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Showing papers in "Journal of Experimental Psychology: General in 1983"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors argue that the detailed kinematic pattern is specific to an acting person's anatomical makeup and to the working of his or her motor control system, and that the information is potentially available about gender, identity, expectations, intentions, and what the person is in fact doing.
Abstract: SUMMARY The widespread conviction that perceiving another person must rest on ambiguous and fakeable information is challenged. Arguing from biomechanical necessities inherent in maintaining balance and coping with reactive impulses, we show that the detailed kinematic pattern is specific to an acting person's anatomical makeup and to the working of his or her motor control system. In this way information is potentially available about gender, identity, expectations, intentions, and what the person is in fact doing. We invoke the lawfulness of human movement, as elucidated by recent advances in motor control theory, to demonstrate the virtual impossibility of performing truly deceptive movements and to argue in general terms for the specification power inherent in human kinematics. The outcome of the analysis is subsumed under a principle of kinematic specification of dynamics (KSD), which states that movements specify the causal factors of events. Generally, a linked multiple degrees-of-freedom system does not exhibit substitutability; a change in one of its "input" factors cannot substitute for, or cancel, the multivariable effects of a change in another factor. Six explorative experiments are reported. Displaying humans in action with Johansson's (1973) patch-light technique, we show that (a) the influence of an invisible thrown object on the kinematics of the thrower enable observers to perceive the length of throw; (b) the lead-in movements of a person lifting a box allow perception of what weight the lifter expects; (c) a person lifting a box cannot deceive observers about the weight of the box, only convey the deceptive intention; (d) gender of adults and children in complex activity is recognizable to about 75% of presentations; (e) gender recognition rises to about 85% correct when the observed persons are.not self-conscious about gender; (f) real gender and expressed (acted) gender are simultaneously, but independently, perceived; and (g) observer instructions to judge only "gender" yields results that erroneously indicate a deception effect. We conclude that the experiments have demonstrated the considerable effectiveness of kinematic information in enabling perception of persons and action. Judgments of good precision were often obtained. Some perceived properties were relatively subtle states of the seen person. True conditions were perceived despite deceptive endeavors. The KSD principle therefore appears an appropriate conceptual guide, and the patch-light technique a useful empirical method, for the study of social knowing. The concluding discussion argues that person perception has a dual nature in that true person properties and communicative or deceptive expressions are co-specified in the kinematic pattern. Hence, they constitute alternative foci for perception, and attention can switch freely between them in normal social interaction. Extensive parallels exist between this view of person perception and Gibson's (1979) treatment of pictures and picture perception. Furthermore, we argue that the student of social knowing has much to gain from recent advances in motor control theory, and we raise the possibility that "hidden" person properties might be conceptually linked with characteristics and states of a person's motor system whereby aspects of personality and emotion would be kinematically specified. Finally, we argue that the complexity of kinematic information might present a principled

657 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results of the experiments suggest separate contributions of lexical status and presentations to the repetition effect, and a model was developed that outlines the relative contributions of episodic traces for particular events, and of uriitized representations of words in semantic memory, to the repeats in word and nonword identification.
Abstract: SUMMARY The repetition effect refers to the finding that the speed and accuracy of naming a visually presented word is enhanced by a single prior presentation of the word. A new technique was developed to study this phenomenon: The visual signal-to-noise ratio of a printed item in a field of masks was slowly increased. When accuracy was of interest, the increase ceased at a predetermined time; when latency was of interest, the increase continued until the printed item could be named. Experiment 1 tested the validity of the new accuracy technique against a more traditional threshold measure of ease of identification, in which the item is presented for a single brief exposure, followed by a mask. When performance levels at the first presentation were equated for the two techniques and for both words and nonwords, the repetition effect was equal for the techniques and slightly stronger for words than for nonwords. In Experiment la psychometric functions for first presentations were obtained, giving accuracy as a function of final exposure duration. A large interaction was seen with the traditional technique yielding superior performance for words than the new technique, but the reverse was true for nonwords. In Experiment 2 the latency version of the new technique was used: The difference in'the latencies necessary for word and nonword identification was found to be additive to the difference due to repeated presentations. Taken together, the results of the experiments suggest separate contributions of lexical status and presentations to the repetition effect. Experiment 2 used separate groups for words and nonwords, but the word-nonword difference was, if anything, increased when mixed lists of words and nonwords were used in Experiment 3. This result rules out certain guessing bias interpretations of the word-nonword differences. In Experiments 1,2, and 5, lag between repetitions had at most a small and nonsignificant effect on identification accuracy and latency. However, in Experiment 5, lag between repetitions had a large effect on rec-, ognition performance. In Experiments 1 and 3, shifting case between presentations of identical items produced a very small decrease in the repetition effect, suggesting a minimal role for low-level physical features in the repetition effect. In Experiments 2 and 4, orthographic similarity (i.e., spelling overlap) of new items to previously presented items not sharing a common morpheme was studied. A small (sometimes significant) facilitation of identification of such new items was observed. This result suggests that letter-name clusters play some role in the repetition effect. A model was developed that outlines the relative contributions of episodic traces for particular events, and of uriitized representations of words in semantic memory, to the repetition effect in word and nonword identification. The unitization that characterizes identification of words and that is missing for nonwords plays a prominent role in the model. Specifically, the repetition effect is attributed to the presence of episodic memory traces that are assumed to increase uniformly the speed and accuracy of both word

346 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a midlist instruction to forget the first half of a list was found to reduce later recall of the items learned incidentally as well as those learned intentionally, which suggests that a cue to forget can lead to a disruption of retrieval processes.
Abstract: Certain reliable findings from research on directed forgetting seem difficult to accommodate in terms of the theoretical processes, such as selective rehearsal or storage differentiation, that have been put forward to account for directed-forgetting phenomena. Some kind of "missing mechanism" appears to be involved. In order to circumvent the methodological constraints that have limited the conclusions investigators could draw from past experiments, a new paradigm is introduced herein that includes a mixture of intentional and incidental learning. With this paradigm, a midlist instruction to forget the first half of a list was found to reduce later recall of the items learned incidentally as well as those learned intentionally. This result suggests that a cue to forget can lead to a disruption of retrieval processes as well as to the alteration of encoding processes postulated in prior theories. The results also provide a link between intentional forgetting and the literature on posthypnotic amnesia, in which disrupted retrieval has been implicated. With each of these procedures, the information that can be remembered is typically recalled out of order and often with limited recollection for when the information had been presented. It therefore was concluded here that retrieval inhibition plays a significant role in nonhypnotic as well as in hypnotic instances of directed forgetting. The usefulness of retrieval inhibition as a mechanism for memory updating was also discussed.

309 citations




Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, two experiments sought to discover sources of communalities in performance on three inductive reasoning tasks: analogies, series completions, and classifications, and showed that a common exponential model of response choice provided a good fit to each data set.
Abstract: : Two experiments sought to discover sources of communalities in performance on three inductive reasoning tasks: analogies, series completions, and classifications. In Experiment 1, 30 subjects completed an untimed pencil-and-paper test in which they were asked to solve 90 induction items, equally divided among the three kinds of induction items noted above. The subjects' task was to rank-order four response options in terms of their goodness of fit as completions for each particular item. Data sets for the three tasks were highly intercorrelated, suggesting the possibility of a common model of response choice across tasks. Moreover, a single exponential model of response choice provided a good fit to each data set. The single parameter estimate for this model was roughly comparable across tasks. In Experiment 2, 36 subjects completed a timed tachistoscopic test in which they, too, were asked to solve 90 induction items, equally divided among the three kinds of induction items noted above. The subjects' task was to choose the better of two response options as a completion for each particular item. Data sets for the three tasks were again highly intercorrelated, suggesting the possibility of a common model of real-time information processing across tasks. Moreover, a single linear model of response times provided a good fit to each data set. Three of four parameter estimates for this model were roughly comparable across tasks.

243 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article explored the effects of the relative discriminabilities of the local and global levels of the stimuli and the differences between two different measures of selective attention, namely, Stroop-type interference (attributable to incongruity on the irrelevant dimension) and Garner-type interferences, and concluded that some cases of global precedence are due solely to the greater perceptual discriminability of the global level and thus demonstrate only that more discriminable stimuli are harder to ignore.
Abstract: This study explores the perception of stimuli at two levels: local parts and the wholes that comprise these parts. Previous research has produced contradictory results. Some studies (e.g., Pomerantz & Sager, 1975) show local precedence, in which the local parts are more difficult to ignore in selective attention tasks. Other studies (e.g., Navon, 1977) have shown the opposite effect, global precedence. The present five experiments trace the causes of this discrepancy by exploring the effects of the relative discriminabilities of the local and global levels of the stimuli and the differences between two different measures of selective attention, namely, Stroop-type interference (attributable to incongruity on the irrelevant dimension) and Garner-type interference (attributable to variability on the irrelevant dimension). The experiments also examine whether the precedence effects previously examined in form perception generalize to motion perception. The results show that (a) some cases of global precedence are due solely to the greater perceptual discriminability of the global level and thus demonstrate only that more discriminable stimuli are harder to ignore; (b) instances of both local and global precedence can be demonstrated for certain types of stimuli, even when the discriminabilities of their local and global levels have been equated; and (c) the Stroop and Garner measures of selective attention are not equivalent but instead measure different types of interference. In addition, a distinction is made between two fundamentally different types of part-whole relationships that exist in visual configurations, one based only on the positions of the parts (Type P) and one based also on the nature of the parts (Type N). Previous research has focused on Type P, which appears to be irrelevant to the broader questions of Gestalt and top-down effects in perception. It is concluded that bona fide cases of both local and global precedence have been amply documented but that no general theory can account for why or when these effects will appear until we better understand both the nature of part-whole relationships and the perceptual processes that are tapped by different measures of selective attention.

222 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors compared the performance of blind and sighted adults on three visual imagery tasks and found that blind adults are capable of preserving and processing spatial images in a manner very similar to that used by sighted subjects, although such processing may require slightly less time with visually mediated than with nonvisually mediated imagery.
Abstract: SUMMARY Responses of congenitally blind subjects were compared with those of sighted subjects to test whether performance on three "visual imagery" tasks is dependent on specifically visual processing. In Experiment 1, subjects memorized the locations of several figures on a board and then were asked to form an image of the board and mentally to "scan" from one figure to another. There was a strong relationship between distance and scanning time both for blind and for sighted subjects, although the response times were significantly longer for blind than for sighted subjects. Thus the images of congenitally blind subjects, like those of sighted subjects, preserve metric spatial information. Experiment 2 varied the subjective size of imaged objects by requiring subjects to form images of a "target" object, such as a radio, alongside a "context" object that was either very large (a car) or very small (a paper clip). Subjects then were asked to verify whether a named physical attribute such as "drawer" or "dial" was a part of the imaged target object (radio). For both blind and sighted subjects, the time taken to verify whether a physical feature of a target object was included in the image was greater when the context item was large so that the target object was subjectively small. Thus for blind as well as for sighted subjects the features of a subjectively large image are noticed or accessed faster than those of a subjectively small image. Experiment 3 tested the mnemonic consequences of forming images of objects with differing spatial relationships to each other. Subjects heard descriptions and were instructed to form images of scenes in which a target object was described in one of three relationships to the rest of the scene: spatially separated, contiguous but visually hidden or concealed, or contiguous and clearly visible. The pattern of results on an incidental cued-recall test was similar for blind and sighted subjects, with objects imaged as spatially contiguous recalled better than those that were spatially separated. Visual "picturability" did not affect recall. Overall recall scores did not differ for blind and sighted subjects, but sighted subjects reported forming the images significantly faster than did the blind. Thus the images formed by blind subjects were as mnemonically effective as those created by sighted subjects and the memorability of imaged scenes was equivalently affected by the spatial relationships of their components. Taken together, the three experiments demonstrate that congenitally blind adults are capable of preserving and processing spatial images in a manner very similar to that used by sighted subjects, although such processing may require slightly less time with visually mediated than with nonvisually mediated imagery. The research raises questions about definitions of imagery that are tied specifically to the visual processing system and suggests that spatial imagery processing ability need not depend on visual perceptual experience or, in fact, on any specific sensory processing modality.

221 citations




Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Support is found for the proposed mode of vowel-consonant production and perception derived from the literature on phonology, which shows that information present during the portion of an acoustic signal in which a syllable-initial consonant predominates is used by listeners to identify the vowel.
Abstract: The article reviews the literature from psychology, phonetics, and phonology bearing on production and perception of syllable timing in speech. A review of the psychological and phonetics literature suggests that production of vowels and consonants are interleaved in syllable sequences in such a way that vowel production is continuous or nearly so. Based on that literature, a hypothesis is developed concerning the perception of syllable timing assuming that vowel production is continuous. The hypothesis is that perceived syllable timing corresponds to the times sequencing of the vowels as produced and not to the timing either of vowel onsets as conventionally measured or of syllable-initial consonants. Three experiments support the hypothesis. One shows that information present during the portion of an acoustic signal in which a syllable-initial consonant predominates is used by listeners to identify the vowel. Compatibly, this information for the vowel contributes to the vowel's perceived duration. Finally, a measure of the perceived timing of a syllable correlates significantly with the time required to identify syllable-medial vowels but not with time to identify the syllable-initial consonants. Further support for the proposed mode of vowel-consonant production and perception is derived from the literature on phonology. Language-specific phonological conventions can be identified that may reflect exaggerations and conventionalizations of the articulatory tendency for vowels to be produced continuously in speech.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a new look at a very old problem in psychology, namely, the relationship between the age during early childhood when an event occurs and the likelihood of its recall in adulthood.
Abstract: Three hundred thirty-eight informants who were between 1 and 7 years of age in 1963 were asked about their personal memories surrounding the assassination of President Kennedy and six other significant public events. The probability and degree of elaboration of recall showed a gradual growth function with increasing age at the time of the event for the assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Robert F. Kennedy but not for the other events. Self-reports of amount of rehearsal showed a low correlation with recall. Recall was high for the resignation of President Nixon in 1974, suggesting that surprise is not necessary for the formation of enduring memories of significant events. Methodological advantages and disadvantages of studying early memories for public events are discussed. This study presents a new look at a very old problem in psychology, namely, the relationship between the age during early childhood when an event occurs and the likelihood of its recall in adulthood. The study of early memories is often associated with an interest in psychoanalyti c theory. Indeed, the common notion of psychoanalysis as a set of techniques for making repressed memories of childhood accessible to conscious recall attests to this linkage. Freud's statement of the problem is quite clear. In his discussion of infantile sexuality, he noted "the peculiar amnesia which, in the case of the most people, though by no means all, hides the earliest beginnings of their childhood up to their sixth or eigth year" (1905/1953, p. 174). The termchildhood amnesia (or infantile amnesia) remains as a description of this phenomenon. Still, it is necessary to point out that a number of 19th-century genetic psychologists predate Freud in their concern with probing early memories. Priority seems to belong to Gallon (1879), who at age 57 used the method of word associations to activate his

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Three major conclusions were drawn from the results of the experiments reported in this article: First, mental images may be constructed by amalgamating images of individual parts, and an increment of time is required to add each additional part to an image.
Abstract: Three major conclusions were drawn from the results of the experiments reported in this article: First, mental images may be constructed by amalgamating images of individual parts, and an increment of time is required to add each additional part to an image. This was true when "parts" were defined by the Gestalt laws of proximity, continuity, or similarity, when parts of objects were presented on separate pages initially and the subject mentally "glued" them together into a single image, and when the number of parts was varied by altering the way an ambiguous geometric form was described. Second, descriptive information can be used in constructing images. Subjects were able to image scenes in accordance with descriptions that specified the relative distances between component objects of the scene. More time was required to form images of scenes containing more objects, and more time was later required to scan between two imaged objects if they were mentally pictured at greater distances. Third, the ease of imaging a unit depends on how much material is included in each unit and on how difficult it is to locate where the unit should be placed relative to the existing portions of an image. This conclusion was supported by the finding that subjects require less time to image arrays composed of units containing fewer letters and require less time if arrays are composed of relatively discriminable letters than if arrays are composed of relatively indiscriminable letters. Finally, in two of the experiments nonimagery control groups were tested to demonstrate that generating an image is not the same as simply retrieving memorized verbal information or reviewing information in some more abstract format.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Findings suggest that high hypnotizables have a greater capacity for cognitive flexibility than do lows, and whether hypnosis involves a shift in cerebral dominance, as reflected by the cognitive strategy changes and enhanced imagery processing.
Abstract: To investigate the hypothesis that hypnosis has an enhancing effect on imagery processing, as mediated by hypnotic responsiveness and cognitive strategies, four experiments compared performance of low and high, or low, medium, and high, hypnotically responsive subjects in waking and hypnosis conditions on a successive visual memory discrimination task that required detecting differences between successively presented picture pairs in which one member of the pair was slightly altered. Consistently, hypnotically responsive individuals showed enhanced performance during hypnosis, whereas nonresponsive ones did not. Hypnotic responsiveness correlated .52 (p less than .001) with enhanced performance during hypnosis, but it was uncorrelated with waking performance (Experiment 3). Reaction time was not affected by hypnosis, although high hypnotizables were faster than lows in their responses (Experiments 1 and 2). Subjects reported enhanced imagery vividness on the self-report Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire during hypnosis. The differential effect between lows and highs was in the anticipated direction but not significant (Experiments 1 and 2). As anticipated, hypnosis had no significant effect on a discrimination task that required determining whether there were differences between pairs of simultaneously presented pictures. Two cognitive strategies that appeared to mediate visual memory performance were reported: (a) detail strategy, which involved the memorization and rehearsal of individual details for memory, and (b) holistic strategy, which involved looking at and remembering the whole picture with accompanying imagery. Both lows and highs reported similar predominantly detail-oriented strategies during waking; only highs shifted to a significantly more holistic strategy during hypnosis. These findings suggest that high hypnotizables have a greater capacity for cognitive flexibility (Batting, 1979) than do lows. Results are discussed in terms of several theoretical approaches: Paivio's (1971) dual-coding theory and Craik and Tulving's (1975) depth of processing theory. Additional discussion is given to the question of whether hypnosis involves a shift in cerebral dominance, as reflected by the cognitive strategy changes and enhanced imagery processing.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors compare directed forgetting observed in the normal waking state with amnesia as induced by hypnotic suggestion and conclude that the two phenomena do not share a common mechanism, retrieval inhibition.
Abstract: In a commentary on an article by Geiselman, Bjork, and Fishman (1983), directed forgetting observed in the normal waking state is compared with amnesia as induced by hypnotic suggestion. The two paradigms typically differ with respect to the role of incidental or intentional learning, the amount of study devoted to the items, the temporal location of the cue to forget, the retention interval involved, and the measure of memory that is of interest. Depending on the directed-forgetting paradigm used, they also differ with respect to the actual inaccessibility of the to-be-forgotten items, the reversibility of the forgetting, and the extent of interference of the items targeted by the forget cue on other items. However, these comparisons are vitiated somewhat by the methodological differences between the two paradigms. Theoretically, the three mechanisms typically used to account for directed forgetting--selective rehearsal, list segregation, and selective search--do not appear to account for the amnesia observed in hypnosis. However, the two phenomena do appear to share a fourth mechanism, retrieval inhibition. Final acceptance of this conclusion, however, awaits comparison of the two types of instructed forgetting within a common experimental paradigm.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results indicated that the expected enhanced RT increment for subjective relative to real forms with the addition of a concurrent memory load was limited to same trials, which implies that the nature of response indicators must be considered in assessing capacity requirements with the sort of dual-task paradigm used in the present investigation.
Abstract: Leading explanations of the subjective contour illusion can be classified as being either "bottom-up" or "top-down." Bottom-up explanations assert that peripheral, physiological mechanisms often associated with the perception of real contours also account for subjective contour (SC) perception. In contrast, top-down explanations posit a more central locus of SC perception and are formulated on a molar, psychological level. A major aspect of bottom-up perceptual processing is that it is largely automatic. On the other hand, top-down processing implies a greater role for selective attention. In an effort to distinguish between bottom-up and top-down accounts of SC perception, the present investigation used a dual-task paradigm to test the relative attentional demands of real contour perception versus SC perception. In the primary task, subjects made speeded same-different discriminations of either paired SC forms or their real contour analogues. Half the subjects performed this primary task in conjunction with a six-digit short-term memory load secondary task. If subjective forms indeed impose a greater limited-capacity processing load than real forms, then the need to share processing capacity with a secondary task was expected to produce a greater increment in reaction time (RT) for subjective relative to real forms. The results indicated that the expected enhanced RT increment for subjective relative to real forms with the addition of a concurrent memory load was limited to same trials. This result implies that the nature of response indicators must be considered in assessing capacity requirements with the sort of dual-task paradigm used in the present investigation. Nevertheless, the fact that the increment in same RT with the addition of a concurrent memory load was greater for subjective relative to real forms accords with expectations derived from the notion that the perception of SCs is more attention demanding than that of real contours. If the interpretation of the present study is correct, then a comprehensive theory of SC perception will most likely be formulated within the top-down perspective of conceptually driven visual information processing.








Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The data seem to suggest that safety training may create in dogs a sense of control over environmental stressors, by teaching the dogs a behaviorally balanced battery of prosocial "coping" responses, they may be developing the canine counterpart of "self-efficacy" or "courage".
Abstract: This study sought to identify the behavioral characteristics and appropriate treatment of a form of instrumental aggression in companion dogs, herein recognized as avoidance-motivated aggression. In Experiment 1, retrospective data on 92 cases of dangerously aggressive dogs demonstrated the avoidance nature of the aggressive response and its intractability to established counterconditioning treatments. In Experiment 2, safety training, a modified avoidance-learning procedure, resulted in complete and permanent elimination of aggression in all of the 36 dogs tested. In addition, it produced extremely extinction-resistant prosocial avoidance responses, significant increases in the dogs' emotional stability, an avoidance-learning and safety acquisition response set, and improvements in measures of the dog's "carriage." Experiment 3 showed how effective safety training is when compared with other behavior modification techniques that, in theory, should have an impact on avoidance-motivated aggression. Experiment 4 demonstrated the critical importance of using the conditioned safety cue as a positive reinforcement. The relationship of avoidance-motivated aggression to other forms of aggression is discussed. The success of safety training compared with the failure of electrical aversion therapy is analyzed. The theoretical concepts of behavioral balance and an avoidance-learning set are presented. Suggestions to improve the effectiveness of counterconditioning for human avoidance-motivated pathologies are offered. All in all, the data seem to suggest that safety training may create in dogs a sense of control over environmental stressors. By teaching the dogs a behaviorally balanced battery of prosocial "coping" responses, they may be developing the canine counterpart of "self-efficacy" or "courage." It is suggested that this cognitive modification may provide the antithesis of "learned helplessness" and may be of prime importance to the success and stability of the results.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The findings suggest that encoding familiar events does require resources, which will result in secondary task interference given that the secondary task is in the resource-limited region of processing and this possibility has general implications for dual-task methodology and the measurement of attentional demands.
Abstract: The idea that familiar events can be encoded automatically has gained general acceptance in cognitive psychology since Posner and Boies (1971) first reported that reaction times to a secondary probe were not interfered with by letter encoding. More recently, Ogden, Martin, and Paap (1981) used a more valid control for estimating baseline probe performance and found secondary task interference, suggesting that letter encoding does require attentional resources. The present series of experiments began with the aim of evaluating Ogden et al's evidence against automaticity when the first letter was not terminated after a brief exposure, as was done in their study. In the first set of experiments we found evidence of encoding interference when the interval between the two letters was varied (50 to 1,000 msec), but this interference disappeared when there was a constant 1,000-msec interval between the letters. On the basis of these findings, we hypothesized that changes in the primary task (e.g., the exposure duration of the first letter or the interval between the two letters) may influence the momentary allocation of resources between the primary and secondary tasks. More specifically, we hypothesized that any momentary reduction in the resources demanded by the primary tasks results in a reallocation of resources to the secondary task, which in turn reduces the sensitivity of the secondary task to the demands of the primary task, that is, probe performance is moved into the data-limited region of processing (Norman & Bobrow, 1975). This idea was tested by reducing resource allocation to the probe task at the time of encoding by reducing the expectancy (i.e., the probability) of probes in the temporal proximity of the first letter. The results showed that this manipulation produced a large and significant increase in encoding interference. Moreover, when the intensity of the tone (probe) was decreased from 70 to 60 dB, the magnitude of encoding interference was further increased. In regard to the specific issue of automaticity, the findings suggest that encoding familiar events does require resources, which will result in secondary task interference given that the secondary task is in the resource-limited region of processing. More important, the findings suggest that the magnitude of secondary task interference is dependent on within-trial changes in resource allocation between the primary and secondary tasks. This possibility has general implications for dual-task methodology and the measurement of attentional demands.