case where tumor is concerned.
Abstract: The present paper deals with a comparison of the conditions which determine the fate of transplanted tumor and of a transplanted normal tissue capable of growth. Mouse embryo and mouse-tumor were employed as material. It was shown that individuals differ as hosts for transplanted embryo, some being naturally resistant to its growth, and some favorable, just as is known to be the case where tumor is concerned. The fate of implanted tumor depends directly on whether it elicits from the host a vascularizing stroma. So, too, it is with implanted embryo. Furthermore mouse-embryo, like mouse-tumor, when introduced into rats calls forth a stroma and grows for a brief period. In attempt to answer the question as to whether individuals favorable (or resistant) to implanted tumor are likewise favorable (or resistant) to implanted embryo, it was shown that the factors of age, nutritive condition, and race, which are potent in determining an animal's status as a tumor-host, act similarly in determining that for embryo. Using embryonic tissue and a method which has proven effective for the production of immunity to implanted tumor, an immunity to implanted embryo was brought about. This immunity manifests itself in the same way as that for implanted tumor, namely, by an absence of the stroma-reaction necessary to life of the engrafted tissue. These results demonstrate how largely tumor obeys in its adaptation to a new host and growth therein, the general laws regulating a transplanted normal tissue. Besides the phenomena here dealt with many others that have held the attention of workers with transplantable tumors are probably not peculiar to neoplasm. The present findings emphasize the importance of the tumor-problem as a tissue-problem; and they further indicate how essential it is in cancer work to discriminate between characters unique with tumor and those which it possesses in common with normal tissue.

41 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The technique of the transplantation of organs has been very much improved and simplified in the course of the experiments made during the last two years at the Rockefeller Institute, and the relative importance of the biological and surgical factors in the evolution of transplanted organs is determined.
Abstract: The technique of the transplantation of organs has been very much improved and simplified in the course of the experiments made during the last two years at the Rockefeller Institute. The grafting of a kidney or a spleen on the renal or the splenic vessels has become an easy and safe operation. Vascular or ureteral complications occur very exceptionally, and, after the operation, the animals remain generally in good health. From a surgical standpoint the problem of the graft of organs can be considered as having been solved. But, from a biological standpoint, no conclusion has thus far been reached because the interactions of the host and of its new organ are still practically unknown. The study of these interactions was very difficult because the complications which followed the operation were of widely different kinds. 2 In most cases it could not be ascertained whether the cause of the accidents was biological or surgical, and biological causes were sometimes held responsible for accidents due merely to a fault of technique. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a method making it possible to determine the relative importance of the biological and surgical factors in the evolution of transplanted organs. This method consisted merely in using a technique the details of which were identical whether the organ was grafted on the same animal or on another animal of the same species. Should an organ, extirpated from an animal and replanted into its owner by a certain technique, continue to functionate normally and should it cease to functionate when transplanted into another animal by 1 Received for publication December 29, I9o9.

30 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors' experiments show a marked difference in the distribution of fluid and of osmotically active substances in nephrectomized animals and in animals injected with uranium nitrate, which may explain the much greater liability to the development of edema in animals injecting with uranium Nitrate.
Abstract: 1. In the experiments recorded in this paper the influence of the osmotic pressure of the blood upon absorption of fluid from the peritoneal cavity becomes apparent. Nephrectomy, removal of the adrenals, and other operations increase the osmotic pressure of the blood and increase the absorption of fluid from the peritoneal cavity. On the other hand, ether narcosis, at the period at which we tested its influence, causes neither an increase of osmotic pressure of the blood nor an increase in the absorption of fluid from the peritoneal cavity. 2. The increased osmotic pressure and increased absorption of fluid in nephrectomized animals is to a great extent not a specific effect of the removal of the kidneys, but approximately the same conditions can be observed after incisions of the skin and muscles. 3. After poisoning with uranium nitrate and in cases of peritonitis, complicating factors come into play, and under such conditions the absorption from the peritoneal cavity is not increased, notwithstanding the higher osmotic pressure of the blood. 4. In conditions in which the osmotic pressure of the blood is very high before the injection of sodium chloride solution into the peritoneal cavity (nephrectomized rabbits or rabbits injected with uranium nitrate three days previously), adrenalin causes no increase, or only a very slight one, in the absorption of peritoneal fluid. On the other hand, one day after the injection of uranium nitrate the osmotic pressure of the blood is only slightly increased before the injection of the sodium chloride solution into the peritoneal cavity, and here adrenalin causes a marked increase in absorption of fluid from the peritoneal cavity. 5. In animals injected with uranium nitrate the retention of sodium chloride and other osmotically active substances in the blood is not entirely due to interference with the functions of the kidney. This retention may be explained either by an inability of the tissues to bind the sodium chloride and other osmotically active substances or to a diminished permeability of the blood vessels for such substances. 6. While in nephrectornized animals the elimination of sodium chloride from the peritoneal cavity and also from the blood is increased, in animals injected with uranium nitrate such an elimination is diminished. This increase in the sodium chloride content of the peritoneal fluid in animals treated with uranium nitrate is accompanied by a decrease in the diffusion of other osmotically active substances into the peritoneal cavity. 7. While in nephrectomized animals and in animals injected with uranium nitrate one day previously, adrenalin causes a diminution of the fluid retained in the blood-vessels similar to the diminution noted in normal animals, adrenalin no longer exerts such an effect at a later stage of the uranium nitrate poisoning. At this period after the administration of uranium nitrate, the retention of fluid in the blood vessels is apparently equal in experiments with and without the injection of adrenalin, and following the absorption of fluid from the peritoneal cavity, the retention of fluid in the blood vessels in the uranium nitrate animals is increased comparatively to a greater extent than in normal animals. 8. Our experiments show a marked difference in the distribution of fluid and of osmotically active substances in nephrectomized animals and in animals injected with uranium nitrate. This difference may explain the much greater liability to the development of edema in animals injected with uranium nitrate.

29 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
Jean V. Cooke1
TL;DR: Evidence has gradually accumulated, both direct and indirect, indicating some definite relation, the nature of which is as yet quite obscure, between the kations of calcium salts and certain forms of muscle irritability.
Abstract: Within the past few years evidence has gradually accumulated, both direct and indirect, indicating some definite relation, the nature of which is as yet quite obscure, between the kations of calcium salts and certain forms of muscle irritability. The observations recorded may be summarized as follows : ( I ) Abnormal muscular twitchings and contractions may be brought about in an organism by a reduction in the proportion of calcium (or magnesium) in the muscles or blood (J. Loeb) ; (2) the injection into the animal body of any salt liable to precipitate calcium causes twitchings of the muscles (J. Loeb); (3) in tetany of children, the calcium content of the brain has been found lowered (Quest); (4) infantile tetany has shown marked improvement following the administration of calcium salts (Netter) ; (5) soluble calcium salts exert a wonderful curative effect on the tetany in dogs following parathyroidectomy (MacCallum and Voegtlin). In a recent communication MacCallum and Voegtlin ~ describe a series of experiments in which they found an increased excretion of calcium in the urine and feces of parathyroidectomized dogs during tetany. They also found a decrease in the calcium content of the brain and blood of dogs in tetany as compared with normal

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results obtained show that adrenalin, transfusion with salt solution, and the inhalation of tobacco smoke caused an increased circulation in the coronary vessels, indicating that the blood pressure is the main element which influences coronary circulation, while the other factors play only a minor part in its variations.
Abstract: The results obtained show that adrenalin, transfusion with salt solution, and the inhalation of tobacco smoke caused an increased circulation in the coronary vessels. Amyl nitrite and nitroglycerin produce the opposite effect. Digitalis, strophanthus, caffeine, and theobromine give no change in the velocity of circulation. We can conclude from the results that the blood pressure is the main element which influences coronary circulation, while the other factors play only a minor part in its variations.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: From the foregoing experiments, the conclusion may be drawn that B. bifidus communis of Tissier has an aerobic phase, in which it resembles B. mesentericus fuscus.
Abstract: From the foregoing experiments, the conclusion may be drawn that B. bifidus communis of Tissier has an aerobic phase, in which it resembles B. mesentericus fuscus. Numerous intermediate phases can occur between these two extremes; and their morphological and biological variabilities demand the utmost attention in order to interpret more intelligently the various phases of a given organism, constantly found in the stools of sucklings, and to avoid the artificial creation of two or more organisms from a single microbic type.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The eleven horses subjected to simultaneous immunization against diphtheria and tetanus toxins, each horse being subsequently continued on the toxin to which it responded best, showed an increase of from 40 to 114 per cent in the total serumglobulin, and the high content of protein in this plasma probably influenced the precipitation limits.
Abstract: Gravimetric determinations were recorded for the total and several individual proteins (in the sodium oxalate plasma) fractioned with ammonium sulphate and sodium chloride. At precipitation, the plasma salt mixture had been diluted to a final volume of ten times the amount of plasma employed. Coagulations were on aliquot portions of filtrates, and the individual protein constituents (except serumalbumin) were calculated by difference. The eleven horses had been subjected to simultaneous immunization against diphtheria and tetanus toxins, each horse being subsequently continued on the toxin to which it responded best. Test bleedings of about 500 cubic centimeters only were made until maximum antitoxic potency (with almost coincident greatest variation See PDF for Structure in the contents of the several proteins) had been attained; routine bleedings of four to ten liters for antitoxin production were then instituted. The two refractory, one medium and the eight horses yielding a highly potent antitoxic plasma, all showed an increase of from 40 to 114 per cent. in the total serumglobulin. For the refractory animals, this increase was 59.3 and 87.9 per cents. In one refractory and in one high horse, the serumglobulin maximum preceded the highest concentration in antitoxin. In seven of the horses, the greatest increase in the total serumglobulin was coincident with the maximum antitoxic potency. The serumglobulin increase, however, tended relatively to precede that of the antitoxin. In the two other horses, both maxima also were observed together; no "intermediate" bleedings were made in these two instances. The greatest absolute increase in the serumglobulin was observed in the most potent plasma obtained in the series; the second place, however, went to a refractory horse. Subsequent to the maxima, the serumglobulin content was maintained at high concentration, in spite of repeated bleedings; it then only roughly paralleled the antitoxic variations in the plasma of the individual animals. At dilutions of the plasma in the precipitated mixtures of 1:15, 1:5 and 1:10, the ammonium sulphate "euglobulin" fraction amounted to about 60 to 70, 20 to 24 and 10 to 15 per cents., respectively, of the total serumglobulin in both the normal and the antitoxic plasma. In an 850 unit plasma, an increase in the "euglobulin" over the normal percentage was observed, but the high content of protein in this plasma probably influenced the precipitation limits. The influence of the protein concentration is indicated by the different percentages for the "euglobulin" obtained for the three dilutions of 1:15, 1:5 and 1:10. The "euglobulin" then was not increased to a greater extent than the "pseudoglobulin" as the result of immunization, as has at times been maintained. See PDF for Structure The "euglobulin" precipitated by saturating the plasma with sodium chloride (at ultimate dilution of the plasma 1:10) was much greater in normal plasma than the ammonium sulphate "euglobulin" at the same dilution. There was a tendency in early immunization for this sodium chloride "euglobulin" to increase along with the total serumglobulin; it rapidly diminished, however, until at the height of immunization and maximum serumglobulin concentration, it may have reached less than half the normal absolute amount. The serum albumin was diminished a third to a half the normal along with the serumglobulin increase. Subsequent to the anti- See PDF for Structure toxic and serumglobulin maxima, figures as low as a fifth of the original serumalbumin content have been noted. It is suggested that this diminution of the sodium chloride "euglobulin" and the serumalbumin is a physiological compensation for the greater viscosity of the plasma because of the increase in the more soluble serumglobulins. No characteristic alteration in the fibrinogen of the plasma was observed during immunization. Individual variations up to 0.5 gram per 100 cubic centimeters of plasma have been recorded. The influence of repeated bleedings does not essentially influence the protein changes induced by immunization. These remarkable regenerative processes are worthy of note. The results of our investigation indicate that in "forced" immunization, the same characteristic quantitative changes can occur in the blood proteins of both refractory horses and those yielding a highly potent antitoxic plasma. We cannot conclude, however, that the serumglobulin increase does not represent an accumulation of antitoxin, at least in part; it is possible that other antibodies may be formed either prior to or along with the specific antitoxin and that these may constitute a portion of the increase in the more soluble serumglobulin with which protein such substances are associated.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Rabbit infected in the testicle with the spirochetæ of yaws as well as with those of syphilis and the infection can be continued through successive generations in pure culture makes possible the investigation of the problems of cultivation, of immunity and of treatment.
Abstract: 1. Rabbits can be infected in the testicle with the spirochetae of yaws as well as with those of syphilis and the infection can be continued through successive generations in pure culture. 2. The infection shows itself by enlargement of the testicle and the presence of a nodule varying in size from that of a pea to that of an olive. The infection consists in a necrosis of the tubules, an infiltration of round cells and the new formation of an edematous connective tissue. 3. The complement fixation reaction occurs in rabbits infected with the spirochetae of yaws as well as in those infected with the spirochetae of syphilis. 4. This lesion makes possible the investigation of the problems of cultivation, of immunity and of treatment.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The general conclusion to be reached as the result of this experiment is to the effect that the drinking of a large amount of water with meals was attended by many desirable and by no undesirable features.
Abstract: The daily drinking of three liters of water with meals, for a period of five days, by a man twenty-two years of age who was in a condition of nitrogen equilibrium through the ingestion of a uniform diet, was productive of the following findings : 1. An increase in body weight, aggregating two pounds in five days. 2. An increased excretion of urinary nitrogen, the excess nitrogen being mainly in the form of urea, ammonia, and creatine. 3. A decreased excretion of creatinine and the coincident appearance of creatine in the urine. The decreased creatinine output is believed to indicate that the copious water drinking has stimulated protein catabolism. The appearance of creatine is considered evidence that the water has caused a partial muscular disintegration resulting in the release of creatine, but not profound enough to yield the total nitrogen content of the muscle. The output of creatine is, therefore, out of all proportion to the increase in the excretion of total nitrogen. 4. An increased output of ammonia which is interpreted as indicating an increased output of gastric juice. 5. A decreased excretion of feces and of fecal nitrogen, the decrease in the excretion of fecal nitrogen being of sufficient magnitude to secure a lowered excretion of both the bacterial and the non-bacterial nitrogen. 6. A decrease in the quantity of bacteria excreted daily. 7. An increase in the percentage of total nitrogen appearing as bacterial nitrogen. 8. A lower creatinine coefficient. 9. A more economical utilization of the protein constituents of the diet. 10. The general conclusion to be reached as the result of this experiment is to the effect that the drinking of a large amount of water with meals was attended by many desirable and by no undesirable features.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Pure cultures of an acid-fast bacilli were cultivated upon special media from the human tissues in four cases of leprosy and the successful cultivation of B. lepræ and the fact that the cultures retain pathogenic properties are of commanding importance in respect to a possible production of an artificial immune serum for combating the infection in man.
Abstract: Pure cultures of an acid-fast bacillus were cultivated upon special media from the human tissues in four cases of leprosy. The nature of the growth, morphological characters and tinctorial properties do not differ for any of the cultures and correspond closely to the bacilli in the human leprous tubercles. That the bacillus of leprosy will multiply and continue to do so indefinitely outside of the animal body was first demonstrated by Clegg who cultivated an acid-fast organism from leprosy tissue in the presence of ameba and their symbiotics. Not only have I been able to confirm Clegg's work, but in addition I have succeeded in growing the bacillus in pure culture and in reproducing the disease in the Japanese dancing mouse, thereby establishing its identity. This species of animal acquires the infection in four to six weeks after intraperitoneal or subcutaneous inoculation with either emulsions of fresh leprous tissue or the pure cultures of B. leprae. Comparatively few bacilli are necessary to infect the mouse; and the mode of inoculation does not seem to make any appreciable difference in respect to the nature and time of development of the lesion. The experimental lesions are proliferative in character and identical with those in the human subject. Macroscopically they appear as glistening, white nodules which, in the early stages of development, resemble miliary tubercles. In my experience neither the cultures nor the bacilli directly from the human tissues have shown any evidence of multiplication or given rise to lesions when injected into the ordinary laboratory animals such as guinea pigs, rabbits, gray and white mice and rats, although repeated attempts have been made to infect these animals. B. leprae will not only multiply but it will colonize on a plain agar medium seeded with a pure culture of encysted ameba (Plate LVIII, Fig. 5), and upon an agar or banana medium prepared with a I per cent. solution of cystein and tryptophane. Colonization occurs in the form of glistening, white colonies, one to two millimeters in diameter, in from one to two months incubation. The bacilli in cultures are at all times acid-fast and differ only in morphology from those of the tissues in that they exhibit a greater variation in the distribution of the chromatin and are longer and more distinctly curved. To prove that the cultures obtained from the human tissues of these four cases are leprosy bacilli and not some other acid-fast species, the following facts are offered: (1) the growth features are distinctive and multiplication takes place only under special conditions of temperature and medium; (2) the complete correspondence in tinctorial properties and similarity in morphology to those in the tissues; (3) the failure to multiply or produce lesions in the common laboratory animals; and (4) the growth of the bacilli and the production of typical leprous lesions in the Japanese dancing mouse. The successful cultivation of B. leprae and the fact that the cultures retain pathogenic properties are of commanding importance in respect to a possible production of an artificial immune serum for combating the infection in man. Work along this interesting line is already in progress in our laboratories.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The catalytic activity of the blood of normal rabbits varies almost directly with the volume and number of red blood cells, which explains to a certain extent at least why healthy large animals should read high while small poorly nourished ones should read low.
Abstract: The catalytic activity of the blood of normal rabbits varies almost directly with the volume and number of red blood cells. This explains to a certain extent at least why animals of the same general degree of nutrition, and of the same litter, should have about the same activity since they are likely to have the same number of red blood cells, and why healthy large animals should read high while small poorly nourished ones should read low. Accompanying the hyperpyrexia resulting from puncture of the corpus striatum of a rabbit's brain, there is no change in either the catalytic activity of the blood or the white blood count. In experimentally produced peritonitis, the catalytic activity of the blood always rises, and is, therefore, absolutely independent of body temperature and white blood cells since one or both of these may rise, fall or remain stationary while the catalytic action increases.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: From the evidence which the authors have at hand it is not possible to state that the proliferative changes in the intima are uniformly secondary to the weakening of the media.
Abstract: We agree with Jores and others that not one but many factors may be at work leading to intimal hyperplasia. Among these factors may be mentioned infection, bacterial toxins, organic poisons, inflammation and increased arterial tension. The theory of Thoma that the connective tissue developed in the intima is compensatory cannot be sustained. From the evidence which we have at hand it is not possible to state that the proliferative changes in the intima are uniformly secondary to the weakening of the media. Common influences may act simultaneously upon the media and the intima. Progressive medial degeneration of the peripheral arteries (Moenckeberg's sclerosis) is the result of muscle fatigue coupled with nutritional disturbance.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Morphologically, the guinea-pig sarcosporidia derived from Sarcocystis muris are identical with those found by the writer in the biceps of a Barbadian negro, and both probably represent abortive or aberrant forms.
Abstract: 1. Guinea-pigs, naturally uninfected by sarcosporidia, were infected by feeding them with rat's muscle that was naturally infected by Sarcocystis muris, and by ripe mobile sporozoites from the same source. The infection was not visible grossly, but was detected upon very careful search through many sections of muscle. 2. Sarcosporidia were not found in the guinea-pigs until after an interval of 164 days from the first feeding, or 152 days after the most favorable feeding, when many teased-out mobile sporozoites were fed. 3. The prolonged period of incubation or latency, and the greater time required for infection of guinea-pigs here over that required by Negri (7) in Pavia, may be related to the fact that the experiment here was conducted in the tropics where the guinea-pig is a native. 4. Sarcosporidia of this apparently abortive type in unusual hosts cannot be specifically identified until their derivation and host relationships have been determined. 5. Morphologically, the guinea-pig sarcosporidia derived from Sarcocystis muris are identical with those found by the writer in the biceps of a Barbadian negro, and both probably represent abortive or aberrant forms.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It would appear, as a result of testing this preparation at the end of two and a half years, that the agglutinating function and the toxic function are two distinct properties.
Abstract: 1. By following the method of Osborne, Mendel and Harris, we can obtain an extremely potent toxin from the castor bean. 2. It would appear, as a result of testing this preparation at the end of two and a half years, that the agglutinating function and the toxic function are two distinct properties. 3. This result is also borne out by the behavior under the electric current; either we are dealing with two different substances or else with a single substance with two distinct toxiphore groups, one of which is stable and the other labile.

Journal ArticleDOI
A. I. Ringer1
TL;DR: These results confirm the work of Straub and Ritzmann which indicates that adrenalin, by its constricting effect on the blood vessels, produces anemia of the tissues, resulting in imperfect oxidation, and this anemia is followed by the conversion of glycogen into dextrose by hyperglycemia and consequently by glycosuria.
Abstract: I. Intraperitoneal injections of adrenalin into animals which are completely under the influence of phlorhizin and which are free from glycogen do not result in any extra elimination of sugar. This proves that adrenalin does not cause a conversion of fat into carbohydrates, as is maintained by Blum and by Eppinger, Falta and Rudinger. II. The high D:N ratio 5.2 and 6.1 reported by Eppinger, Falta and Rudinger after adrenalin injections in depancreatized dogs, which were obtained after short periods of six hours and four hours respectively, can be explained by the elimination of carbohydrates present in the organism. III. These results confirm the work of Straub and Ritzmann which indicates that adrenalin, by its constricting effect on the blood vessels, produces anemia of the tissues, resulting in imperfect oxidation, and this anemia is followed by the conversion of glycogen into dextrose by hyperglycemia and consequently by glycosuria.

Journal ArticleDOI
John Auer1
TL;DR: Depriving the bronchial muscles of one side of the lungs of their motor innervation does not interfere with sensitization nor the production of the typical anaphylactic lung, there is, therefore, direct sensitization of the muscle substance.
Abstract: Depriving the bronchial muscles of one side of the lungs of their motor innervation does not interfere with sensitization nor the production of the typical anaphylactic lung. There is, therefore, direct sensitization of the muscle substance. Complete degeneration of the vagus nerve, after sensitization has occurred, interferes in no appreciable way with the course of immediate anaphylaxis. Partial degeneration of the vagus nerve, so that the bronchodilator fibers are still physiologically active, after sensitization has taken place, exerts no effect on the symptoms and lung picture of immediate anaphylaxis (very acute anaphylaxis with death after some minutes). No definite evidence was obtained regarding the function of the motor nerve endings in the bronchial muscles in anaphylaxis. The two sides of the lungs in immediate anaphylaxis may occasionally be unequal; when this occurs, the left side, especially the lower lobe, is usually fuller than the right side.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It seems, therefore, that the catalytic power of the developing egg is formed from the contents of the egg which themselves show little action, by the developing germinal portion, independent of all external influences except heat (38° C.) and air.
Abstract: A. The catalytic activity of the tissues of newly born and adult rabbits. 1. There is practically no difference between the catalytic power of the blood, brain or muscle of newly born and adult rabbits. 2. The kidneys and lungs are less active in the newly born, but increase rapidly during the first days of life. 3. The liver is more active in the newly born than in the adult rabbit. B. The catalytic activity of the developing hen's egg. 1. The entire fresh egg has a slight but definite catalytic power which remains practically constant even though the egg be kept for several months at room temperature. 2. The separate parts of the egg, germinal center, yolk and white have practically no activity when tested individually. 3. The entire unfertilized egg shows no catalytic activity even after incubation at 38° C. for twenty-one days. 4. The germinal portion of the incubated fertilized egg rapidly acquires the power of decomposing hydrogen peroxide, while the yolk and white together or separately show no such increase, nor is there any activity to be found in the amniotic fluid. 5. It seems, therefore, that the catalytic power of the developing egg is formed from the contents of the egg which themselves show little action, by the developing germinal portion, independent of all external influences except heat (38° C.) and air.

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TL;DR: This investigation supports the view, frequently entertained by clinicians, that the respiratory changes in the apices of the lungs are not as good as those of the rest of the Lungs, and it disproves the claim of some physiologists that a decrease or increase of pressure at any part of the lung must be equally distributed through all parts ofThe lungs.
Abstract: The changes of the respiratory pressure within the esophagus, as well as within the posterior mediastinum, differ greatly in their various levels. They are best in the section between the heart and the diaphragm; they are moderate from the upper aperture of the thorax to above the tracheal bifurcation, and they are. very much reduced in the region of the bifurcation and the heart. In the latter case the normal respiratory changes are reduced in their transmission to the mediastinum by the intervention of the inelastic tissues of the bifurcation and the heart. The difference in the changes of the respiratory pressure between the low^er and the upper part of the mediastinum is due to a difference in the respiratory changes of pressure between the lower and upper parts of the lungs. The changes in the respiratory pressure which begin in the lower part of the lungs lose some of their force on their way to the apices of. the lungs. In artificial respiration by intratracheal insufflation there is no difference in the respiratory pressures between the upper and the lower parts of the lungs. This investigation supports the view, frequently entertained by clinicians, that the respiratory changes in the apices of the lungs are not as good as those of the rest of the lungs, and it disproves the claim of some physiologists that a decrease or increase of pressure at any part of the lungs must be equally distributed through all parts of the lungs, a claim based upon merely a priori physical considerations.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Anaphylaxis or allergy of rabbits against horse serum can be proved by subcutaneous test by means of a small hypodermic syringe and intradermal inoculations of horse serum in a sensitized rabbit and a suppression of allergy which would correspond to the so-called anti-anaphylactic could not be proved.
Abstract: 1 Anaphylaxis or allergy of rabbits against horse serum can be proved by subcutaneous test 2 The test is best made in the following way The skin of the animal, preferably of the abdomen or flank, is shaved (This should be done a few hours before the injection) The injection is made by means of a small hypodermic syringe and intradermally An effort was made not to inject the serum under the skin Those injections were considered most favorable by which the serum remained as a small bleb in the skin proper Undiluted horse serum was used for most of the experiments The amount injected varied from 00I cubic centimeter to I cubic centimeter The reaction seemed as definite after 00I cubic centimeter as after a larger quantity See PDF for Structure 3 The specific reaction appears in from twelve to twenty-four hours after the test is made and reaches its maximum in from twenty-four to thirty-six hours It consists of a local swelling extending from 05 to 2 centimeters from the point of inoculation The skin involved in the raised area is usually red and hotter than the surrounding skin Macroscopically and microscopically the reacting area has the appearance of a local acute inflammation 4 The altered reactivity (allergy) or hyper-susceptibility (anaphylaxis) sets in usually in from ten to fifteen days after the first injection of horse serum, and lasts at least three months Individual rabbits show marked variation from the average time of the development of anaphylaxis 5 The appearance of precipitines against horse serum in the blood of rabbits appears nearly synchronously with the allergic condition 6 After large injections of serum the allergic rabbits still react subcutaneously A suppression of allergy which would correspond to the so-called anti-anaphylaxis could not be proved 7 Also in regard to the offspring of injected rabbits the subcutaneous test was not positive The young of these rabbits did not develop a more active allergy than the young of normal rabbits 8 Neither the injection of considerable quantities of horse serum nor the development of a marked local reaction in the skin after intradermal inoculations of horse serum in a sensitized rabbit is accompanied or followed by greater variations in the number or types of leucocytes in the circulating blood than is found in control animals

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It follows from the authors' experiments that this mechanism, which causes the ascites in edematous persons to have such a high osmotic pressure, is not dependent upon certain pathological changes in the lining membranes or upon other pathological conditions, but exists already in normal animals.
Abstract: 1. Adrenalin injected intraperitoneally increases the rapidity of absorption of fluid from the peritoneal cavity, independently of whether the solution to be absorbed is hypotonic or hypertonic or is approximately isotonic with the blood serum. The intravenous injection of adrenalin also increases the absorption of fluid, but not so markedly as does the intraperitoneal injection. 2. Adrenalin injected either intraperitoneally or intravenously increases the quantity of sodium chloride absorbed. The relative absorption of sodium chloride-the movement from the peritoneal cavity of sodium chloride, as compared with the movement of water-is slightly increased when 0.85 per cent. of sodium chloride solution and adrenalin are injected intraperitoneally; but it is diminished when adrenalin is injected intravenously, or when 1.5 per cent. sodium chloride solution and adrenalin are injected. When distilled water has been injected intraperitoneally, adrenalin decreases the relative amount of sodium chloride in the peritoneal fluid-a fact that is evidently related to the increased elimination of sodium chloride through the kidneys under the influence of adrenalin. 3. When 0.85 per cent. sodium chloride solution is injected into the peritoneal cavity, the blood becomes diluted after two hours and a half. When adrenalin is also injected, the dilution of the blood is less marked, in spite of the increased absorption under the influence of adrenalin. When distilled water is injected into the peritoneal cavity, the blood is diluted equally in control and adrenalin experiments. When 1.5 per cent. sodium chloride solution is injected, the dilution of the blood is very slight, and in adrenalin experiments it is the same as in control experiments or very slightly greater than in control experiments. 4. The increase of absorption from the peritoneal cavity caused by the injection of adrenalin is not due to the increased diuresis caused by the injection of this substance. 5. The injection of adrenalin causes a temporary increase in the osmotic pressure of the blood, which gradually returns to normal. Under certain conditions, after the injection of adrenalin, there is a tendency toward maintaining the higher osmotic pressure of the blood serum, even up to the end of the experiment. We have reason to believe that this increase in the osmotic pressure of the blood is the main factor in increasing the absorption of fluid from the peritoneal cavity. 6. In experiments in which 0.85 per cent. sodium chloride solution has been injected intraperitoneally, either with or without adrenalin, there exists a tendency of the peritoneal fluid to attain a greater osmotic pressure than the blood serum, in spite of the fact that the injected fluid is slightly hypotonic as compared with the blood serum. We note a similar condition in cases of general edema in man, in which the osmotic pressure of the ascitic fluid is greater than that of the other edematous fluids, or even that of the blood serum. There exists, therefore, a mechanism that causes the passage of osmotically active substances from the blood or from the tissues into the peritoneal cavity, and that causes the osmotic pressure of the peritoneal fluid to become higher than that of the blood. It follows from our experiments that this mechanism, which causes the ascites in edematous persons to have such a high osmotic pressure, is not dependent upon certain pathological changes in the lining membranes or upon other pathological conditions, but exists already in normal animals. 7. The addition of 1.22 per cent. calcium chloride solution to 0.83 per cent. sodium chloride solution, in such proportions as we used in our infusion experiments, in which we determined the transudation into the peritoneal cavity, delays the absorption of fluid from the peritoneal cavity but very slightly. Therefore, calcium chloride increases directly the transudation into the peritoneal cavity and does not cause an increase in the amount of fluid in the peritoneal cavity merely by inhibiting the absorption. 8. It follows that adrenalin does not increase the amount of peritoneal transudate found after the intravenous infusion of large quantities of sodium chloride solution, to which adrenalin has been added, by delaying the absorption from the peritoneal cavity. The increased amounts of peritoneal fluid must be due to increased transudation into the peritoneal cavity; and the adrenalin, in view of its marked effect on absorption from the peritoneal cavity, must increase the movement of fluid into the peritoneal cavity much more strongly than could be assumed from the figures obtained in the infusion experiments.

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TL;DR: These experiments show that it is possible to cause, by the proper use of hydrazine and phosphorus, a very high degree of fatty change in the liver with a minimum of necrosis, involving alike both peripheral and central portions of the lobule and thus eliminating the " factor of safety" or residual normal cells.
Abstract: These experiments show that it is possible to cause, by the proper use of hydrazine and phosphorus, a very high degree of fatty change in the liver with a minimum of necrosis, involving alike both peripheral and central portions of the lobule and thus eliminating the " factor of safety" or residual normal cells. Nevertheless, it is found that such fatty liver tissue has not lost in the least its power to oxidize uric acid when acting upon it in vitro with abundant air supply, nor is the power to oxidize xanthine to uric acid noticeably diminished. Since these two enzymes, and especially the uricolytic enzyme, are about the last to appear in the development of the animal kingdom and also of the individual mammal, it is to be expected that they will be among the first of the enzymes to be destroyed by injurious agencies, but evidently they are not affected by conditions that lead to the highest degree of fatty metamorphosis of the cytoplasm of the hepatic cells. While these experiments merely prove that extreme fatty degeneration does not destroy or appreciably diminish the power of liver cells to oxidize uric acid and xanthine in vitro , yet they suggest that in general fatty degeneration is probably not essentially incompatible with a high degree of metabolic activity by the affected cells. It is possible that in the living tissue functional activity may be decreased secondarily by fatty metamorphosis, as, for example, by the enlarged fatty cells compressing the capillaries and reducing circulatory activity, or by modification of diffusion through the cell by the fat deposits, independent of any deleterious influence upon the cellular enzymes themselves. Other experiments will be required to determine whether steatogenic poisons leave intrahepatic enzymes other than the uricase equally unaffected, but as it has already been shown by Jacoby that the autolytic enzymes and aldehydase in the liver cells are not destroyed by phosphorus poisoning, and Abderhalden and Schittenhelm* found that peptids are hydrolyzed fully as rapidly by phosphorus livers as by normal livers, it seems probable that extreme fatty metamorphosis is not associated with any serious injury to the enzymes by which the liver cells perform their metabolic functions, with the possible exception of those enzymes concerned with the metabolism of fats.