# Showing papers in "Journal of Fluid Mechanics in 1982"

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TL;DR: In this article, a large-scale flow field was obtained by directly integrating the filtered, three-dimensional, time dependent, Navier-Stokes equations, and small-scale field motions were simulated through an eddy viscosity model.

Abstract: Fully developed turbulent channel flow was simulated numerically at Reynolds number 13800, based on centerline velocity and channel halt width. The large-scale flow field was obtained by directly integrating the filtered, three dimensional, time dependent, Navier-Stokes equations. The small-scale field motions were simulated through an eddy viscosity model. The calculations were carried out on the ILLIAC IV computer with up to 516,096 grid points. The computed flow field was used to study the statistical properties of the flow as well as its time dependent features. The agreement of the computed mean velocity profile, turbulence statistics, and detailed flow structures with experimental data is good. The resolvable portion of the statistical correlations appearing in the Reynolds stress equations are calculated. Particular attention is given to the examination of the flow structure in the vicinity of the wall.

1,190 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, experiments on the vortex shedding frequencies of various rectangular cylinders were conducted in a wind tunnel and in a water tank and the results show how Strouhal number varies with a width-to-height ratio of the cylinders in the range of Reynolds number between 70 and 2 × l04.

Abstract: Experiments on the vortex-shedding frequencies of various rectangular cylinders were conducted in a wind tunnel and in a water tank. The results show how Strouhal number varies with a width-to-height ratio of the cylinders in the range of Reynolds number between 70 and 2 × l04. There is found to exist a certain range of Reynolds number for the cylinders with the width-to-height ratios of 2 and 3 where flow pattern abruptly changes with a sudden discontinuity in Strouhal number. The changes in flow pattern corresponding to the discontinuity of Strouhal number have been confirmed by means of measurements of velocity distribution and flow visualization. These data are compared with those of other investigators. The experimental results have been found to show a good agreement with those of numerical calculations.

810 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that the spreading rate of a mixing layer can be greatly manipulated at very low forcing level if the mixing layer is perturbed near a subharmonic of the most-amplified frequency.

Abstract: In the present study, it is shown that the spreading rate of a mixing layer can be greatly manipulated at very low forcing level if the mixing layer is perturbed near a subharmonic of the most-amplified frequency. The subharmonic forcing technique is able to make several vortices merge simultaneously and hence increases the spreading rate dramatically. A new mechanism, ‘collective interaction’, was found which can bypass the sequential stages of vortex merging and make a large number of vortices (ten or more) coalesce.A deeper physical insight into the evolution of the coherent structures is revealed through the investigation of a forced mixing layer. The stability and the forcing function play important roles in determining the initial formation of the vortices. The subharmonic starts to amplify at the location where the phase speed of the subharmonic matches that of the fundamental. The position where vortices are seen to align vertically coincides with the position where the measured subharmonic reaches its peak. This location is defined as the merging location, and it can be determined from the feedback equation (Ho & Nosseir 1981).The spreading rate and the velocity profiles of the forced mixing layer are distinctly different from the unforced case. The data show that the initial condition has a longlasting effect on the development of the mixing layer.

781 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the viscous gravity current that results when fluid flows along a rigid horizontal surface below fluid of lesser density is analyzed using a lubrication-theory approximation, and it is shown that the effect on the gravity current of the motion in the upper fluid can be expressed as a condition of zero shear on the unknown upper surface of the current.

Abstract: The viscous gravity current that results when fluid flows along a rigid horizontal surface below fluid of lesser density is analysed using a lubrication-theory approximation. It is shown that the effect on the gravity current of the motion in the upper fluid can be expressed as a condition of zero shear on the unknown upper surface of the gravity current. With the supposition that the volume of heavy fluid increases with time like F, where a is a constant, a similarity solution to the governing nonlinear partial differential equations is obtained, which describes the shape and rate of propagation of the current. The viscous theory is shown to be valid for t & t, when a -c a, and for t -4 t, when a > a,, where t, is the transition time at which the inertial and viscous forces are equal, with a, = $ for a two-dimensional current and a, = 3 for an axisymmetric current. The solutions confirm the functional forms for the spreading relationships determined for a = 1 in the preceding paper by Didden & Maxworthy (1982), as well as evaluating the multiplicative factors appearing in the relationships. The relationships compare very well with experimental measurements of the axisymmetric spreading of silicone oils into air for a = 0 and 1. There is also very good agreement between the theoretical predictions and the measurements of the axisymmetric spreading of salt water into fresh water reported by Didden & Maxworthy and by Britter (1979). The predicted multiplicative constant is within 10 Yo of that measured by Didden & Maxworthy for the spreading of salt water into fresh water in a channel.

774 citations

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TL;DR: The effect of periodic two-dimensional excitation on the development of a turbulent mixing region was studied experimentally in this article, where controlled oscillations of variable ampli- tude and frequency were applied at the initiation of mixing between two parallel air streams.

Abstract: The effect of periodic two-dimensional excitation on the development of a turbulent mixing region was studied experimentally. Controlled oscillations of variable ampli- tude and frequency were applied at the initiation of mixing between two parallel air streams. The frequency of forcing was at least an order of magnitude lower than the initial instability frequency of the flow in order to test its effect far downstream. The effect of the velocity difference between the streams was also investigated in this experiment. A typical Reynolds number based on the velocity difference and the momentum thickness of the shear layer was l04.It was determined that the spreading rate of the mixing layer is sensitive to periodic surging even if the latter is so small that it does not contribute to the initial energy of the fluctuations. Oscillations at very small amplitudes tend to increase the spreading rate of the flow by enhancing the amalgamation of neighbouring eddies, but at higher amplitudes the flow resonates with the imposed oscillation. The resonance region can extend over a significant fraction of the test section depending on the Strouhal number and a dimensionless velocity-difference parameter. The flow in the resonance region consists of a single array of large, quasi-two-dimensional vortex lumps, which do not interact with one another. The exponential shape of the mean-velocity distribution is not affected in this region, but the spreading rate of the flow with increasing distance downstream is inhibited. The Reynolds stress in this region changes sign, indicating that energy is extracted from the turbulence to the mean motion; the intensity of the spanwise fluctuations is also reduced, suggesting that the flow tends to become more two-dimensional.Amalgamation of large coherent eddies is resumed beyond the resonance region, but the flow is not universally similar. There are many indications suggesting that the large eddies in the turbulent mixing layer at fairly large Re are governed by an inviscid instability.

639 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a model for wall turbulence was proposed based on the horse-shoe, hairpin or "A" vortex, which gave a connection between the mean-velocity distribution, the broad-band turbulence-intensity distributions and the turbulence spectra.

Abstract: In this paper an attempt is made to formulate a model for the mechanism of wall turbulence that links recent flow-visualization observations with the various quantitative measurements and scaling laws established from anemometry studies. Various mechanisms are proposed, all of which use the concept of the horse-shoe, hairpin or ‘A’ vortex. It is shown that these models give a connection between the mean-velocity distribution, the broad-band turbulence-intensity distributions and the turbulence spectra. Temperature distributions above a heated surface are also considered. Although this aspect of the work is not yet complete, the analysis for this shows promise.

634 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, an equation for the propagation of the discontinuity surface for arbitrary flame shapes in general fluid flows is derived, where the structure of the flame is considered to consist of a boundary layer in which the chemical reactions occur, located inside another boundary layer, in which transport processes dominate.

Abstract: Early treatments of flames as gasdynamic discontinuities in a fluid flow are based on several hypotheses and/or on phenomenological assumptions. The simplest and earliest of such analyses, by Landau and by Darrieus prescribed the flame speed to be constant. Thus, in their analysis they ignored the structure of the flame, i.e. the details of chemical reactions, and transport processes. Employing this model to study the stability of a plane flame, they concluded that plane flames are unconditionally unstable. Yet plane flames are observed in the laboratory. To overcome this difficulty, others have attempted to improve on this model, generally through phenomenological assumptions to replace the assumption of constant velocity. In the present work we take flame structure into account and derive an equation for the propagation of the discontinuity surface for arbitrary flame shapes in general fluid flows. The structure of the flame is considered to consist of a boundary layer in which the chemical reactions occur, located inside another boundary layer in which transport processes dominate. We employ the method of matched asymptotic expansions to obtain an equation for the evolution of the shape and location of the flame front. Matching the boundary-layer solutions to the outer gasdynamic flow, we derive the appropriate jump conditions across the front. We also derive an equation for the vorticity produced in the flame, and briefly discuss the stability of a plane flame, obtaining corrections to the formula of Landau and Darrieus.

627 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the two-dimensional stability properties of coherent shear-layer vortices discovered by Stuart are investigated, and the stability problem is formulated as a non-separable eigenvalue problem in two independent variables, and solved numerically using spectral methods.

Abstract: The two- and three-dimensional stability properties of the family of coherent shear-layer vortices discovered by Stuart are investigated. The stability problem is formulated as a non-separable eigenvalue problem in two independent variables, and solved numerically using spectral methods. It is found that there are two main classes of instabilities. The first class is subharmonic, and corresponds to pairing or localized pairing of vortex tubes; the pairing instability is most unstable in the two-dimensional limit, in which the perturbation has no spanwise variations. The second class repeats in the streamwise direction with the same periodicity as the basic flow. This mode is most unstable for spanwise wavelengths approximately 2/3 of the space between vortex centres, and can lead to the generation of streamwise vorticity and coherent ridges of upwelling. Comparison is made between the calculated instabilities and the observed pairing, helical pairing, and streak transitions. The theoretical and experimental results are found to be in reasonable agreement.

457 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the problem of slow flow through a periodic array of spheres was formulated as a set of two-dimensional integral equations for the unknown surface stress vector, thus lowering the dimension of the problem.

Abstract: We treat the problem of slow flow through a periodic array of spheres Our interest is in the drag force exerted on the array, and hence the permeability of such arrays It is shown to be convenient to formulate the problem as a set of two-dimensional integral equations for the unknown surface stress vector, thus lowering the dimension of the problem This set is solved numerically to obtain the drag as a function of particle concentration and packing characteristics Results are given over the full concentration range for simple cubic, body-centred cubic and face-centred cubic arrays and these agree well with previous limited experimental, asymptotic and numerical results

439 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, an analytical theory for the stability properties of planar fronts of premixed laminar flames freely propagating downwards in a uniform reacting mixture is developed for an arbitrary expansion of the gas across the flame.

Abstract: An analytical theory is developed for the stability properties of planar fronts of premixed laminar flames freely propagating downwards in a uniform reacting mixture. The coupling between the hydrodynamics and the diffusion process is described for an arbitrary expansion of the gas across the flame. Viscous effects are included with an arbitrary Prandtl number. The flame structure is described for a large value of the reduced activation energy and for a Lewis number close to unity. The flame thickness is assumed to be small compared with the wavelength of the wrinkles of the front, this wavelength being also the characteristic lengthscale of the perturbations of the flow field outside the flame. A two-scale method is then used to solve the problem. The results show that the acceleration of gravity associated with the diffusion mechanisms inside the front can counterbalance the hydrodynamical instability when the laminar-flame velocity is low enough. The theory provides predictions concerning the instability threshold. In particular, the dimensions of the cells are predicted to be large compared with the flame thickness, and thus the basic assumption of the theory is verified. Furthermore, the quantitative predictions are in good agreement with the existing experimental data.The bifurcation is shown to be of a different nature than predicted by the purely diffusive–thermal model.The viscous diffusivities are supposed to be independent of the temperature, and then the viscosity is proved to have no effect at all on the dynamical properties of the flame front.

431 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a theoretical model for the motion of a human red blood cell in a shear field was developed, which consists of a tank-treading ellipsoidal membrane encapsulating an incompressible Newtonian liquid immersed in a plane shear flow of another incom- pressible liquid.

Abstract: A theoretical model is developed for the motion of a human red blood cell in a shear field. The model consists of a tank-treading ellipsoidal membrane encapsulating an incompressible Newtonian liquid immersed in a plane shear flow of another incom- pressible Newtonian liquid. Equilibrium and energy considerations lead to a solution for the motion of the particle that depends on the ellipsoidal-axis ratios and the ratio of the inner- to outer-liquid viscosities. The effect of variation in these parameters is explored and it is shown that, depending on their values, one of two types of overall motion is exhibited: a steady stationary-orientation motion or an unsteady flipping motion. A qualitative agreement of the predicted behaviour of the model with experi- mental observations on red blood cells is found.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of flow inhomogeneities on the dynamics of laminar flamelets in turbulent flames, with account taken of influences of the gas expansion produced by heat release, were investigated.

Abstract: To study effects of flow inhomogeneities on the dynamics of laminar flamelets in turbulent flames, with account taken of influences of the gas expansion produced by heat release, a previously developed theory of premixed flames in turbulent flows, that was based on a diffusive-thermal model in which thermal expansion was neglected, and that applied to turbulence having scales large compared with the laminar flame-thickness, is extended by eliminating the hypothesis of negligible expansion and by adding the postulate of weak-intensity turbulence. The consideration of thermal expansion motivates the formal introduction of multiple-scale methods, which should be useful in subsequent investigations. Although the hydrodynamic-instability mechanism of Landau is not considered, no restriction is imposed on the density change across the flame front, and the additional transverse convection correspondingly induced by the tilted front is described. By allowing the heat-to-reactant diffusivity ratio to differ slightly from unity, clarification is achieved of effects of phenomena such as flame stretch and the flame-relaxation mechanism traceable to transverse diffusive processes associated with flame-front curvature. By carrying the analysis to second order in the ratio of the laminar flame thickness to the turbulence scale, an equation for evolution of the flame front is derived, containing influences of transverse convection, flame relaxation and stretch. This equation explains anomalies recently observed at low frequencies in experimental data on power spectra of velocity fluctuations in turbulent flames. It also shows that, concerning the diffusive-stability properties of the laminar flame, the density change across the flame thickness produces a shift of the stability limits from those obtained in the purely diffusive-thermal model. At this second order, the turbulent correction to the flame speed involves only the mean area increase produced by wrinkling. The analysis is carried to the fourth order to demonstrate the mean-stretch and mean-curvature effects on the flame speed that occur if the diffusivity ratio differs from unity.

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TL;DR: In this paper, Batchelor et al. derived formulae for the mean velocity of the particles of each species correct to order ϕ, that is, with allowance for the effect of pair interactions.

Abstract: Small rigid spherical partials are settling under gravity through Newtonian fluid, and the volume fraction of the particles (ϕ) is small although sufficiently large for the effects of interactions between pairs of particles to be significant. Two neighbouring particles interact both hydrodynamically (with low-Reynolds-number flow about each particle) and through the exertion of a mutual force of molecular or electrical origin which is mainly repulsive; and they also diffuse relatively to each other by Brownian motion. The dispersion contains several species of particle which differ in radius and density.The purpose of the paper is to derive formulae for the mean velocity of the particles of each species correct to order ϕ, that is, with allowance for the effect of pair interactions. The method devised for the calculation of the mean velocity in a monodisperse system (Batchelor 1972) is first generalized to give the mean additional velocity of a particle of species i due to the presence of a particle of species j in terms of the pair mobility functions and the probability distribution pii(r) for the relative position of an i and a j particle. The second step is to determine pij(r) from a differential equation of Fokker-Planck type representing the effects of relative motion of the two particles due to gravity, the interparticle force, and Brownian diffusion. The solution of this equation is investigated for a range of special conditions, including large values of the Peclet number (negligible effect of Brownian motion); small values of the Ptclet number; and extreme values of the ratio of the radii of the two spheres. There are found to be three different limits for pij(r) corresponding to different ways of approaching the state of equal sphere radii, equal sphere densities, and zero Brownian relative diffusivity.Consideration of the effect of relative diffusion on the pair-distribution function shows the existence of an effective interactive force between the two particles and consequently a contribution to the mean velocity of the particles of each species. The direct contributions to the mean velocity of particles of one species due to Brownian diffusion and to the interparticle force are non-zero whenever the pair-distribution function is non-isotropic, that is, at all except large values of the Peclet number.The forms taken by the expression for the mean velocity of the particles of one species in the various cases listed above are examined. Numerical values will be presented in Part 2.

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TL;DR: A turbulent field is produced with an oscillating grid in a deep, rotating tank as discussed by the authors, which consists of concentrated vortices having axes approximately parallel to the rotation axis, and extending throughout the depth of the fluid above the turbulent Ekman layer.

Abstract: A turbulent field is produced with an oscillating grid in a deep, rotating tank. Near the grid, the Rossby number is kept large, 0(3-33), and the turbulence is locally unaffected by rotation. Away from the grid, the scale of the turbulence increases, the r.m.s. turbulent velocity decreases, and rotation becomes increasingly important. The flow field changes dramatically at a local Rossby number of about 0.20, and thereafter remains independent of depth. The flow consists of concentrated vortices having axes approximately parallel to the rotation axis, and extending throughout the depth of the fluid above the turbulent Ekman layer. The number of vortices per unit area is a function of the grid Rossby number. The local vorticity within cores can be a factor of 50 larger than the tank vorticity 2Ω. The total relative circulation contained in the vortices remains, however, a small fraction of the tank circulation.The concentrated vortex cores support waves consisting of helical distortions, which travel along the axes of individual vortices. Isolated, travelling waves seem well-described by the vortex-soliton theory of Hasimoto (1972). The nonlinear waves transport mass, momentum and energy from the vigorously turbulent region near the grid to the rotation-dominated flow above. Interactions between waves, which are frequent occurrences, almost always result in a local breakdown of the vortex core, and small-scale turbulence production. Usually the portions of broken core reform within ½−1 rotation periods, but occasionally cores are destroyed and reformed on a much longer timescale.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the Prandtl-Batchelor theorem is applied to non-rotating, steady two-dimensional flow and the results of the derivations given here can apply only where internal heating is negligible, upon the potential density surface under consideration.

Abstract: The mean circulation of planetary fluids tends to develop uniform potential vorticity q in regions where closed time-mean streamlines or closed isolines of mean potential vorticity exist. This state is established in statistically steady flows by geostrophic turbulence or by wave-induced potential-vorticity flux. At the outer edge of the closed contours the expelled gradients of q are concentrated. Beyond this transition lies motionless fluid, or a different flow regime in which the planetary gradient of q may be dominant. The homogenized regions occur where direct forcing by external stress or heating within the closed isoline is negligible, upon the potential-density surface under consideration. In the stably stratified ocean such regions are found at depths greater than those of direct wind-induced stress or penetrative cooling. In ‘channel’ models of the atmosphere we again find constant q when mesoscale eddies cause the dominant potential-vorticity flux. In the real atmosphere the results here can apply only where internal heating is negligible. The derivations given here build upon the Prandtl–Batchelor theorem, which applies to non-rotating, steady two-dimensional flow. Supporting evidence is found in numerical circulation models and oceanic observations.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the motion of free surfaces in incompressible, irrotational, inviscid layered flows is studied by evolution equations for the position of the free surfaces and appropriate dipole (vortex) and source strengths.

Abstract: The motion of free surfaces in incompressible, irrotational, inviscid layered flows is studied by evolution equations for the position of the free surfaces and appropriate dipole (vortex) and source strengths. The resulting Fredholm integral equations of the second kind may be solved efficiently in both storage and work by iteration in both two and three dimensions. Applications to breaking water waves over finite-bottom topography and interacting triads of surface and interfacial waves are given.

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TL;DR: In this paper, measurements have been made of concentration fluctuations and turbulent fluxes for two passive plumes from an elevated and a ground-level source in a turbulent boundary layer, and the balance of terms in the variance transport equation is examined, as is the overall level of fluctuations along the plume.

Abstract: Measurements have been made of concentration fluctuations and turbulent fluxes for two passive plumes from an elevated and a ground-level source in a turbulent boundary layer. For the concentration fluctuations, results are presented for the variance, the intermittency, peak values of concentration, probability-density functions and spectra. The balance of terms in the variance transport equation is examined, as is the overall level of fluctuations along the plume. It is shown that most of the production of fluctuations occurs very near the source. Then, the level of fluctuation decays, roughly in accordance with a balance between advection and dissipation. For the turbulent fluxes of concentration, results are presented for the vertical and lateral fluxes, with the associated behaviour of the vertical and lateral eddy diffusivities. The balance of terms in the transport equations for the fluxes is examined. The essential differences between vertical diffusion from ground-level and elevated sources and between near-field and far-field behaviour are shown to be due to the relative importance of the advection and diffusion terms in these equations.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors consider capillary displacement of immiscible fluids in porous media in the limit of vanishing flow rate and find a residual volume fraction of displaced phase which depends strongly on the sample size, but weakly or not at all on the co-ordination number and microscopic size distribution of the lattice elements.

Abstract: We consider capillary displacement of immiscible fluids in porous media in the limit of vanishing flow rate. The motion is represented as a stepwise Monte Carlo process on a finite two-dimensional random lattice, where at each step the fluid interface moves through the lattice link where the displacing force is largest. The displacement process exhibits considerable fingering and trapping of displaced phase at all length scales, leading to high residual retention of the displaced phase. Many features of our results are well described by percolation-theory concepts. In particular, we find a residual volume fraction of displaced phase which depends strongly on the sample size, but weakly or not at all on the co-ordination number and microscopic-size distribution of the lattice elements.

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TL;DR: In this article, a description of MHD turbulence at low magnetic Reynolds number and large interaction parameter is proposed, in which attention is focussed on the role of insulating walls perpendicular to a uniform applied magnetic field.

Abstract: A description of MHD turbulence at low magnetic Reynolds number and large interaction parameter is proposed, in which attention is focussed on the role of insulating walls perpendicular to a uniform applied magnetic field. The flow is divided in two regions: the thin Hartmann layers near the walls, and the bulk of the flow. In the latter region, a kind of electromagnetic diffusion along the magnetic field lines (a degenerate form of Alfv6n waves) is displayed, which elongates the turbulent eddies in the field direction, but is not sufficient to generate a two-dimensional dynamics. However the normal derivative of velocity must be zero (to leading order) at the boundaries of the bulk region (as at a free surface), so that when the length scale 1, perpendicular to the magnetic field is large enough, the corresponding eddies are necessarily two-dimensional. Furthermore, if I, is not larger than a second limit, the Hartmann braking effect is negligible and the dynamics of these eddies is described by the ordinary Navier-Stokes equations without electromagnetic forces. MHD then appears to offer a means of achieving experiments on two-dimensional turbulence, and of deducing velocity and vorticity from measurements of electric field.

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TL;DR: In this article, a matched asymptotic expansion of a small parameter L/a, where a is the particle radius and L is the length scale characteristic of the physical interaction between solute and particle surface, was used to obtain an expression for particle velocity.

Abstract: When a particle is placed in a fluid in which there is a non-uniform concentration of solute, it will move toward higher or lower concentration depending on whether the solute is attracted to or repelled from the particle surface. A quantitative understanding of this phenomenon requires that the equations representing conservation of mass and momentum within the fluid in the vicinity of the particle are solved. This is accomplished using a method of matched asymptotic expansions in a small parameter L/a, where a is the particle radius and L is the length scale characteristic of the physical interaction between solute and particle surface. This analysis yields an expression for particle velocity, valid in the limit L/a → 0, that agrees with the expression obtained by previous researchers. The result is cast into a more useful algebraic form by relating various integrals involving the solute/particle interaction energy to a measurable thermodynamic property, the Gibbs surface excess of solute Γ. An important result is that the correction for finite L/a is actually O(Γ/C∞ a), where C∞ is the bulk concentration of solute, and could be O(1) even when L/a is orders of magnitude smaller.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors present numerical solutions for two-dimensional time-dependent flow about rectangles in infinite domains using the third-order upwind differencing for convection and a Leith type of temporal differencings.

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present numerical solutions for two-dimensional time-dependent flow about rectangles in infinite domains. The numerical method utilizes third-order upwind differencing for convection and a Leith type of temporal differencing. An attempted use of a lower-order scheme and its inadequacies are also described. The Reynolds-number regime investigated is from 100 to 2800. Other parameters that are varied are upstream velocity profile, angle of attack, and rectangle dimensions. The initiation and subsequent development of the vortex-shedding phenomenon is investigated. Passive marker particles provide an exceptional visualization of the evolution of the vortices both during and after they are shed. The properties of these vortices are found to be strongly dependent on Reynolds number, as are lift, drag, and Strouhal number. Computed Strouhal numbers compare well with those obtained from a wind-tunnel test for Reynolds numbers below 1000.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors measured the pressure fluctuations acting on a stationary square-section cylinder, with the front face normal to the flow, and one forced to oscillate, transverse to a flow, at amplitudes up to 25% of the length of a side.

Abstract: Measurements are presented of the pressure fluctuations acting on a stationary squaresection cylinder, with the front face normal to the flow, and one forced to oscillate, transverse to a flow, at amplitudes up to 25% of the length of a side. The range of reduced velocities investigated, 4–13, includes the vortex lock-in regime. At lock-in the amplification of the coefficient of fluctuating lift is found to be much less than that found for a circular cylinder. The variation of the phase angle, between lift and displacement, is also different from that measured on a circular cylinder, and vortex-induced oscillations are possible only at the high-reduced-velocity end of the lock-in range. At reduced velocities sufficiently far below lock-in the natural vortex-shedding mode is suppressed and vortices are found to form over the side faces at the body frequency. Intermittent reattachment occurs over the side faces and, for an amplitude of oscillation equal to 10% of the length of a side face, the time-mean drag coefficient can be reduced to 60% of its fixed-cylinder value.

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TL;DR: In this article, a series of experiments were carried out with great care to produce accurate, comparable results in which the relatively small changes in the flow past a circular cylinder associated with varying blockage ratios can be clearly distinguished.

Abstract: Results are presented of a series of experiments which were carried out with great care to produce accurate, comparable results in which the relatively small changes in the flow past a circular cylinder associated with varying blockage ratios can be clearly distinguished. The experiments cover a range of blockage from 2 to 16% and of aspect ratios from 4 to 10. End plates were fitted to the cylinders in all experiments. For blockage ratios less than 6y0, it is shown that the effects of blockage on pressure distribution and the drag coefficient arc small and that the Strouhal number is unaffected by blockage. For blockage ratios in the range 6-lSyo, there is considerable distortion of the flow due to blockage and the effects are complex. The pressure distribution is of a different form and the Strouhal number changes.However, conflicting influences result in a blocked drag coefficient which is not verydifferent from that at no blockage. Reduction in aspect ratio has effects on dragcoefficient and on base pressure coefficient which are similar to those associated with increase in blockage ratio.It is concluded that blockage correction procedures based on the momentum method and on the image method are unsatisfactory in their prediction of the unblocked drag coefficient but the momentum method predicts the unblocked base pressure coefficient quite well.

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Osaka University

^{1}TL;DR: In this article, a laser-Doppler velocimeter (LDV) was used to measure air and solid velocities in an air-solid two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe.

Abstract: Measurements of air and solid velocities were made in an air-solid two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe by the use of a laser-Doppler velocimeter (LDV). The pipe was 30 mm inner diameter, and two kinds of plastic particles, 0.2 and 3.4 mm in diameter, were conveyed in addition to fine particles (ammonium chloride) for air-flow detection. The air velocities averaged over the pipe cross section ranged from 6 to 20m/s and the solid-to-air mass-flow ratio was up to 6. Simultaneous measurements of both air and 0.2 mm particle velocities were found possible by setting threshold values against the pedestal and Doppler components of the photomultiplier signal. As the loading ratio increased and the air velocity decreased, mean-velocity distributions of both phases increased asymmetrical tendency. I n the presence of 0.2mm particles, a flattening of the velocity profile was remarkable. The effects of the solid particles on air-flow turbulence varied greatly with particle size. That is, 3.4 mm particles increased the turbulence markedly, while 0-2 mm ones reduced it. The probability-density function of the air flow deviated from the normal distribution (Gaussian) in the presence of particles. Finally, the frequency spectra of air-flow turbulence were obtained in the presence of 0.2 mm particles by using a fast Fourier transform (FFT). As a result, it was found that t,he higher-frequency components increased with increasing loading ratio.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a new model is proposed for treating molecular mixing and chemical reaction in turbulent shear layers at high Reynolds number, based upon the experimental observations that revealed the presence of coherent structures and that showed that fluid elements from the two streams are distributed unmixed throughout the layer by large-scale inviscid motions.

Abstract: Arguments are presented to show that the concept of gradient diffusion is inapplicable to mixing in turbulent shear layers. A new model is proposed for treating molecular mixing and chemical reaction in such flows at high Reynolds number. It is based upon the experimental observations that revealed the presence of coherent structures and that showed that fluid elements from the two streams are distributed unmixed throughout the layer by large-scale inviscid motions. The model incorporates features of the strained flame model and makes use of the Kolmogorov cascade in scales. Several model predictions differ markedly from those of diffusion models and suggest experiments for testing the two approaches.

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TL;DR: In this article, the efficiency of energy absorption of a system of uniform oscillatory surface pressure distributions was derived based on linear water-wave theory and the results showed the close analogies which exist with theories for absorbing oscillatory rigid bodies and a number of new reciprocal relations for pressure distributions.

Abstract: Some general results are derived for the efficiency of energy absorption of a system of uniform oscillatory surface pressure distributions. The results, which are based on classical linear water-wave theory, show the close analogies which exist with theories for systems of absorbing oscillatory rigid bodies and a number of new reciprocal relations for pressure distributions are suggested and proved. Some simple examples illustrating the general results are given and compared with the corresponding results for rigid bodies.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors studied the flow and acoustic properties of a jet at Reynolds number of 70,000 at Mach 2.1 with pitot tubes and hot-wire anemometry.

Abstract: Flow and acoustic properties of a jet at Reynolds number of 70,000 were studied at Mach 2.1. Measurements in a free jet test facility were made with pitot tubes and hot-wire anemometry. Center-line Mach number distributions for natural and excited jets were obtained. A slow initial growth rate was in the potential core region of the jet, indicating a transition from laminar to turbulent flow in moderate Reynolds number jets. The transition occurred within the first 2-3 diameters. Spectral components were calculated for the fluctuating flowfield, and sound pressure levels were measured for the overall near-field noise. The centroid of noise was located about 8 nozzle diameters downstream. The growth rates of instabilities were determined to be in agreement with linear stability theory predictions over a broad frequency range.

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TL;DR: In this paper, hot-film measurements of the streamwise velocity component were carried out in a fully developed turbulent water-channel flow for three different Reynolds numbers (13800, 34600 and 48900).

Abstract: Hot-film measurements of the streamwise velocity component were carried out in a fully developed turbulent water-channel flow for three different Reynolds numbers (13800, 34600 and 48900). The results for the first four statistical moments complement and extend the results from previous studies of turbulent channel flow. The VITA variance technique waa employed to detect deterministic events in the streamwise velocity. It waa demonstrated that the VITA technique has a band-pass-filter character. The number of events detected was found to decrerrae exponentially with the threshold level and the events occupy a wide range of timescales. This makes it impossible to define one unique frequency of occurrence or one unique duration of the events. However, by using this technique information was obtained on the amplitude and timescale distributions of the events. The chmacteristic features of the conditional iverages were found to be related to the skewness and flatness factors.

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TL;DR: In this paper, an experimental program carried out in a laboratory channel with rough and smooth beds, to investigate the interaction between gravity waves and a turbulent current was described, in particular changes induced in the mean-velocity profiles, turbulent fluctuations, bed shear stresses and wave attenuation rates are considered for a range of wave heights, keeping the wave period constant.

Abstract: This paper describes an experimental programme carried out in a laboratory channel with rough and smooth beds, to investigate the interaction between gravity waves and a turbulent current. In particular, changes induced in the mean-velocity profiles, turbulent fluctuations, bed shear stresses and wave attenuation rates are considered for a range of wave heights, keeping the wave period constant. The smooth-boundary tests were carried out as a necessary preliminary to the more-realistic rough-boundary condition.
A directionally sensitive laser anemometer was used to measure horizontal, vertical, and 45° velocity components in the oscillating fluid, and an on-line minicomputer was programmed to produce ensemble averages of velocities, Reynolds stresses and wave-elevation data. The cycle was sampled at 200 separate phase positions, with 180 observations at each position. Measurements were made at up to 30 points in the vertical.
Preliminary tests were carried out on the unidirectional current and on the waves alone. These show that mean-velocity profiles and turbulence parameters of the current agree satisfactorily with previous experiments, and that the waves are approximated closely by Stokes’ second-order theory.
For combined wave and current tests, mean-velocity profiles are generally found to differ from those suggested by a linear superposition of wave and current velocities, a change in boundary-layer thickness being indicated. However, shear stresses at the smooth boundary are found to be described by such a linear addition.

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TL;DR: Using a variety of flow-visualization techniques, the flow behind a circular cylinder has been studied in this article, and the results obtained have provided a new insight into the vortex-shedding process.

Abstract: Using a variety of flow-visualization techniques, the flow behind a circular cylinder has been studied. The results obtained have provided a new insight into the vortex-shedding process. Using time-exposure photography of the motion of aluminium particles, a sequence of instantaneous streamline patterns of the flow behind a cylinder has been obtained. These streamline patterns show that during the starting flow the cavity behind the cylinder is closed. However, once the vortex-shedding process begins, this so-called ‘closed’ cavity becomes open, and instantaneous ‘alleyways’ of fluid are formed which penetrate the cavity. In addition, dye experiments also show how layers of dye and hence vorticity are convected into the cavity behind the cylinder, and how they are eventually squeezed out.