Showing papers in "Journal of Experimental Medicine in 1962"
TL;DR: Results are described which indicate that, when antibody-antigen complexes are incubated in fresh serum, a heat-stable substance (or substances) is produced which acts directly as a chemotactic stimulus on the polymorphs.
Abstract: An in vitro technique is described for assessing the chemotactic activity of soluble substances on motile cells. Antibody-antigen mixtures when incubated (37°C) in medium containing fresh (i.e. non-inactivated) normal rabbit serum exert a strong chemotactic effect on rabbit polymorphonuclear leucocytes. Results are described which indicate that, when antibody-antigen complexes are incubated (37°C) in fresh serum, a heat-stable (56°C) substance (or substances) is produced which acts directly as a chemotactic stimulus on the polymorphs. This heat-stable chemotactic substance is not produced when antibody-antigen complexes are incubated in serum which has been heated at 56°C for 30 minutes.
TL;DR: The mouse was found to be natively susceptible to Listeria monocytogenes, and its susceptibility was attributed to the capacity of the organism to survive and multiplying in host macrophages, while Histological evidence suggested that acquired resistance was the result of a change occurring in the host's mononuclear phagocytes.
Abstract: The mouse was found to be natively susceptible to Listeria monocytogenes . Its susceptibility was attributed to the capacity of the organism to survive and multiplying in host macrophages. During the first 3 days of a primary infection the bacterial populations of spleen and liver were found to increase at a constant rate. On the 4th day of infection the host became hypersensitive to Listeria antigens and at the same time bacterial growth ceased. A rapid inactivation of the organism ensued. Convalescent mice were resistant to challenge, but no protective factor could be found in their serum. Histological evidence suggested that acquired resistance was the result of a change occurring in the host's mononuclear phagocytes. When challenged in vitro , the macrophages of convalescent mice were found to resist infection with Listeria monocytogenes. Listeria -resistant cells appeared during the course of infection at a time which corresponded with the development of the antibacterial mechanism in the spleen. They persisted for as long as the antibacterial mechanism remained intact in this organ. This period of absolute resistance to Listeria lasted about 3 weeks. Thereafter, the host remained hypersensitive but unable to inactivate a challenge inoculum of Listeria . However, it remained capable of producing an accelerated response to reinfection. This was thought to depend upon an ability to generate a new population of resistant cells from a residuum of specifically sensitized macrophages or macrophage precursors still surviving in the tissues as a result of the immunological activation which occurred during the primary infection.
TL;DR: Using the genetic technique of selective inbreeding, it has been possible to quickly develop two statistically separable populations from one unselected strain of Sprague-Dawley rats, one of these very sensitive, the other very resistant, to the development of experimental hypertension from a high salt diet.
Abstract: Using the genetic technique of selective inbreeding, it has been possible to quickly develop two statistically separable populations from one unselected strain of Sprague-Dawley rats. One of these is very sensitive, the other very resistant, to the development of experimental hypertension from a high salt diet. It was suggested that similar genetic factors operate in man.
TL;DR: It is the current working hypothesis that the thymus makes a major contribution toward the centrifugal distribution of lymphoid cells which, in turn, is essential to the full expression of immunologic capacity.
Abstract: In rabbits, complete thymectomy before the age of 5 days produced immunologic deficiency in the adult animals, as indicated by reduced antibody production to bovine serum albumin and bacteriophage T(2). Homotransplantation immunity was unaffected, however. In an inbred strain of mice, complete neonatal thymectomy resulted in complete inability of the 60-day-old animals to form antibody to bacteriophage T(2). Inbred mice, completely thymectomized at birth, had a deficient homograft response, indicated by acceptance of skin homografts from strains differing in both the weaker and stronger (H-2) histocompatibility antigens. Tumor transplants (mammary adenocarcinoma) were also successful across the H-2 genetic barrier in mice thymectomized at birth. Neonatal thymectomy also eliminated the Eichwald-Silmser phenomenon, rendering female mice capable of accepting isografts of male skin. Transplantation immunity in mice was also affected by later thymectomy, at 30 days of age, in certain strain combinations involving weak histocompatibility differences. Spleen and lymph node cells from mice thymectomized at birth or at 6 days of age, and sacrificed 2 months later, did not produce a graft versus host reaction in appropriate F(1) hybrid recipients, indicating that such cells are immunologically inactive. Neonatal thymectomy of F(1) hybrid mice, and in one strain combination thymectomy at 40 days of age, produced animals with inordinate susceptibility to runt disease (homologous disease) following injection of parent strain spleen cells 35 days (neonatal surgery) and 10 days (surgery at 40 days) later. Mice thymectomized at birth also showed growth failure and were short-lived. Studies of newborn mice indicated that they have true lymphocytes only in the thymus, and lack such cells in the spleen, lymph nodes, and gut. In normal mice, adult lymphoid structure develops gradually, beginning during the 1st week of life and continuing for the next month. In contrast, mice thymectomized at birth do not develop mature lymphoid structure: the lymph nodes and spleens tend to be small and poorly organized, and show a quantitative deficiency in lymphoid cells. It is our current working hypothesis that the thymus makes a major contribution toward the centrifugal distribution of lymphoid cells which, in turn, is essential to the full expression of immunologic capacity.
TL;DR: The findings suggest that Bence-Jones proteins are composed of L chains of the type found in normal and pathological γ-globu]ins.
Abstract: The chemical relations among Bence-Jones proteins, myeloma proteins, and normal γ-globulins have been investigated by a variety of means. Starch gel electrophoresis in 8 M urea of reduced alkylated Bence-Jones proteins yielded patterns of bands corresponding to those of the light (L) polypeptide chains of the dissociated myeloma protein from the same patient. One instance in which this correspondence was found was chosen for extensive study. Chromatography on carboxymethylcellulose in 6 M urea was employed to isolate the light (L) polypeptide chains and heavy (H) polypeptide chains of the completely reduced and alkylated myeloma protein. Isolation of similarly treated Bence-Jones protein from the same patient corroborated the correspondence to the L chains of the myeloma protein. Amino acid analyses indicated that the compositions of the Bence-Jones protein and the L chains of the myeloma protein were identical. Moreover, the thermosolubility properties and spectrofluorometric behavior of the isolated L chains and Bence-Jones protein were similar. Ultracentrifugal analyses of the L chains of normal human 7S γ-globulin showed that their molecular weight in 6 M urea was 20,000. In aqueous solution their molecular weight was 41,000, suggesting that they exist as dimers under these conditions. The L chains of normal human γ-globulin were found to have reversible thermosolubility properties similar to those of Bence-Jones proteins. The H chains of normal human γ-globulin did not share these properties. Using spectrofluorometric methods, characteristic molecular transitions were found upon heating Bence-Jones proteins and L chains. These transitions were indicated by an increase in the intensity of fluorescence at well defined temperatures as well as by reversible shifts in the wavelength of maximal emission. The findings suggest that Bence-Jones proteins are composed of L chains of the type found in normal and pathological γ-globu]ins.
TL;DR: In the article by Janoff, Weissmann, Zweifach, and Thomas on Pathogenesis of experimental shock, the values for /micrograms protein/hour and /100 microgramsprotein/hour are given.
Abstract: In the article by Janoff, Weissmann, Zweifach, and Thomas on Pathogenesis of experimental shock. IV, in Text-figs. 4 and 5, for /micrograms protein/hour read everywhere /100 micrograms protein/hour.
TL;DR: The evidence presented supports the view that there exists in myelin a new basic protein responsible for the induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, which is distinctly different from nuclear histones.
Abstract: A relatively simple preparation of guinea pig brain myelin, free of gross contamination by other cellular elements has been described. Electron microscopic evidence of the predominance of membranous (lamellar) forms was used as the criterion of purity of this fraction. The slight mitochondrial contamination of the myelin fraction was confirmed by its low succinic dehydrogenase activity. Quantitative bio-assay of the encephalitogenic activity of myelin showed it to have a higher specific activity than whole guinea pig brain. The low encephalomyelitic activity of the other subcellular constituents (nuclei and mitochondria) which were removed from myelin by ultracentrifugation in 30 per cent sucrose could be explained by a small amount of myelin contamination. A basic protein of high specific encephalitogenic activity has been isolated from myelin by methods previously applied to whole brain. Although the protein is similar to nuclear histones, the following facts point to certain significant differences. Nuclei prepared by a different procedure from the one developed for the isolation of myelin were found to be non-encephalitogenic. Although basic protein could be extracted readily from these nuclei by dilute HCl, the same extraction procedure yielded little extractable protein from whole myelin. Myelin which had been defatted by cold chloroform-methanol yielded a basic protein which was highly encephalitogenic. The evidence presented thus supports the view that there exists in myelin a new basic protein responsible for the induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, which is distinctly different from nuclear histones. The possible relationship of this protein to myelin structure and function has been discussed.
TL;DR: In rats thymectomized at birth and tested in adult life, ability to develop autoallergic encephalomyelitis was completely suppressed, and there was a striking decrease in the circulating level of small lymphocytes.
Abstract: Rats thymectomized at birth gained weight and otherwise developed normally, but were found to be very susceptible to intercurrent infections. Both Arthus reactivity and delayed hypersensitivity to BSA were markedly impaired in rats thymectomized during the first week of life and significantly impaired in rats thymectomized as late as 3 weeks after birth. The inhibition of Arthus reactivity in thymectomized rats was well correlated with their failure to develop significant titers of precipitating or hemagglutinating antibody. However, natural heteroagglutinin titers were not altered in these animals, and no abnormality of serum proteins, including gamma-globulin could be detected by paper electrophoresis. The loss of immunologic activity could not be corrected by injecting homogenates of spleen or thymus before and during the sensitization period. Splenectomy at birth did not influence Arthus or delayed reactivity.
TL;DR: It is concluded that small lymphocytes of the spleen and lymph nodes may come, in large part, directly from the thymus and are not derived from medium and large lymphocyte of the germinal centers.
Abstract: In rats thymectomized at birth and tested in adult life, ability to develop autoallergic encephalomyelitis was completely suppressed, there was a marked diminution in the degree of tuberculin sensitization appearing after a single injection of mycobacteria in oil, rejection of skin homografts was markedly delayed, and adjuvant arthritis was not appreciably affected. At the same time there was a striking decrease in the circulating level of small lymphocytes.
TL;DR: It is concluded that the decreased amino acid incorporation rate reflects depressed synthesis of protein by the liver and other pathological changes in the liver, including necrosis, fatty change, and mitochondrial alterations may be dependent upon severe impairment of protein synthesis.
Abstract: The morphological and certain metabolic effects of carbon tetrachloride intoxication were studied in the rat with emphasis on liver alterations. Morphological changes were investigated by histological and electron microscopical means. Functional changes were investigated using histochemical and amino acid incorporation, techniques. The liver constituents were examined chemically. Plasma volume alterations were measured using dye and homologous protein dilution techniques. The histological appearance of the liver of treated animals included cellular swelling, dispersal of the cytoplasmic basophilia, and necrosis. Electron micrographs showed an early (3 hours following carbon tetrachloride administration) and widespread dislocation of the ribonucleoprotein particles from the membranes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, but no apparent alteration in the mitochondrial structure. Histochemical examination of two mitochondrial enzyme systems, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and succinic dehydrogenase, revealed no alterations in activities until a later time (6 to 12 hours following carbon tetrachloride administration). ATPase showed a gross quantitative decrease in activity at 6 and 12 hours, but not earlier. There was a decreased amino acid incorporation into two liver-produced proteins, viz., albumin and fibrinogen. This decrease is not explicable on the basis of the inability of the liver to take up the amino acid, an altered dilution volume into which the amino acid or formed protein is placed, or an impaired capacity of the liver to excrete protein once formed. It is concluded that the decreased amino acid incorporation rate reflects depressed synthesis of protein by the liver. Other pathological changes in the liver, including necrosis, fatty change, and mitochondrial alterations may be dependent upon severe impairment of protein synthesis.
TL;DR: The H antigen was mapped out by immunofluorescence in human tissues from individuals of the various groups within the ABO system, both secretors and non-secretors, equally valid for antigens A and B described in a preceding study.
Abstract: The H antigen was mapped out by immunofluorescence in human tissues (including those of fetuses from 15 cm crown-heel length) from individuals of the various groups within the ABO system, both secretors and non-secretors. The distribution of the antigen can be summarized under the following headings: Cell walls of endothelium: present throughout the cardiovascular system; Cell walls of stratified epithelia: in skin, non-cornifying squamous stratified membranes, transitional epithelia; Mucus: occurring wherever the latter is produced in secretor individuals and confined to a few special topographical areas in non-secretors; Secretions and excretions: the pancreatic and sudoriferous (independent of secretor status), and mammary and uterine (governed by the secretor makeup) all contain it. The distribution of the H antigen is most fully represented in tissues of group O. It follows an over-all universal pattern, characteristically modified in non-secretors, equally valid for antigens A and B described in a preceding study. Within this pattern, in tissues of the non-O groups, the complement of the H substance in its various forms wanes in a manner consistent with the hypothesis that it serves as a substrate for the A(1), A(2), B genes, exerting their action with different degrees of efficiency. The secretor:non-secretor phenomena can be most simply interpreted by viewing the non-secretor, recessive gene (in the homozygous, ss condition) as inhibiting the production of some of the water-soluble forms of the blood group substances. Since the gene was never found responsible for dissociation of the H and A, B antigens its inhibitory action is thought to be wrought at the point of formation of the basic H substance or its precursor.
TL;DR: Rheumatoid factor fixation, detected by anti-19S antiserum showed promise as a method for the detection of antigen-antibody complexes and aggregated γ-globulin in tissue sections.
Abstract: A technique has been described for the demonstration of a human complement component by an immunofluorescent method. The component detected is beta(1C)-globulin, a moiety of the third complement component, which has previously been obtained in pure form and to which a specific antiserum has been prepared. It has been shown in a model system that the binding of beta(1C)-globulin as shown by immunofluorescence is strictly equivalent to complement fixation as assessed by standard serological methods. This technique has been applied to the detection of in vivo bound complement in pathological human tissues. It was found that in vivo complement binding occurs in the lesions of several human diseases, but not elsewhere in the same tissues. In a rather limited survey of diseases that has been carried out, in vivo complement binding was found particularly in systemic L.E., various nephritides, and amyloidosis, as well as in single cases of some other diseases. The spectrum of in vivo complement binding has been compared with that of gamma-globulin binding (7S and 19S types) and with the demonstration of in vitro complement fixation and rheumatoid factor fixation. It was distinct from each of these. Rheumatoid factor fixation, detected by anti-19S antiserum showed promise as a method for the detection of antigen-antibody complexes and aggregated gamma-globulin in tissue sections. The interpretation of these findings in regard to the nature of the binding sites, and their possible significance in regard to pathogenic mechanisms have been discussed.
TL;DR: Tolerance to traumatic injury, induced by prior conditioning, prevented the increase in levels of circulating acid phosphatase normally observed after stress, and may have been associated with an increased stability of hepatic lysosomal particles.
Abstract: Fatal shock was produced in animals by drum trauma, temporary occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery, and bacterial endotoxin. Measurements were made of release of beta glucuronidase and cathepsins from the large granule fractions of livers, and of levels of circulating beta glucuronidase and acid phosphatase in these animals. Experiments were also carried out with animals rendered tolerant by previous exposure to sublethal amounts of trauma or by pretreatment with cortisone. The results show that release of beta glucuronidase and cathepsins from the large granule fraction of liver was increased during traumatic and endotoxin shock in the rat. Similarly, circulating levels of acid phosphatase and beta glucuronidase were increased during traumatic shock in rats and rabbits, and during endotoxin shock in rats. The data also indicate that tolerance to traumatic injury, induced by prior conditioning, prevented the increase in levels of circulating acid phosphatase normally observed after stress, and may have been associated with an increased stability of hepatic lysosomal particles. In addition, cortisone, which appears to "stabilize" hepatic lysosomes in vivo, also reduced the increase in plasma acid phosphatase brought about by endotoxin and trauma. From the foregoing observations, it is suggested that: (a) Disruption of lysosomes and release of their contained enzymes in free, active form may occur in liver and intestine of shocked animals. (b) The activation of lysosomal hydrolases within cells and their release into the circulation may play an important role in exacerbating tissue injury and accelerating the development of irreversibility during shock. (c) The increased stability of lysosomes of tolerant and of cortisone-treated animals may constitute an important component of the resistance of these animals to shock.
TL;DR: The applicability of cryoprofibrin as an indicator of fibrin deposition is demonstrated by the occurrence of levels of CryoproFibrin approaching the threshold for precipitation of fibin in plasma from endotoxin-treated rabbits.
Abstract: Fibrinogen altered by thrombin-catalyzed liberation of fibrinopeptide A was found to combine with native fibrinogen to form a cold-precipitable complex we have called "cryoprofibrin." The altered fibrinogen lacking fibrino-peptide A polymerized into fibrin, but not until conditions for equilibrium between its incorporation into both cryoprofibrin and fibrin were satisfied. At equilibrium, the concentration of cryoprofibrin was maintained at a threshold proportional to the concentration of fibrinogen. When the concentration of cryoprofibrin was below threshold, fibrin could be depolymerized and solubilized by fibrinogen with resultant formation of cryoprofibrin. Since threshold concentrations of cryoprofibrin appear necessary for precipitation of fibrin, the concentration of cryoprofibrin in plasma provides a basis for determining intravascular deposition of fibrin. Intravascular deposition of fibrin does not appear to occur normally in rabbits, because the concentration of cryoprofibrin in plasma from normal rabbits is far below the threshold for precipitation of fibrin. The applicability of cryoprofibrin as an indicator of fibrin deposition is demonstrated by the occurrence of levels of cryoprofibrin approaching the threshold for precipitation of fibrin in plasma from endotoxin-treated rabbits. The current concept that the fibrinogen molecule can dissociate into subunits can be used to explain the conversion of fibrinogen to cryoprofibrin. As one possibility, the two residues of fibrinopeptide A contained in fibrinogen may be located on two separate subunits of the molecule; cryoprofibrin is produced when one of these subunits is replaced by a subunit altered by loss of fibrinopeptide A. Recombination of native subunits with subunits altered by loss of A would counter dissociation of cryoprofibrin and inhibit polymerization of subunits lacking fibrinopeptide A. As an alternate mechanism, two residues of A may be liberated concurrently from a single subunit. Cryoprofibrin would then correspond to a fibrinogen molecule, containing a subunit with two residues of A, in combination with an altered molecule containing a subunit lacking two residues of A. Liberation of fibrinopeptide B did not contribute measurably to production of fibrin resulting from limited action of thrombin on rabbit fibrinogen. Both fibrin containing B but not A, and fibrin containing neither B nor A, as is produced by extensive action of thrombin, could be solubilized by fibrinogen. Thrombin, or another enzyme utilizing tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester as substrate, appeared reversibly to inhibit polymerization of fibrin containing fibrinopeptide B. This enzyme and fibrinogen were the only proteins appearing to inhibit polymerization in plasma from normal rabbits.
TL;DR: The hypothesis was proposed that immunological memory depended on the persistence, following primary stimulation, of a continuously dividing stem line of primitive lymphocytes, reactive at all times to further antigenic stimulation.
Abstract: The origin and growth kinetics of plasma cells have been investigated using autoradiographic labeling techniques. Rats immunized once with Salmonella flagella were given a single pulse of H(3)-thymidine 4 or 40 weeks later. 2 hours after the tracer injection, they received a secondary antigenic stimulus. When animals were sacrificed immediately only certain cells from the resting primarily immunized lymph nodes, notably large and medium lymphocytes, were labeled. Subsequent to secondary stimulation, animals were killed at intervals; nearly all the plasma cells formed within the next 5 to 6 days were labeled. They must thus have been the progeny of cells already capable of synthesizing DNA in resting nodes, most probably of large lymphocytes. Plasmacytopoiesis began with little or no lag following secondary immunization, and the number of labeled plasma cells rose exponentially between the 2nd and 4th day, with a doubling time of about 12 hours. Studies of mean grain counts of primitive cells also suggested that the generation time of plasmablasts was 12 hours or less. The hypothesis was proposed that immunological memory depended on the persistence, following primary stimulation, of a continuously dividing stem line of primitive lymphocytes, reactive at all times to further antigenic stimulation.
TL;DR: The passive transfer of nephritis by serum antibodies marks the first successful instance of transfer ofnephritisby serum antibody to a heterologous species from an animal which had developed nephitis itself.
Abstract: Sheep injected every 2 weeks with heterologous GBM and Freund's adjuvant by any one or combination of the following routes: intramuscular, subcutaneous, or intradermal, develop uniformly a fulminating, extracapillary glomerulonephritis, invariably fatal within 27 to 90 days after the first injection. The chief histologic feature is marked fibroepithelial proliferation of Bowman's capsule with crescent formation. The appearance of the lesions resembles the acute, subacute, and chronic stages of human glomerulonephritis, and depends on when the animal was sacrificed. Freund's adjuvant or heterologous GBM alone does not produce such a nephritis. The combination of placental tissue and Freund's adjuvant under the present experimental conditions was also unable to produce a nephritis. The clinical course, increase in nitrogen retention, evolution of renal lesions, and death, all describe a fulminating disease. The disease most characteristically resembles fatal, fulminating human subacute glomerulonephritis. The changes in serum proteins, decrease in serum albumin, and increase in serum globulin, occurred approximately the same in both the GBM-treated and the control adjuvant group. Similar changes have been reported from hyperimmunization alone, and so it is not clear how much these changes are due to immunization and how much is due to the nephritic process. The changes in serum cholesterol were not considered statistically significant. Circulating serum antibodies which localized (by fluorescent antibody technique in vitro) on basement membrane structures of the heterologous donor kidney antigen or which produced nephritis in the heterologous donor species (rat and dog) were found in serum of sheep sick or dying of nephritis. The passive transfer of nephritis by serum antibodies marks the first successful instance of transfer of nephritis by serum antibody to a heterologous species from an animal which had developed nephritis itself. The serum antibodies involved in the transfer of disease to the donor species appear to be unrelated to the mediators of nephritis in the sheep and may represent only the previously known heteronephrotoxic antibodies. By various biologic criteria the sheep nephritis presumably occurs by an autoimmune mechanism. However, it is not known whether the sheep nephritis is mediated by sensitized cells and/or antibodies. The latent period was estimated to end about 16 to 71 days after the first injection. Azotemia was estimated to begin about 17 to 78 days after the first injection. Proteinuria and azotemia began approximately 23 and 13 days before death. The rapid progression to a fatal termination defined the fulminating character of this disease.
TL;DR: Investigation of the immunologic specificity of delayed and immediate hypersensitivity reactions in the guinea pig using the picryl and p-toluenesulfonyl systems found that induction of delayed hypersensitivity was accomplished equally well with both lightly and heavily coupled conjugates.
Abstract: The effects of the following parameters on the immunologic specificity of delayed and immediate hypersensitivity reactions were investigated in the guinea pig using the picryl and p -toluenesulfonyl systems: ( a ) the contribution of the carrier protein, ( b ) the effect of the number of hapten groups per molecule of the immunizing and challenging antigens, and ( c ) the effect of interposing a 6 carbon chain (ϵ-aminocaproic acid) between the hapten and its usual attachment to the lysine ϵ-NH2 groups of the carrier protein. It was found that induction of delayed hypersensitivity was accomplished equally well with both lightly and heavily coupled conjugates. Sensitized animals which gave strong delayed reactions to the immunizing conjugate cross-reacted poorly or not at all to ( a ) conjugates of the same hapten with a different carrier protein, or ( b ) conjugates differing from the immunizing conjugate by having an ϵ-aminocaproyl chain interposed between hapten and its attachment onto the carrier protein. Animals sensitized with either lightly or heavily substituted conjugates exhibited strong delayed reactions to both conjugates, but more intense reactions to the immunizing conjugate were always observed. In contrast to the marker carrier specificity exhibited by the delayed hypersensitivity reactions, immediate hypersensitivity reactions, (specific precipitation, Arthus, and PCA reactions) could be elicited equally well with hapten conjugates of all carrier proteins, as well as with conjugates containing ϵ-aminocaproyl chains interposed between hapten and the carrier protein, provided the number of hapten groups per molecule conjugate was sufficiently high. Both in inducing antibody response and in provoking immediate hypersensitivity reactions, heavily substituted conjugates were considerably more effective than were lightly substituted conjugates. Alternative explanations for these observed differences in specificity between immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions are discussed.
TL;DR: At least seven compounds synthesized by cultured cells in amounts which should suffice for sustained growth have nevertheless proved under certain conditions necessary for survival to be population-dependent, disappearing at cell densities sufficiently large to bring the concentration in the medium and in the cellular pool to metabolically effective levels before the cells died of the specific deficiency.
Abstract: At least seven compounds synthesized by cultured cells in amounts which should suffice for sustained growth have nevertheless proved under certain conditions necessary for survival (asparagine, cystine, glutamine, homocystine inositol, pyruvate, serine). In every instance so far examined, that requirement has been population-dependent, disappearing at cell densities sufficiently large to bring the concentration in the medium and in the cellular pool to metabolically effective levels before the cells died of the specific deficiency. At population densities of less than 100 cells per ml, serine was required by all cultured cells so far studied. With more exigent strains, such as the RT6 strain of rabbit fibroblast and the P388 mouse leukemia, the serine requirement disappeared only at populations in excess of 50,000 and 150,000 cells per ml, respectively. The requirement for pyruvate by the latter cell as an alternative to serine also disappeared at that population density. In a cystine-free medium there were population-dependent requirements for cystine, homocystine, or serine, depending on the experimental conditions. With methionine and glucose as cystine precursors, the critical population density permitting cellular survival and growth was in excess of 200,000 cells/ml. The provision of homocystine as an intermediate reduced the critical population density to 10,000 to 60,000 cells/ml; with the further provision of serine, the critical cell concentration permitting growth was reduced to 50 to 500 cells/ml. Cells adapted to glutamic acid, and capable of utilizing it as a substitute for glutamine, nevertheless required exogeneous glutamine at cellular densities of less than 50,000 cells per ml. In some experiments, the provision of asparagine reduced the critical population density to 10,000 cells/ml, presumably because of its glutamine-sparing action. Inositol is required by most cell lines, despite their demonstrated capacity to synthesize it from glucose. With at least one cell line (HeLa), sustained growth was occasionally achieved in an inositol-free medium if the population density was maintained in excess of 240,000 cells/ml. The possible implications of these findings with respect to the loss of specific organ functions in dispersed cell culture are discussed.
TL;DR: It is concluded that small lymphocytes of the spleen and lymph nodes may come, in large part, directly from the thymus and are not derived from medium and large lymphocyte of the germinal centers.
Abstract: In rats thymectomized at birth, there was a profound depletion of small lymphocytes in various lymphatic organs. In the spleen, these cells were completely lacking from the Malpighian bodies and splenic white pulp. Empty reticular structures remained surrounding the white pulp arterioles. In the lymph nodes, large masses and nodules of small lymphocytes (primary lymphoid nodules) were either markedly depleted or absent, as were the zones of these cells normally surrounding germinal centers. In both spleen and nodes, germinal centers appeared normal in size, number, and cellular make-up; and plasma cells were found in normal or even increased number in their customary position. Rats which in spite of thymectomy developed intense Arthus or delayed reactivity showed incomplete depletion of the lymphoid tissue. It is concluded that small lymphocytes of the spleen and lymph nodes may come, in large part, directly from the thymus and are not derived from medium and large lymphocytes of the germinal centers. It is suggested that there may be a second population of small lymphocytes whose function is unrelated to the thymus lymphocytes.
TL;DR: Evidence is discussed which suggests that syncytiotrophoblast is the cell of origin of human chorionic gonadotropin, and the excellence of histologic preparations following formalin fixation facilitated cytologic identification.
Abstract: Through the use of immunohistochemical techniques, human chorionic gonadotropin has been localized to syncytiotrophoblastic cells of immature placenta, hydatidiform mole, chorioadenoma destruens, and choriocarcinoma. No gonadotropin has been detected in cytotrophoblast. Evidence is discussed which suggests that syncytiotrophoblast is the cell of origin of human chorionic gonadotropin. The observation that formalin fixation did not alter the ability of human chorionic gonadotropin to react with its specific antibody permitted the study of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues stored in the tissue collection. In addition, the excellence of histologic preparations following formalin fixation facilitated cytologic identification.
TL;DR: The hypothesis that fusion takes place between the granule membrane and the invaginated cell membrane overlying the ingested particle, with discharge of granule contents directly into the phagocytic vacuole is discussed.
Abstract: Phagocytosis of yeast cell walls and of Bacillus megaterium by human, rabbit, and chicken polymorphonuclear leucocytes has been observed by phase contrast microscopy and recorded on motion picture film. In suitably thin preparations intracellular events could be visualized well. Lysis of cytoplasmic granules began early in the course of the ingestion process, rupture occurring only in granules adjacent to the microorganism being engulfed. Formation of a visible vacuole about the ingested particle frequently followed degranulation. Chicken polymorphonuclear leucocytes, with their large phase-dense granules, were particularly suitable subjects for observations on detailed morphologic aspects of granule lysis. Rupture took place rapidly (0.1 second or less); in place of the granule there appeared a clear zone, often with a small phase-dense round structure in its center. Also accompanying granule lysis was an increase in phase density of the adjacent surface of the microorganism. Over the course of the following few seconds the darkening on the organism faded, the dense small body disappeared from view, and the clear zone contracted towards the engulfed particle. The observations are discussed in relation to the hypothesis that fusion takes place between the granule membrane and the invaginated cell membrane overlying the ingested particle, with discharge of granule contents directly into the phagocytic vacuole.
TL;DR: Multifunctional derivatives of penicillenic acid are effective elicitors of wheal-and-erythema skin responses in humans allergic to penicillin and appear to be determinants of human allergic reactions to Penicillin.
Abstract: Multifunctional derivatives of penicillenic acid are effective elicitors of wheal-and-erythema skin responses in humans allergic to penicillin. Of the effective derivatives, penicilloyl-polylysines are particularly attractive as skin test reagents because they appear to be incapable of inducing antibody formation. The skin responses are specifically inhibitable in most instances by homologous unifunctional haptens. The penicillenic acid derivatives which appear to be determinants of human allergic reactions to penicillin are: penicilloyl, penicillenate, and groups of the penamaldate-penilloaldehyde type. Of these, the most significant appears to be the penicilloyl-lysyl determinant.
TL;DR: In the rabbit the reticuloendothelial system may constitute the major protective mechanism against the vasculo-occlusive lesions of the generalized Shwartzman reaction, which appears to be the direct consequence of intravascular fibrin formation and deposition.
Abstract: Intravenous injections of endotoxin or infusions of thrombin in the rabbit initiate intravascular coagulation but do not usually result in massive deposition of fibrin. It has been proposed that the reticuloendothelial system may function efficiently in the removal of circulating fibrin; its blockade permits reproduction of all of the features of the generalized Shwartzman reaction by infusions of thrombin. In the rabbit the reticuloendothelial system may constitute the major protective mechanism against the vasculo-occlusive lesions of the generalized Shwartzman reaction, which appears to be the direct consequence of intravascular fibrin formation and deposition.
TL;DR: Nine of the twelve known variants of human transferrin have been resolved by the action of neuraminidase into stepwise patterns of four additional slower moving components whose relative intensities depended upon the concentration of enzyme, suggesting that the primate and cattle transferrins contained only two sialic acid residues accessible to the enzyme.
Abstract: Nine of the twelve known variants of human transferrin have been resolved by the action of neuraminidase into stepwise patterns of four additional slower moving components whose relative intensities depended upon the concentration of enzyme. These components appeared to represent the stepwise removal of the four sialic acid residues from the transferrin molecule, and at large enzyme concentrations, almost all of the transferrin was reduced to the position of the slowest moving component. In contrast, the electrophoretic mobilities of haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, and alpha(2)-macroglobulin showed a gradual decrease with increasing neuraminidase concentration. The transferrins of chimpanzees, rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys, and cattle were resolved by neuraminidase into two slower moving components. These experiments suggested that the primate and cattle transferrins contained only two sialic acid residues accessible to the enzyme. Transferrins C, B(2), and D(1) and a cynomolgus monkey transferrin were purified from serum by starch block electrophoresis and cellulose chromatography. Ultracentrifugal analysis could detect no difference in sedimentation rate between transferrin C, the primate transferrin, and neuraminidase-treated transferrin C. The human transferrins showed no variation in amino acid composition, but the cynomolgus transferrin was approximately 20 per cent higher in serine content and 50 per cent lower in glucosamine than human transferrin C. Reactions of antigenic identity were obtained among five human transferrin variants but a reaction of only partial identity was obtained between transferrin C and the cynomolgus transferrin. The transferrin pattern of cord blood showed a prominent band in the position of transferrin C, accompanied by four faint slower moving bands which coincided with the four transferrin components produced by the action of neuraminidase on transferrin C. The transferrin pattern of cerebrospinal fluid in individuals homozygous for serum transferrin C showed two principal components, one of which appeared to contain no sialic acid. Haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, and alpha(2)-macroglobulin were also present in cerebrospinal fluid.
TL;DR: There appeared to be an inverse relationship between the antibody-forming and DNA-synthesizing capacities of the cell population under study; as more of the cells studied formed detectable antibody, fewer of them incorporated the DNA precursor.
Abstract: The DNA-synthesizing capacity of single antibody-forming cells was tested by a combination of micromanipulatory and autoradiographic techniques. Rats were immunized with S. adelaide flagellin, a protein antigen known to contain significant contamination with somatic (O) antigen. Single cells from secondarily immunized rats were tested for production of anti-H and anti-O antibodies by previously described and newer techniques. Positive antibody producers were transferred onto clean dry slides by micromanipulation, and autoradiographs were performed. When rats had received tritiated thymidine 1 hour before killing, labeling of antibody-forming cells was taken to imply that the cell was preparing for further mitotic division. It was found that on the 2nd and 3rd day of a secondary response, many of the antibody-producing cells in the nodes (chiefly plasmablasts) were incorporating tritiated thymidine. At the height of the cellular response, however, at 4 and 5 days, the majority of active antibody producers (chiefly mature plasma cells) were incapable of DNA synthesis. There appeared to be an inverse relationship between the antibody-forming and DNA-synthesizing capacities of the cell population under study; as more of the cells studied formed detectable antibody, fewer of them incorporated the DNA precursor. The age of plasma cells was also studied. Animals were killed at the height of the cellular immune response, having previously received an injection of tritiated thymidine 1 to 48 hours before killing; i.e ., at 63 to 110 hours after their secondary stimulus. As the interval between isotope injection and killing increased, the proportion of antibody-forming cells showing labeling increased. With an interval of 30 hours, about half the antibody-forming cells were labeled and of 48 hours, over 95 per cent were labeled. This was taken as evidence that, few, if any, antibody-forming cells found at the height of a secondary response were more than 48 hours old. On the basis of these experiments and those reported in the accompanying paper, a simplified scheme showing the development of an antibody-forming clone in the secondary response was proposed.
TL;DR: The bacteriolytic activity of normal human serum on a rough strain of E. coli has been studied by a turbidimetric method as discussed by the authors, with optima at micro = 0.06 and pH 8.3-8.5, respectively.
Abstract: The bacteriolytic activity of normal human serum on a rough strain of E. coli has been studied by a turbidimetric method. Bacteriolysis was found to be markedly dependent on ionic strength and pH, with optima at micro = 0.06 and pH 8.3-8.5, respectively. The method of cultivating the cells also influenced the rapidity of lysis. Lysis was temperature-dependent and was exhibited by all samples of human serum tested. Microscopically, organisms incubated with serum were observed to swell, loose their rod shape and eventually burst, leaving remnants of the cell membrane in suspension. Sphaeroplasts were obtained by brief exposure of cells to serum followed by dilution into 5 per cent sucrose. The bacteriolytic reaction was shown to require complement. No definite requirement for properdin or specific antibody in this system could be demonstrated by the absorption of serum with zymosan and with homologous cells respectively. The latter procedure was found to reduce bacteriolytic activity by removal of serum lysozyme. Absorption of serum with bentonite also led to loss of bacteriolytic activity which could be restored with lysozyme. The organism was not lysed by lysozyme alone, but lysis occurred with lysozyme + EDTA in tris buffer. The possibility of complement acting independently of antibody or properdin, in certain instances, is discussed in relation to bacterial cell wall structure. Data are presented supporting the hypothesis that the "substrate" of complement in cell membranes is a lipid or lipoprotein.
TL;DR: It is proposed that concentrated inocula damage the cells and interfere with differentiation of the virus, but do not inhibit formation and detachment of cytoplasmic processes, which will result in the predominant formation of incomplete virus.
Abstract: Chicken embryos were infected by the chorioallantoic route with influenza virus, PR8 strain, in the form of undiluted chorioallantoic fluid Electron microscopic examination 24 hours after infection revealed that membrane-bound fragments of cytoplasm appeared to be in process of release from entodermal cells of the chorioallantois The number of such fragments was greatly increased in proportion to the number of typical viral particles after the third serial passage, which was accompanied by a reduction of the infectivity-hemagglutinin ratio (von Magnus effect) The lack of recognizable internal components, together with the presence of surface structure which closely resembled that of the virus and frequently contained viral antigen, suggested that many of these fragments were incomplete viral particles It is proposed that concentrated inocula damage the cells and interfere with differentiation of the virus, but do not inhibit formation and detachment of cytoplasmic processes Under these circumstances the accumulation of viral antigen at the surface of the cell will result in the predominant formation of incomplete virus
TL;DR: Natural antibody in the serum of various species differed considerably as regards their lability to heat, but in parallel tests immune antibody of each species was significantly more heat-stable and no difference could be found in the avidity of natural and immune antibody.
Abstract: A study was made of the origin, occurrence, and properties of natural antibodies to Gram-negative bacteria in the normal serum of several species. Antibody was measured by a procedure based on the bactericidal reaction carried out under conditions in which activity was a function of the amount of antibody contributed by the test serum. Antibody to seven genera of the family Enterobacteriaceae were demonstrated in normal human serum. The specificity of these antibodies was affirmed by absorption with homologous bacteria and by inhibition of bactericidal activity with purified homologous somatic antigen. Absorption with graded amounts of bacterial suspensions showed that a large excess of bacteria led to non-specific removal of antibodies. Analogous findings were also made with immune antibody. As determined by quantitative absorption tests no difference could be found in the avidity of natural and immune antibody. Natural antibody in the serum of various species differed considerably as regards their lability to heat, but in parallel tests immune antibody of each species was significantly more heat-stable. The time and appearance of the antibodies varied in young animals, of different species. Mice developed these antibodies at the earliest age, with guinea pigs, rats, and rabbits following in that order. Serum from germ-free rats and chickens had no demonstrable antibodies to E. coli or S. typhosa whereas these antibodies were present in the serum of litter mates reared under conventional conditions. On the other hand germ-free and conventional mice did not differ appreciably as regards the levels of these same antibodies.
TL;DR: Antisera to normal 7S γ-globulin and to Bence Jones proteins permit the grouping of myeloma proteins, BenceJones proteins, and the Waldenström type macroglobulins into two fundamental antigenic groups.
Abstract: Antisera to normal 7S gamma-globulin and to Bence Jones proteins permit the grouping of myeloma proteins (gamma and beta 2A types), Bence Jones proteins, and the Waldenstrom type macroglobulins into two fundamental antigenic groups The antigenic determinants responsible for this grouping are common to all these proteins which fall in the general category of immunoglobulins Antisera to Bence Jones proteins were particularly useful for this classification since they failed to react with the proteins of the opposite group These antisera also permit the grouping of normal 7S gamma-globulin into two major types The Bence Jones proteins from individual patients were found to correspond in antigenic group to that of the serum myeloma protein Studies with antisera to 7S gamma-globulin and to Bence Jones proteins indicated that the Bence Jones proteins were antigenically identical to a portion of the corresponding multiple myeloma protein molecules
TL;DR: Adult mice from seven different colonies were studied with regard to the numbers and types of bacteria that could be cultivated from their stools; (b) their resistance to the lethal effect of endotoxins prepared from three strains of Gram-negative bacilli.
Abstract: Adult mice from seven different colonies were studied with regard to (a) the numbers and types of bacteria that could be cultivated from their stools; (b) their resistance to the lethal effect of endotoxins prepared from three strains of Gram-negative bacilli. See PDF for Structure In six of the seven colonies, the stools yielded large numbers of various types of lactobacilli, enterococci, and Gram-negative bacilli. Most animals in these colonies died within 48 hours following injection of endotoxin. The other mouse colony (NCS) has been maintained for the past three years at the Rockefeller Institute under exacting sanitary conditions; it is free of many types of common mouse pathogens. The stool flora of NCS mice yielded very large numbers of viable lactobacilli (10(9) per gm), representing at least three different morphological types. In contrast, it contained only few enterococci and Gram-negative bacilli (less than 10(6) per gm). Moreover, E. coli, Proteus sp., and Pseudomonas sp. could not be recovered from the stools under normal conditions. NCS mice proved resistant to the lethal effect of endotoxins. These characteristics of the NCS colony prevailed whether the animals were housed continuously in individual cages on wire grids, or grouped continuously in large cages with wood shavings as litter. However, the composition of the bacterial flora could be rapidly and profoundly altered by a variety of unrelated disturbances such as sudden changes in environmental temperature, crowding in cages, handling of the animals, administration of antibacterial drugs, etc. The first effect of the change was a marked decrease in the numbers of lactobacilli and commonly an increase in the numbers of Gram-negative bacilli and enterococci. When tested 3 weeks after these disturbances some NCS animals were found to have become susceptible to the lethal effects of endotoxin.