# Showing papers in "Journal of Fluid Mechanics in 1980"

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TL;DR: In this paper, a laser-Doppler velocimeter (LDV) study of velocity profiles in the laminar boundary layer adjacent to a heated flat plate revealed that the seed particles used for the LDV measurements were driven away from the plate surface by thermophoretic forces, causing a particle free region within the boundary layer of approximately one half the boundary-layer thickness.

Abstract: A laser-Doppler velocimeter (LDV) study of velocity profiles in the laminar boundary layer adjacent to a heated flat plate revealed that the seed particles used for the LDV measurements were driven away from the plate surface by thermophoretic forces, causing a particle-free region within the boundary layer of approximately one half the boundary-layer thickness. Measurements of the thickness of this region were compared with particle trajectories calculated according to several theories for the thermophoretic force. It was found that the theory of Brock, with an improved value for the thermal slip coefficient, gave the best agreement with experiment for low Knudsen numbers, λ/R = O(10−1), where λ is the mean free path and R the particle radius.Data obtained by other experimenters over a wider range of Knudsen numbers are compared, and a fitting formula for the thermophoretic force useful over the entire range 0 [les ] λ/R [les ] ∞ is proposed which agrees within 20% or less with the majority of the available data.

1,277 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that all parallel inviscid shear flows of constant density are unstable to a wide class of initial infinitesimal three-dimensional disturbances in the sense that, according to linear theory, the kinetic energy of the disturbance will grow at least as fast as linearly in time.

Abstract: It is shown that all parallel inviscid shear flows of constant density are unstable to a wide class of initial infinitesimal three-dimensional disturbances in the sense that, according to linear theory, the kinetic energy of the disturbance will grow at least as fast as linearly in time This can occur even when the disturbance velocities are bounded, because the streamwise length of the disturbed region grows linearly with time This finding may have implications for the observed tendency of turbulent shear flows to develop a longitudinal streaky structure

739 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a new technique is proposed for the boundary condition at large distances and an iteration scheme has been developed, based on Newton's method, which circumvents the numerical difficulties previously encountered around and beyond a Reynolds number of 100.

Abstract: Numerical solutions have been obtained for steady viscous flow past a circular cylinder at Reynolds numbers up to 300. A new technique is proposed for the boundary condition at large distances and an iteration scheme has been developed, based on Newton's method, which circumvents the numerical difficulties previously encountered around and beyond a Reynolds number of 100. Some new trends are observed in the solution shortly before a Reynolds number of 300. As vorticity starts to recirculate back from the end of the wake region, this region becomes wider and shorter. Other flow quantities like position of separation point, drag, pressure and vorticity distributions on the body surface appear to be quite unaffected by this reversal of trends.

618 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, it is shown that the gravity current can pass through three states: a slumping phase, a viscous phase, and a purely inertial phase, where the buoyancy force of the intruding fluid is balanced by the inertial force.

Abstract: Experimental results for the release of a fixed volume of one homogeneous fluid into another of slightly different density are presented, From these results and those obtained by previous experiments, it is argued that the resulting gravity current can pass through three states. There is first a slumping phase, during which the current is retarded by the counterflow in the fluidinto which it is issuing. The current remains in this slumping phase until the depth ratio of current to intruded fluid is reduced to less than about 0,075. This may be followed by a (previously investigated) purely inertial phase, wherein the buoyancy force of the intruding fluid is balanced by the inertial force. Motion in the surrounding fluid plays a negligible role in this phase. There then follows a viscous phase, wherein the buoyancy force is balanced by viscous forces. It is argued and confirmed by experiment that the inertial phase is absent if viscous effects become important before the slumping phase has been completed. R’elationships between spreading distance and time for each phase are obtained for all three phases for both two-dimensional and axisymmetric geometries. Some consequences of the retardation of the gravity current during the slumping phase are discussed.

545 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used laser-Doppler methods to identify four distinct sequences of instabilities leading to turbulent convection at low Prandtl number (2·5−5·0), in fluid layers of small horizontal extent.

Abstract: Using automated laser-Doppler methods we have identified four distinct sequences of instabilities leading to turbulent convection at low Prandtl number (2·5–5·0), in fluid layers of small horizontal extent. Contour maps of the structure of the time-averaged velocity field, in conjunction with high-resolution power spectral analysis, demonstrate that several mean flows are stable over a wide range in the Rayleigh number R, and that the sequence of time-dependent instabilities depends on the mean flow. A number of routes to non-periodic motion have been identified by varying the geometrical aspect ratio, Prandtl number, and mean flow. Quasi-periodic motion at two frequencies leads to phase locking or entrainment, as identified by a step in a graph of the ratio of the two frequencies. The onset of non-periodicity in this case is associated with the loss of entrainment as R is increased. Another route to turbulence involves successive subharmonic (or period doubling) bifurcations of a periodic flow. A third route contains a well-defined regime with three generally incommensurate frequencies and no broadband noise. The spectral analysis used to demonstrate the presence of three frequencies has a precision of about one part in 104 to 105. Finally, we observe a process of intermittent non-periodicity first identified by Libchaber & Maurer at lower Prandtl number. In this case the fluid alternates between quasi-periodic and non-periodic states over a finite range in R. Several of these processes are also manifested by rather simple mathematical models, but the complicated dependence on geometrical parameters, Prandtl number, and mean flow structure has not been explained.

544 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, direct numerical solutions of the Navier-stokes equations are presented for the evolution of three-dimensional finite-amplitude disturbances of plane Poiseuille and plane Couette flows.

Abstract: Direct numerical solutions of the three-dimensional time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations are presented for the evolution of three-dimensional finite-amplitude disturbances of plane Poiseuille and plane Couette flows. Spectral methods using Fourier series and Chebyshev polynomial series are used. It is found that plane Poiseuille flow can sustain neutrally stable two-dimensional finite-amplitude disturbances at Reynolds numbers larger than about 2800. No neutrally stable two-dimensional finite-amplitude disturbances of plane Couette flow were found.Three-dimensional disturbances are shown to have a strongly destabilizing effect. It is shown that finite-amplitude disturbances can drive transition to turbulence in both plane Poiseuille flow and plane Couette flow at Reynolds numbers of order 1000. Details of the resulting flow fields are presented. It is also shown that plane Poiseuille flow cannot sustain turbulence at Reynolds numbers below about 500.

531 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors considered the problem of transient natural convection in a cavity of aspect ratio A [les ] 1 with differentially heated end walls and used scale analysis to show that a number of initial flow types are possible, collapsing ultimately onto two basic types of steady flow, determined by the relative value of the non-dimensional parameters describing the flow.

Abstract: The problem of transient natural convection in a cavity of aspect ratio A [les ] 1 with differentially heated end walls is considered. Scale analysis is used to show that a number of initial flow types are possible, collapsing ultimately onto two basic types of steady flow, determined by the relative value of the non-dimensional parameters describing the flow. A number of numerical solutions which encompass both flow types are obtained, and their relationship to the scale analysis is discussed.

510 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the conditions most favorable to vortex parting were determined as a function of the excitation Strouhal number, the Reynolds number, and the initial shear-layer state.

Abstract: Hot-wire and flow visualization studies were performed in three air jets subjected to pure-tone excitation The instability, vortex roll-up, and transition to the controlled excitation were investigated The conditions most favorable to vortex parting were determined as a function of the excitation Strouhal number, the Reynolds number, and the initial shear-layer state; it was shown that the rolled-up vortex rings undergo pairing under 'the shear layer mode', and the 'jet-column mode' when the Strouhal numbers based on the initial shear-layer momentum thickness are 0012 and 085, respectively Coherent ring-like vortical structures could be educed to the end of the potential core; however, the paired vortex becomes weaker with increasing downstream distances The transverse transport of 'u' momentum by the coherent structures was much larger during the pairing process than in regions where a single vortex is studied

448 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the flow structure observed over a bell-shaped hill with height h (the profile of which is the reciprocal of a fourth-order polynomial) when it was placed first in a large towing tank containing stratified saline solutions with uniform stable density gradients and second in an unstratified wind tunnel.

Abstract: This paper describes the flow structure observed over a bell-shaped hill with height h (the profile of which is the reciprocal of a fourth-order polynomial) when it was placed first in a large towing tank containing stratified saline solutions with uniform stable density gradients and second in an unstratified wind tunnel. (A similarly shaped model hill was also studied in a small towing tank.) Observations were made at values of the Froude number F (≃ U/Nh) in the range 0·1 to 1·7 and at F = ∞, where U is the towing speed and N is the Brunt-Vaisala frequency, and at values of the Reynolds number from 400 to 275000. For F [lsim ] 0·4, the observations verify Drazin's (1961) theory for low-Froude-number flow over three-dimensional obstacles and establish limits of applicability. For Froude numbers of the order of unity, it is found that a classification of the lee-wave patterns and separated-flow regions observed in two-dimensional flows also appears to apply to three-dimensional hills.Flow-visualization techniques were used extensively in obtaining both qualitative and quantitative information on the flow structure around the hill. Representative photographs of dye tracers, potassium permanganate dye streaks, shadowgraphs, surface dye smears, and hydrogen-bubble patterns are included here. While emphasis is centred on obtaining a basic understanding of the flow around three-dimensional hills, the results are applicable to the estimation of air pollutant dispersion around hills.

386 citations

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Kyoto University

^{1}TL;DR: In this paper, an analytical and numerical analysis of the physical behavior of a collapsing bubble in a liquid has been made, taking into account the effects of compressibility of the liquid, non-equilibrium condensation of the vapour, heat conduction and the temperature discontinuity at the phase interface.

Abstract: Analytical and numerical analyses have been made of the physical behaviour of a collapsing bubble in a liquid. The mathematical formulation takes into account the effects of compressibility of the liquid, non-equilibrium condensation of the vapour, heat conduction and the temperature discontinuity at the phase interface. Numerical solutions for the collapse of the bubble are obtained beyond the time when the bubble reaches its minimum radius up to the stage when a pressure wave forms and propagates outward into the liquid. The numerical results indicate that evaporation and condensation strongly influence the dynamical behaviour of the bubble.In addition, the propagation of the stress wave, both in a solid and a liquid, due to the collapse of the bubble has been observed by means of the dynamic photoelasticity. It is clearly demonstrated that the stress wave in a photoelastic specimen is caused by impact of the pressure wave radiated from the bubble.

355 citations

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Brown University

^{1}TL;DR: In this article, a head-on collision between two solitary waves on the surface of an inviscid homogeneous fluid was considered, and a perturbation method was used to calculate the effects of the collision.

Abstract: We consider a head-on collision between two solitary waves on the surface of an inviscid homogeneous fluid. A perturbation method which in principle can generate an asymptotic series of all orders, is used to calculate the effects of the collision. We find that the waves emerging from (i.e. long after) the collision preserve their original identities to the third order of accuracy we have calculated. However a collision does leave imprints on the colliding waves with phase shifts and shedding of secondary waves. Each secondary wave group trails behind its primary, a solitary wave. The amplitude of the wave group diminishes in time because of dispersion. We have also calculated the maximum run-up amplitude of two colliding waves. The result checks with existing experiments.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the motion of the head of a gravity current travelling down a slope of angle θ to the horizontal is investigated in the laboratory and it is found that for very small slopes (θ [les ] 0.5°) the head decelerates with distance from the source, but at greater slopes the buoyancy force is large enough to overcome frictional effects and a steady head velocity results.

Abstract: The motion of the head of a gravity current travelling down a slope of angle θ to the horizontal is investigated in the laboratory. The head is produced by suddenly initiating a buoyancy flux from a line source at the top of the slope. It is found that for very small slopes (θ [les ] 0.5°) the head decelerates with distance from the source, but at greater slopes the buoyancy force is large enough to overcome frictional effects and a steady head velocity results. Over a wide range of slope angles the front velocity Uf, non-dimensionalized by the cube root of the buoyancy flux (g′0Q)1/3, is almost independent of the slope angle and Uf/(g’0Q)1/3 = 1.5 ± 0.2 for 5° [les ] θ [les ] 90°. This result is shown to follow from some simple analysis which relates the velocity of the front to the following flow. For a Boussinesq plume the front velocity is found to be approximately 60% of the mean velocity of the following flow. This means that the head increases in size as it travels down the slope, both by direct entrainment into the head itself and by addition of fluid from the following flow. We find that direct entrainment increases with increasing slope and accounts for one-tenth of the growth of the head at 10° and about two-thirds at 90°.

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TL;DR: The time development of the symmetrical standing zone of recirculation, which is formed in the early stage of the flow due to a circular cylinder impulsively set in motion perpendicular to its generators, has been studied using a flow visualization technique.

Abstract: The time development of the symmetrical standing zone of recirculation, which is formed in the early stage of the flow due to a circular cylinder impulsively set in motion perpendicular to its generators, has been studied using a flow visualization technique. The Reynolds numbers (based upon the diameter) range from 40 to 104. Some new phenomena indicated in the flow patterns are revealed, and several different regimes are differentiated by a detailed analysis of the evolution of the main flow characteristics. A correlation with some theoretical results is established.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the flow past slender bodies possessing finite centre-line curvature in a viscous, incompressible fluid without any appreciable inertia effects, and showed that the boundary condition is satisfied up to an error term of O(e2) by distributing appropriate stokeslets, potential doublets, rotlets, sources, stresslets and quadrupoles on the body centreline.

Abstract: The present study examines the flow past slender bodies possessing finite centre-line curvature in a viscous, incompressible fluid without any appreciable inertia effects. We consider slender bodies having arbitrary centre-line configurations, circular transverse cross-sections, and longitudinal cross-sections which are approximately elliptic close to the body ends (i.e. prolate-spheroidal body ends). The no-slip boundary condition on the body surface is satisfied, using a convenient stepwise procedure, to higher orders in the slenderness parameter (e) than has previously been possible. In fact, the boundary condition is satisfied up to an error term of O(e2) by distributing appropriate stokeslets, potential doublets, rotlets, sources, stresslets and quadrupoles on the body centre-line. The methods used here produce an integral equation valid along the entire body length, including the ends, whose solution determines the stokeslet strength or equivalently the force per unit length up to a term of O(e2). The O(e2) correction to the stokeslet strength is also found. The theory is used to examine the motion of a partial torus and a helix of finite length. For helical bodies comparisons are made between the present theory and the resistive-force theory using the force coefficients of Gray & Hancock and Lighthill. For the motion considered the Gray & Hancock force coefficients generally underestimate the force per unit length, whereas Lighthill's coefficients provide good agreement except in the vicinity of the body ends.

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TL;DR: In this article, the entrainment zone of simulated atmospheric mixed layers is investigated from measurements of horizontally averaged temperature and buoyancy flux, and from visual observations of penetrating thermals using a spread laser beam.

Abstract: In laboratory experiments of simulated atmospheric mixed layers the entrainment zone is investigated from measurements of horizontally averaged temperature and buoyancy flux, and from visual observations of penetrating thermals using a spread laser beam. The region of negative buoyancy flux of entrainment is found to be confined between the outermost height reached by the few most vigorous penetrating parcels, and by the lesser height where mixed-layer fluid occupies, usually, some 90 to 95% of the total area. The height of most negative buoyancy flux of entrainment is found to agree roughly with the level at which mixed-layer fluid occupies half the area.The thickness of the entrainment zone, relative to the depth of the well-mixed layer just beneath, is found to be quite substantial (0·2 to 0·4), and apparently decreases only asymptotically with increasing ‘overall’ Richardson number, Ri*. The thickness is not well predicted by parcel theory.Extensive detrainment is found to occur within the entrainment zone, and adds to the difficulty in defining the position of the local interface between mixed-layer fluid and unmodified fluid.For typical Ri* values occurring in the atmosphere, the dimensionless entrainment rate is found to be given satisfactorily by 0·25(Ri*)−1, although an dependence cannot be ruled out by the present data. Entrainment into a neutral layer in the absence of a capping inversion is found to proceed at the expected rate.

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TL;DR: In this article, an approximate set of equations is derived for a compressible liquid of infinite Prandtl number, referred to as the anelastic liquid equations, which are solved in two dimensions and a systematic investigation of compressible convection is presented in which d/HT is varied from 0·1 to 1·5.

Abstract: An approximate set of equations is derived for a compressible liquid of infinite Prandtl number. These are referred to as the anelastic-liquid equations. The approximation requires the product of absolute temperature and volume coefficient of thermal expansion to be small compared to one. A single parameter defined as the ratio of the depth of the convecting layer, d, to the temperature scale height of the liquid, HT, governs the importance of the non-Boussinesq effects of compressibility, viscous dissipation, variable adiabatic temperature gradients and non-hydrostatic pressure gradients. When d/HT [Lt ] 1 the Boussinesq equations result, but when d/HT is O(1) the non-Boussinesq terms become important. Using a time-dependent numerical model, the anelastic-liquid equations are solved in two dimensions and a systematic investigation of compressible convection is presented in which d/HT is varied from 0·1 to 1·5. Both marginal stability and finite-amplitude convection are studied. For d/HT [les ] 1·0 the effect of density variations is primarily geometric; descending parcels of liquid contract and ascending parcels expand, resulting in an increase in vorticity with depth. When d/HT > 1·0 the density stratification significantly stabilizes the lower regions of the marginal state solutions. At all values of d/HT [ges ] 0·25, an adiabatic temperature gradient proportional to temperature has a noticeable stabilizing effect on the lower regions. For d/HT [ges ] 0·5, marginal solutions are completely stabilized at the bottom of the layer and penetrative convection occurs for a finite range of supercritical Rayleigh numbers. In the finite-amplitude solutions adiabatic heating and cooling produces an isentropic central region. Viscous dissipation acts to redistribute buoyancy sources and intense frictional heating influences flow solutions locally in a time-dependent manner. The ratio of the total viscous heating in the convecting system, ϕ, to the heat flux across the upper surface, Fu, has an upper limit equal to d/HT. This limit is achieved at high Rayleigh numbers, when heating is entirely from below, and, for sufficiently large values of d/HT, Φ/Fu is greater than 1·00.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a two-dimensional stability analysis of flow of low Froude number over an erodible bed is presented, and the results are strongly dependent on the two parameters z0, the roughness length of the bed, and β, the effect of the local bed slope on the bed load transport.

Abstract: A two-dimensional stability analysis is presented of flow of low Froude number over an erodible bed. Particular regard is given to the modelling of the turbulent flow close to the bed. In contrast to previous theories that use a constant eddy-viscosity approach the present theory predicts the occurrence of two separate modes of instability, with wavelengths related to the roughness of the bed and the depth of the flow. It is postulated that these two modes correspond to the formation of ripples and dunes respectively. The results are strongly dependent on the two parameters z0, the roughness length of the bed, and β, the effect of the local bed slope on the bed-load transport. Using physically plausible estimates for these parameters the results of the analysis are in good agreement with observations for both ripples and dunes.

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TL;DR: In this article, a new definition of concentration fluctuations in turbulent flows is proposed, which implicitly incorporates smearing effects of molecular diffusion and instrumental averaging, and a stochastic model of two-particle dispersion, consistent with this definition, is formulated.

Abstract: A new definition of concentration fluctuations in turbulent flows is proposed. The definition implicitly incorporates smearing effects of molecular diffusion and instrumental averaging. A stochastic model of two-particle dispersion, consistent with this definition, is formulated. The stochastic model is an extension of Taylor's (1921) model and is consistent with Richardson's represents net destruction of fluctuations by relative dispersion. Only the first term is included in the usual one-particle model (Corrsin 1952).

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TL;DR: In this article, the problem of acoustic radiation generated by instability waves of a compressible plane turbulent shear layer is solved, and the solution provided is valid up to the acoustic far-field region.

Abstract: The problem of acoustic radiation generated by instability waves of a compressible plane turbulent shear layer is solved. The solution provided is valid up to the acoustic far-field region. It represents a significant improvement over the solution obtained by classical hydrodynamic-stability theory which is essentially a local solution with the acoustic radiation suppressed. The basic instability-wave solution which is valid in the shear layer and the near-field region is constructed in terms of an asymptotic expansion using the method of multiple scales. This solution accounts for the effects of the slightly divergent mean flow. It is shown that the multiple-scales asymptotic expansion is not uniformly valid far from the shear layer. Continuation of this solution into the entire upper half-plane is described. The extended solution enables the near- and far-field pressure fluctuations associated with the instability wave to be determined. Numerical results show that the directivity pattern of acoustic radiation into the stationary medium peaks at 20 degrees to the axis of the shear layer in the downstream direction for supersonic flows. This agrees qualitatively with the observed noise-directivity patterns of supersonic jets.

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TL;DR: In this article, the problem of determining the steady axially symmetrical motion induced by a sphere rotating with constant angular velocity about a diameter in an incompressible viscous fluid which is at rest at large distances from it is considered.

Abstract: The problem of determining the steady axially symmetrical motion induced by a sphere rotating with constant angular velocity about a diameter in an incompressible viscous fluid which is at rest at large distances from it is considered. The basic independent variables are the polar co-ordinates (r, θ) in a plane through the axis of rotation and with origin at the centre of the sphere. The equations of motion are reduced to three sets of nonlinear second-order ordinary differential equations in the radial variable by expanding the flow variables as series of orthogonal Gegenbauer functions with argument μ = cosθ. Numerical solutions of the finite set of equations obtained by truncating the series after a given number of terms are obtained. The calculations are carried out for Reynolds numbers in the range R = 1 to R = 100, and the results are compared with various other theoretical results and with experimental observations.The torque exerted by the fluid on the sphere is found to be in good agreement with theory at low Reynolds numbers and appears to tend towards the results of steady boundary-layer theory for increasing Reynolds number. There is excellent agreement with experimental results over the range considered. A region of inflow to the sphere near the poles is balanced by a region of outflow near the equator and as the Reynolds number increases the inflow region increases and the region of outflow becomes narrower. The radial velocity increases with Reynolds number at the equator, indicating the formation of a radial jet over the narrowing region of outflow. There is no evidence of any separation of the flow from the surface of the sphere near the equator over the range of Reynolds numbers considered.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors presented the first application for bounded flow of the three-dimensional boundary collocation theory developed in Ganatos, Pfeffer & Weinbaum (1978) for the creeping motion of a sphere of arbitrary size and position between two plane parallel walls.

Abstract: Exact solutions are presented for the three-dimensional creeping motion of a sphere of arbitrary size and position between two plane parallel walls for the following conditions: (a) pure translation parallel to two stationary walls, (b) pure rotation about an axis parallel to the walls, (c) Couette flow past a rigidly held sphere induced by the motion of one of the boundaries and (d) two-dimensional Poiseuille flow past a rigidly held sphere in a channel. The combined analytic and numerical solution procedure is the first application for bounded flow of the three-dimensional boundary collocation theory developed in Ganatos, Pfeffer & Weinbaum (1978). The accuracy of the solution technique is tested by detailed comparison with the exact bipolar co-ordinate solutions of Goldman, Cox & Brenner (1967a, b) for the drag and torque on a sphere translating parallel to a single plane wall, rotating adjacent to the wall or in the presence of a shear field. In all cases, the converged collocation solutions are in perfect agreement with the exact solutions for all spacings tested. The new collocation solutions have also been used to test the accuracy of existing solutions for the motion of a sphere parallel to two walls using the method of reflexions technique. The first-order reflexion theory of Ho & Leal (1974) provides reasonable agreement with the present results for the drag when the sphere is five or more radii from both walls. At closer spacings first-order reflexion theory is highly inaccurate and predicts an erroneous direction for the torque on the sphere for a wide range of sphere positions. Comparison with the classical higher-order method of reflexions solutions of Faxen (1923) reveals that the convergence of the multiple reflexion series solution is poor when the sphere centre is less than two radii from either boundary.Solutions have also been obtained for the fluid velocity field. These solutions show that, for certain wall spacings and particle positions, a separated region of closed streamlines forms adjacent to the sphere which reverses the direction of the torque acting on a translating sphere.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors present numerical solutions of the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations in order to show the structure of the flow and explain the high efficiency of the devices of Bellhouse.

Abstract: Bellhouse et al. (1973) have developed a high-efficiency membrane oxygenator which utilizes pulsatile flow through furrowed channels to achieve high mass transfer rates. We present numerical solutions of the time-dependent two-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations in order to show the structure of the flow. Experimental observations which support this work are presented in a companion paper (Stephanoff, Sobey & Bellhouse 1980). Steady flow through a furrowed channel will separate provided the Reynolds number is sufficiently large. The effect of varying the Reynolds number and the geometric parameters is given and comparisons with solutions calculated using the modern boundary-layer theory of Smith (1976) show excellent agreement. Unsteady flow solutions are given as the physical and geometric parameters are varied. The structure of the flow patterns leads to an explanation of the high efficiency of the devices of Bellhouse.

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TL;DR: In this article, an extensive experimental study of the flows due to underexpanded axisymmetric jets impinging on flat plates is presented, where the main emphasis is on the behavior in the first shock cell.

Abstract: This paper reports on an extensive experimental study of the flows due to under-expanded axisymmetric jets impinging on flat plates. The range of plate locations extends to a point where the jet is just subsonic but the main emphasis is on the behaviour in the first shock cell. Plate inclinations from 90° to 30° were investigated by means of comprehensive surface pressure measurements and shadowgraph pictures. Wherever possible, the main features of the results have been reconstructed using inviscid analyses of the wave interactions.The flows are shown to be extremely complex due to the local structure of the free jet and, particularly, due to interactions between shock waves in the free jet and those created by the plate. In the near field, these interactions tend to be the controlling factors but at larger distances from the nozzle, mixing effects become increasingly important.The maximum pressure on the plate when it is inclined can be very much larger than when the plate is perpendicular, owing to the possibility of high pressure recoveries through multiple shock systems. Correlations are presented for some of the main features on perpendicular plates and it is shown that the integrated pressure loads for both normal and inclined plates can be predicted well by a simple momentum balance.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors show how trains of nonlinear, dispersive waves can be produced by allowing a region of mixed fluid, with a potential energy greater than its surroundings, to collapse towards its equilibrium state.

Abstract: The paper shows how trains of nonlinear, dispersive waves can be produced by allowing a region of mixed fluid, with a potential energy greater than its surroundings, to collapse towards its equilibrium state. The number of waves and their amplitude depend on the properties of the mixed region and of the ambient stratification. Three different geometrical configurations have been chosen and while each gives qualitatively the same results the form taken by the generated waves and the final equilibrium shape of the mixed region depend critically on these geometrical factors. The internal waves produced by this mechanism are related to waves produced in natural systems and it is shown that the observations support at least one possible explanation for those found in the oceans and planetary atmospheres.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a linearized stability theory for small, static rivulets whose contact (common or three-phase) lines (i) are fixed, (ii) move but have fixed contact angles or (iii) have contact angles smooth functions of contact-line speeds is presented.

Abstract: A rivulet is a narrow stream of liquid located on a solid surface and sharing a curved interface with the surrounding gas. Capillary instabilities are investigated by a linearized stability theory. The formulation is for small, static rivulets whose contact (common or three-phase) lines (i) are fixed, (ii) move but have fixed contact angles or (iii) move but have contact angles smooth functions of contact-line speeds. The linearized stability equations are converted to a disturbance kinetic-energy balance showing that the disturbance response exactly satisfies a damped linear harmonic-oscillator equation. The ‘damping coefficient’ contains the bulk viscous dissipation, the effect of slip along the solid and all dynamic effects that arise in contact-line condition (iii). The ‘spring constant’, whose sign determines stability or instability in the system, incorporates the interfacial area changes and is identical in cases (ii) and (iii). Thus, for small disturbances changes in contact angle with contact-line speed constitute a purely dissipative process. All the above results are independent of slip model at the liquid–solid interface as long as a certain integral inequality holds. Finally, sufficient conditions for stability are obtained in all cases (i), (ii) and (iii).

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TL;DR: An efficient relaxation method was developed for computing the properties of a family of vortex pairs with distributed vorticity, propagating without change of shape through a homogeneous, inviscid fluid as mentioned in this paper.

Abstract: An efficient relaxation method is developed for computing the properties of a family of vortex pairs with distributed vorticity, propagating without change of shape through a homogeneous, inviscid fluid. The numerical results indicate that a steady state exists even when the gap between vortices is arbitrarily small, and that as the gap closes the steady state approaches a limiting vortex pair with a cusp on the axis of symmetry. Comparison is made with an approximate theory due to Saffman, and agreement is found to be good until the vortices are almost touching. The energy of members of the family is computed, and possible means of experimental production are discussed.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors study the initial value problem posed by the small amplitude free oscillations of free drops, gas bubbles, and drops in a host liquid when viscous effects cannot be neglected.

Abstract: We study the initial-value problem posed by the small-amplitude (linearized) free oscillations of free drops, gas bubbles, and drops in a host liquid when viscous effects cannot be neglected. It is found that the motion consists of modulated damped oscillations, with the damping parameter and frequency approaching only asymptotically the results of the normal-mode analysis. The connexion with the normal-mode method is demonstrated explicitly and the experimental relevance of our results is discussed.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the coherent structure dynamics in the near field of a circular jet has been experimentally explored by inducing stable vortex pairing through controlled excitation and applying phase-averaging techniques.

Abstract: The coherent structure dynamics in the near field of a circular jet has been experimentally explored by inducing ‘stable’ vortex pairing through controlled excitation (see Zaman & Hussain 1980) and applying phase-averaging techniques. Hot-wire measurements were made in a 7·62 cm air jet with laminar exit boundary layer at the Reynolds number ReD = 3·2 × 104, excited at the Strouhal number StD = 0·85. At a particular phase during the pairing process, spatial distributions of the phase-average longitudinal and lateral velocity perturbations (〈u)〉, 〈v〉), vorticity, streamlines, the coherent and background Reynolds stresses and turbulence intensities have been educed. These data have been obtained for four different locations occupied by the vortices at the same phase (preceding, during, and following the pairing event), in the region 0 < x/D < 5. Spatial distributions of these measures at four successive phases during the pairing process are also educed in an attempt to further understand the vortex-pairing dynamics. The flow physics is discussed on the basis of measurements over the physical extent of the vortical structures, phase-locked to specific phases of the pairing event and thus do not involve use of the Taylor hypothesis.The computed pseudostream functions at particular phases are compared with the corresponding streamlines drawn by the method of isoclines. Transition of the vortices is examined on the basis of vorticity diffusion, the superimposed random fluctuation field intensities and Reynolds stress and phase-locked circumferential correlation measurements. The peak vorticity drops rapidly owing to transition and interaction of the vortices during pairing but, farther downstream, the decay can be attributed to destruction of the coherent vorticity by the background turbulence Reynolds stress, especially at the locations of the latter's ‘saddle points’. Controlled excitation enhances the initial circumferential coherence of the vortical structures, but is ineffective in delaying turbulent breakdown near the end of the potential core; the breakdown appears to occur through evolution of the circumferential lobe structures. The coherent structure Reynolds stress is found to be much larger than the background turbulence Reynolds stress for 0 < x/D [lsim ] 3, but these two are comparable near the end of the jet potential core. The zone average of the coherent structure Reynolds stress over the cross-section of the merging vortex pair is much larger than that over a single vortical structure either before or after the completion of pairing. During the pairing process, such average correlations are found to be the largest at an early phase of the process while entrainment, turbulent breakdown as well as rapid diffusion of vorticity occur at a later phase. The regions of alternate positive and negative coherent Reynolds stresses associated with the structures and their interactions help explain ‘negative production’.

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TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that when a vertical ice surface melts into a stable salinity gradient, the melt water spreads out into the interior in a series of nearly horizontal layers.

Abstract: In our previous qualitative paper, it was shown that when a vertical ice surface melts into a stable salinity gradient, the melt water spreads out into the interior in a series of nearly horizontal layers. The experiments reported here are aimed at quantifying this effect, which could be of some importance in the application to melting icebergs. Experiments have also been carried out with heated and cooled vertical walls at larger Rayleigh numbers R than those of previous experiments.The main result is that for most of our experiments there is no significant difference between these three cases when properly scaled. The layer thickness over a wide range of R is described to within the experimental accuracy by
\[
h=0.65 [\rho(T_w,S_{\infty}) - \rho(T_{\infty},S_{\infty})]\left/\frac{d\rho}{dz}\right.,
\]
where the term in brackets is the horizontal buoyancy difference evaluated at the mean salinity and dp/dz is the vertical density gradient due to salinity. In the case of ice melting into warm water the effective wall temperature Tw is approximately 0°C, whereas in colder water the freezing point depression must be taken explicitly into account. A detailed examination of the vertically flowing inner melt water layer in both homogeneous and salinity stratified cases has been made. This layer and the melt water which is mixed outwards from it into the turbulent horizontal layers have little effect on the outer flow. At high R and large external salinity, however, mixing can reduce the effective salinity at the inner edge of the horizontal layers, and thus the layer scale. A puzzling feature is the relatively weak dependence of layer scale on local salinity, though the vigour of convection and the rate of melting are greater where the salinity is high.The direct application of our results to oceanographic situations predicts layer scales under typical summer conditions of order tens of metres in the Antarctic and of order metres in the Arctic. More measurements will be needed, especially close to icebergs, before the application of these ideas to polar regions can be properly evaluated.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors studied the viscous motion of a long slender drop placed in a simple shear flow, the drop having a low viscosity compared with that of the suspending fluid.

Abstract: We study theoretically the slow viscous motion of a long slender drop placed in a simple shear flow, the drop having a low viscosity compared with that of the suspending fluid. As a simplifying approximation, the cross-section of the drop is taken to be circular. An equilibrium shape with the drop nearly aligned with the flow is found for all shear rates, although the equilibrium is only stable to small disturbances for shear rates below some critical value. The stable equilibria just below the critical shear rate are found to be accessible only if the shear rate is increased slowly.