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JournalISSN: 0022-1120

Journal of Fluid Mechanics 

About: Journal of Fluid Mechanics is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Turbulence & Reynolds number. It has an ISSN identifier of 0022-1120. Over the lifetime, 24711 publication(s) have been published receiving 1548941 citation(s).

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Considerable confusion surrounds the longstanding question of what constitutes a vortex, especially in a turbulent flow. This question, frequently misunderstood as academic, has recently acquired particular significance since coherent structures (CS) in turbulent flows are now commonly regarded as vortices. An objective definition of a vortex should permit the use of vortex dynamics concepts to educe CS, to explain formation and evolutionary dynamics of CS, to explore the role of CS in turbulence phenomena, and to develop viable turbulence models and control strategies for turbulence phenomena. We propose a definition of a vortex in an incompressible flow in terms of the eigenvalues of the symmetric tensor ${\bm {\cal S}}^2 + {\bm \Omega}^2$ are respectively the symmetric and antisymmetric parts of the velocity gradient tensor ${\bm \Delta}{\bm u}$. This definition captures the pressure minimum in a plane perpendicular to the vortex axis at high Reynolds numbers, and also accurately defines vortex cores at low Reynolds numbers, unlike a pressure-minimum criterion. We compare our definition with prior schemes/definitions using exact and numerical solutions of the Euler and Navier–Stokes equations for a variety of laminar and turbulent flows. In contrast to definitions based on the positive second invariant of ${\bm \Delta}{\bm u}$ or the complex eigenvalues of ${\bm \Delta}{\bm u}$, our definition accurately identifies the vortex core in flows where the vortex geometry is intuitively clear.

5,223 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A direct numerical simulation of a turbulent channel flow is performed. The unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically at a Reynolds number of 3300, based on the mean centerline velocity and channel half-width, with about 4 million grid points. All essential turbulence scales are resolved on the computational grid and no subgrid model is used. A large number of turbulence statistics are computed and compared with the existing experimental data at comparable Reynolds numbers. Agreements as well as discrepancies are discussed in detail. Particular attention is given to the behavior of turbulence correlations near the wall. A number of statistical correlations which are complementary to the existing experimental data are reported for the first time.

4,501 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The paper develops proposals for a model of turbulence in which the Reynolds stresses are determined from the solution of transport equations for these variables and for the turbulence energy dissipation rate E. Particular attention is given to the approximation of the pressure-strain correlations; the forms adopted appear to give reasonably satisfactory partitioning of the stresses both near walls and in free shear flows. Numerical solutions of the model equations are presented for a selection of strained homogeneous shear flows and for two-dimensional inhomogeneous shear flows including the jet, the wake, the mixing layer and plane channel flow. In addition, it is shown that the closure does predict a very strong influence of secondary strain terms for flow over curved surfaces.

3,654 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Plane turbulent mixing between two streams of different gases (especially nitrogen and helium) was studied in a novel apparatus Spark shadow pictures showed that, for all ratios of densities in the two streams, the mixing layer is dominated by large coherent structures High-speed movies showed that these convect at nearly constant speed, and increase their size and spacing discontinuously by amalgamation with neighbouring ones The pictures and measurements of density fluctuations suggest that turbulent mixing and entrainment is a process of entanglement on the scale of the large structures; some statistical properties of the latter are used to obtain an estimate of entrainment rates Large changes of the density ratio across the mixing layer were found to have a relatively small effect on the spreading angle; it is concluded that the strong effects, which are observed when one stream is supersonic, are due to compressibility effects, not density effects, as has been generally supposed

3,206 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The description of coherent features of fluid flow is essential to our understanding of fluid-dynamical and transport processes. A method is introduced that is able to extract dynamic information from flow fields that are either generated by a (direct) numerical simulation or visualized/measured in a physical experiment. The extracted dynamic modes, which can be interpreted as a generalization of global stability modes, can be used to describe the underlying physical mechanisms captured in the data sequence or to project large-scale problems onto a dynamical system of significantly fewer degrees of freedom. The concentration on subdomains of the flow field where relevant dynamics is expected allows the dissection of a complex flow into regions of localized instability phenomena and further illustrates the flexibility of the method, as does the description of the dynamics within a spatial framework. Demonstrations of the method are presented consisting of a plane channel flow, flow over a two-dimensional cavity, wake flow behind a flexible membrane and a jet passing between two cylinders.

2,909 citations

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