# Showing papers in "Journal of Fluid Mechanics in 1996"

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TL;DR: In this paper, the Smagorinsky eddy-viscosity model is combined with a spatially averaged dynamic model for complex-geometry inhomogeneous flows, and a new dynamic model formulation is introduced that combines advantages of the statistical and local approaches.

Abstract: The dynamic model for large-eddy simulation of turbulence samples information from the resolved velocity field in order to optimize subgrid-scale model coefficients. When the method is used in conjunction with the Smagorinsky eddy-viscosity model, and the sampling process is formulated in a spatially local fashion, the resulting coefficient field is highly variable and contains a significant fraction of negative values. Negative eddy viscosity leads to computational instability and as a result the model is always augmented with a stabilization mechanism. In most applications the model is stabilized by averaging the relevant equations over directions of statistical homogeneity. While this approach is effective, and is consistent with the statistical basis underlying the eddy-viscosity model, it is not applicable to complex-geometry inhomogeneous flows. Existing local formulations, intended for inhomogeneous flows, are most commonly stabilized by artificially constraining the coefficient to be positive. In this paper we introduce a new dynamic model formulation, that combines advantages of the statistical and local approaches. We propose to accumulate the required averages over flow pathlines rather than over directions of statistical homogeneity. This procedure allows the application of the dynamic model with averaging to in-homogeneous flows in complex geometries. We analyse direct numerical simulation data to document the effects of such averaging on the Smagorinsky coefficient. The characteristic Lagrangian time scale over which the averaging is performed is chosen based on measurements of the relevant Lagrangian autocorrelation functions, and on the requirement that the model be purely dissipative, guaranteeing numerical stability when coupled with the Smagorinsky model. The formulation is tested in forced and decaying isotropic turbulence and in fully developed and transitional channel flow. In homogeneous flows, the results are similar to those of the volume-averaged dynamic model, while in channel flow, the predictions are slightly superior to those of the spatially (planar) averaged dynamic model. The relationship between the model and vortical structures in isotropic turbulence, as well as ejection events in channel flow, is investigated. Computational overhead is kept small (about 10% above the CPU requirements of the spatially averaged dynamic model) by using an approximate scheme to advance the Lagrangian tracking through first-order Euler time integration and linear interpolation in space.

1,149 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a global numerical stability analysis of the periodic wake of a circular cylinder for Reynolds numbers between 140 and 300 is presented, showing that the two-dimensional wake becomes (absolutely) linearly unstable to three-dimensional perturbations at a critical Reynolds number of 1885±10.

Abstract: Results are reported from a highly accurate, global numerical stability analysis of the periodic wake of a circular cylinder for Reynolds numbers between 140 and 300 The analysis shows that the two-dimensional wake becomes (absolutely) linearly unstable to three-dimensional perturbations at a critical Reynolds number of 1885±10 The critical spanwise wavelength is 396 ± 002 diameters and the critical Floquet mode corresponds to a ‘Mode A’ instability At Reynolds number 259 the two-dimensional wake becomes linearly unstable to a second branch of modes with wavelength 0822 diameters at onset Stability spectra and corresponding neutral stability curves are presented for Reynolds numbers up to 300

792 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the structure of round jets in cross-flow was studied using flow visualization techniques and flying-hot-wire measurements, restricted to jet to freestream velocity ratios ranging from 2.0 to 6.0.

Abstract: The structure of round jets in cross-flow was studied using flow visualization techniques and flying-hot-wire measurements. The study was restricted to jet to freestream velocity ratios ranging from 2.0 to 6.0 and Reynolds numbers based on the jet diameter and free-stream velocity in the range of 440 to 6200.Flow visualization studies, together with time-averaged flying-hot-wire measurements in both vertical and horizontal sectional planes, have allowed the mean topological features of the jet in cross-flow to be identified using critical point theory. These features include the horseshoe (or necklace) vortex system originating just upstream of the jet, a separation region inside the pipe upstream of the pipe exit, the roll-up of the jet shear layer which initiates the counter-rotating vortex pair and the separation of the flat-wall boundary layer leading to the formation of the wake vortex system beneath the downstream side of the jet.The topology of the vortex ring roll-up of the jet shear layer was studied in detail using phase-averaged flying-hot-wire measurements of the velocity field when the roll-up was forced. From these data it is possible to examine the evolution of the shear layer topology. These results are supported by the flow visualization studies which also aid in their interpretation.The study also shows that, for velocity ratios ranging from 4.0 to 6.0, the unsteady upright vortices in the wake may form by different mechanisms, depending on the Reynolds number. It is found that at high Reynolds numbers, the upright vortex orientation in the wake may change intermittently from one configuration of vortex street to another. Three mechanisms are proposed to explain these observations.

720 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, it is shown that the wake transition regime for a circular cylinder involves two modes of small-scale three-dimensional instability (modes “A” and “B”; Williamson, 1988), depending on the regime of Reynolds number (Re), and their effects on near wake formation.

Abstract: It is now well-known that the wake transition regime for a circular cylinder involves two modes of small-scale three-dimensional instability (modes “A” and “B”; Williamson, 1988), depending on the regime of Reynolds number (Re), although almost no understanding of the physical origins of these instabilities, or indeed their effects on near wake formation, have hitherto been made clear. There is now some strong interest in this problem, coming not only from experiment, but also from Direct Numerical Simulation, where, in some cases, these modes A and B have been found clearly (Thompson & Hourigan, 1996; Zhang et al., 1995; Henderson, 1995; Mittal & Balachandar, 1996). Much of the recent surge of activity concerning the wake transition and development of turbulence in wakes has been addressed comprehensively in a review paper. Williamson (1996a).

585 citations

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Virginia Tech

^{1}TL;DR: In this article, a theory was developed to correct mean-velocity profiles for the effects of wandering and to provide complete quantitative estimates of its amplitude and contributions to Reynolds stress fields.

Abstract: Experiments have been performed on the tip vortex trailing from a rectangular NACA 0012 half-wing. Preliminary studies showed the vortex to be insensitive to the introduction of a probe and subject only to small wandering motions. Meaningful velocity measurements could therefore be made using hot-wire probes.Detailed analysis of the effects of wandering was performed to properly reveal the flow structure in the core region and to give confidence in measurements made outside the core. A theory has been developed to correct mean-velocity profiles for the effects of wandering and to provide complete quantitative estimates of its amplitude and contributions to Reynolds stress fields. Spectral decomposition was found to be the most effective method of separating these contributions from velocity fluctuations due to turbulence.Outside the core the flow structure is dominated by the remainder of the wing wake which winds into an ever-increasing spiral. There is no large region of axisymmetric turbulence surrounding the core and little sign of turbulence generated by the rotational motion of the vortex. Turbulence stress levels vary along the wake spiral in response to the varying rates of strain imposed by the vortex. Despite this complexity, the shape of the wake spiral and its turbulent structure reach an approximately self-similar form.On moving from the spiral wake to the core the overall level of velocity fluctuations greatly increases, but none of this increase is directly produced by turbulence. Velocity spectra measured at the vortex centre scale in a manner that implies that the core is laminar and that velocity fluctuations here are a consequence of inactive motion produced as the core is buffeted by turbulence in the surrounding spiral wake. Mean-velocity profiles through the core show evidence of a two-layered structure that dies away with distance downstream.

525 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors studied the Taylor-microscale Reynolds number in a wind tunnel with triangular winged grid bars and determined a linear dependence between n1 and C1*: C1* = 4.5 − 2.4n1.

Abstract: Using an active grid devised by Makita (1991), shearless decaying turbulence is studied for the Taylor-microscale Reynolds number, Rλ, varying from 50 to 473 in a small (40 × 40 cm2 cross-section) wind tunnel. The turbulence generator consists of grid bars with triangular wings that rotate and flap in a random way. The value of Rλ is determined by the mean speed of the air (varied from 3 to 14 m s–1) as it passes the rotating grid, and to a lesser extent by the randomness and rotation rate of the grid bars. Our main findings are as follows. A weak, not particularly well-defined scaling range (i.e. a power-law dependence of both the longitudinal (u) and transverse (v) spectra, F11(k1) and F22(k1) respectively, on wavenumber k1) first appears at Rλ ∼ 50, with a slope, n1, (for the u spectrum) of approximately 1.3. As Rλ was increased, n1 increased rapidly until Rλ ∼ 200 where n ∼ 1.5. From there on the increase in n1 was slow, and even by Rλ = 473 it was still significantly below the Kolmogorov value of 1.67. Over the entire range, 50 [les ] Rλ [les ] 473, the data were well described by the empirical fit: . Using a modified form of the Kolmogorov similarity law: F11(k1) = C1*e2/3k1–5/3(k 1η)5/3–n1 where e is the turbulence energy dissipation rate and η is the Kolmogorov microscale, we determined a linear dependence between n1 and C1*: C1* = 4.5 – 2.4n1. Thus for n1 = 5/3 (which extrapolation of our results suggests will occur in this flow for Rλ ∼ 104), C1* = 0.5, the accepted high-Reynolds-number value of the Kolmogorov constant. Analysis of the p.d.f. of velocity differences Δu(r) and Δv(r) where r is an inertial subrange interval, conditional dissipation, and other statistics showed that there was a qualitative difference between the turbulence for Rλ 200 (strong turbulence). For the latter, the p.d.f.s of Δu(r) and Δv(r) had super Gaussian tails and the dissipation (both of the u and v components) conditioned on Δu(r) and Δv(r) was a strong function of the velocity difference. For Rλ 200 are consistent with the predictions of the Kolmogorov refined similarity hypothesis (and make a distinction between the dynamical and kinematical contributions to the conditional statistics). They have much in common with similar statistics done in shear flows at much higher Rλ, with which they are compared.

478 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a large-eddy simulation was used to study mixing of turbulent, coannular jets discharging into a sudden expansion, which resembles that of a coaxial jet-combustor, and the goal of the calculation was to gain some insight into the phenomena leading to lean blowout in such combustion devices.

Abstract: Large-eddy simulation (LES) was used to study mixing of turbulent, coannular jets discharging into a sudden expansion. This geometry resembles that of a coaxial jet-combustor, and the goal of the calculation was to gain some insight into the phenomena leading to lean blow-out (LBO) in such combustion devices. This is a first step in a series of calculations, where the focus is on the fluid dynamical aspects of the mixing process in the combustion chamber. The effects of swirl, chemical reactions and heat release were not taken into account. Mixing of fuel and oxidizer was studied by tracking a passive scalar introduced in the central jet. The dynamic subgrid-scale (DM) model was used to model both the subgrid-scale stresses and the subgrid-scale scalar flux. The Reynolds number was 38000, based on the bulk velocity and diameter of the combustion chamber. Mean velocities and Reynolds stresses are in good agreement with experimental data. Animated results clearly show that intermittent pockets of fuel-rich fluid (from the central jet) are able to cross the annular jet, virtually undiluted, into the recirculation zone. Most of the fuel-rich fluid is, however, entrained into the recirculation zone near the instantaneous reattachment point. Fuel trapped in the recirculation zone is, for the most part, entrained back into the step shear layer close to the base of the burner.

476 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, general evolution equations for two-dimensional weakly nonlinear waves at the free surface in a system of two fluids of different densities were derived and compared with the known solutions of the uni-directional model.

Abstract: We derive general evolution equations for two-dimensional weakly nonlinear waves at the free surface in a system of two fluids of different densities. The thickness of the upper fluid layer is assumed to be small compared with the characteristic wavelength, but no restrictions are imposed on the thickness of the lower layer. We consider the case of a free upper boundary for its relevance in applications to ocean dynamics problems and the case of a non-uniform rigid upper boundary for applications to atmospheric problems. For the special case of shallow water, the new set of equations reduces to the Boussinesq equations for two-dimensional internal waves, whilst, for great and infinite lower-layer depth, we can recover the well-known Intermediate Long Wave and Benjamin-Ono models, respectively, for one-dimensional uni-directional wave propagation. Some numerical solutions of the model for one-dimensional waves in deep water are presented and compared with the known solutions of the uni-directional model. Finally, the effects of finite-amplitude slowly varying bottom topography are included in a model appropriate to the situation when the dependence on one of the horizontal coordinates is weak.

458 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a filter-structure-function (FSF) model is proposed for the simulation of a quasi-incompressible boundary layer developing spatially over an adiabatic flat plate, with a low level of upstream forcing.

Abstract: It is well known that subgrid models such as Smagorinsky's cannot be used for the spatially growing simulation of the transition to turbulence of flat-plate boundary layers, unless large-amplitude perturbations are introduced at the upstream boundary: they are over-dissipative, and the flow simulated remains laminar. This is also the case for the structure-function model (SF) of Metais & Lesieur (1992). In the present paper we present a sequel to this model, the filtered-structure-function (FSF) model. It consists of removing the large-scale fluctuations of the field before computing its second-order structure function. Analytical arguments confirm the superiority of the FSF model over the SF model for large-eddy simulations of weakly unstable transitional flows. The FSF model is therefore used for the simulation of a quasi-incompressible (M∞ = 0.5) boundary layer developing spatially over an adiabatic flat plate, with a low level of upstream forcing. With the minimal resolution 650 × 32 × 20 grid points covering a range of streamwise Reynolds numbers Rex1 e [3.4 × 105, 1.1 × 106], transition is obtained for 80 hours of time-processing on a CRAY 2 (whereas DNS of the whole transition takes about ten times longer). Statistics of the LES are found to be in acceptable agreement with experiments and empirical laws, in the laminar, transitional and turbulent parts of the domain. The dynamics of low-pressure and high-vorticity distributions is examined during transition, with particular emphasis on the neighbourhood of the critical layer (defined here as the height of the fluid travelling at a speed equal to the phase speed of the incoming Tollmien–Schlichting waves). Evidence is given that a subharmonic-type secondary instability grows, followed by a purely spanwise (i.e. time-independent) mode which yields peak-and-valley splitting and transition to turbulence. In the turbulent region, flow visualizations and local instantaneous profiles are provided. They confirm the presence of low- and high-speed streaks at the wall, weak hairpins stretched by the flow and bursting events. It is found that most of the vorticity is produced in the spanwise direction, at the wall, below the high-speed streaks. Isosurfaces of eddy viscosity confirm that the FSF model does not perturb transition much, and acts mostly in the vicinity of the hairpins.

421 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a 3D computer simulation of a concentrated emulsion in shear flow has been developed for low-Reynolds-number finite-capillary-number conditions, and numerical results have been obtained using an efficient boundary integral formulation with periodic boundary conditions and up to twelve drops in each periodically replicated unit cell.

Abstract: A three-dimensional computer simulation of a concentrated emulsion in shear flow has been developed for low-Reynolds-number finite-capillary-number conditions. Numerical results have been obtained using an efficient boundary integral formulation with periodic boundary conditions and up to twelve drops in each periodically replicated unit cell. Calculations have been performed over a range of capillary numbers where drop deformation is significant up to the value where drop breakup is imminent. Results have been obtained for dispersed-phase volume fractions up to 30% and dispersed- to continuous-phase viscosity ratios in the range of 0 to 5. The results reveal a complex rheology with pronounced shear thinning and large normal stresses that is associated with an anisotropic microstructure that results from the alignment of deformed drops in the flow direction. The viscosity of an emulsion is only a moderately increasing function of the dispersed-phase volume fraction, in contrast to suspensions of rigid particles or undeformed drops. Unlike rigid particles, deformable drops do not form large clusters.

327 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a high-speed video system was used to study the interaction between sediment particles and turbulence in the wall region of an open channel flow with both smooth and transitionally rough beds.

Abstract: A high-speed video system was used to study the interaction between sediment particles and turbulence in the wall region of an open channel flow with both smooth and transitionally rough beds. In smooth flows, particles immersed within the viscous sublayer were seen to accumulate along low-speed wall streaks; apparently due to the presence of quasi-streamwise vortices in the wall region. Larger particles did not tend to group along streaks, however their velocity was observed to respond to the streaky structure of the flow velocity in the wall region. In transitionally rough flows particle sorting was not observed. Coherent flow structures in the form of shear layers typically observed in the near-wall region interacted with sediment particles lying on the channel bottom, resulting in the particles being entrained into suspension. Although there has been some speculation that this process would not be effective in entraining particles totally immersed in the viscous sublayer, the results obtained demonstrate the opposite. The entrainment mechanism appears to be the same independent of the roughness condition of the bottom wall, smooth or transitionally rough. In the latter case, however, hiding effects tend to preclude the entrainment of particles with sizes finer than that of the roughness elements. The analysis of particle velocity during entrainment shows that the streamwise component tends to be much smaller than the local mean flow velocity, while the vertical component tends to be much larger than the local standard deviation of the vertical flow velocity fluctuations, which would indicate that such particles are responding to rather extreme flow ejection events.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the non-equilibrium behavior of concentrated colloidal dispersions is studied by Stokesian Dynamics, a general molecular-dynamics-like technique for simulating particles suspended in a viscous fluid.

Abstract: The non-equilibrium behaviour of concentrated colloidal dispersions is studied by Stokesian Dynamics, a general molecular-dynamics-like technique for simulating particles suspended in a viscous fluid. The simulations are of a suspension of monodisperse Brownian hard spheres in simple shear flow as a function of the Peclet number, Pe, which measures the relative importance of shear and Brownian forces. Three clearly defined regions of behaviour are revealed. There is first a Brownian-motion-dominated regime (Pe ≤ 1) where departures from equilibrium in structure and diffusion are small, but the suspension viscosity shear thins dramatically. When the Brownian and hydrodynamic forces balance (Pe ≈ 10), the dispersion forms a new ‘phase’ with the particles aligned in ‘strings’ along the flow direction and the strings are arranged hexagonally. This flow-induced ordering persists over a range of Pe and, while the structure and diffusivity now vary considerably, the rheology remains unchanged. Finally, there is a hydrodynamically dominated regime (Pe > 200) with a dramatic change in the long-time self-diffusivity and the rheology. Here, as the Peclet number increases the suspension shear thickens owing to the formation of large clusters. The simulation results are shown to agree well with experiment.

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TL;DR: In this article, the effects of vortex generators and periodic excitation on vorticity dynamics and the phenomenon of axis switching in a free asymmetric jet are studied experimentally and two mechanisms are identified governing the phenomenon.

Abstract: The effects of vortex generators and periodic excitation on vorticity dynamics and the phenomenon of axis switching in a free asymmetric jet are studied experimentally. Most of the data reported are for a 3:1 rectangular jet at a Reynolds number of 450 000 and a Mach number of 0.31. The vortex generators are in the form of ‘delta tabs’, triangular-shaped protrusions into the flow, placed at the nozzle exit. With suitable placement of the tabs, axis switching could be either stopped or augmented. Two mechanisms are identified governing the phenomenon. One, as described by previous researchers, is due to the difference in induced velocities for different segments of a rolled-up azimuthal vortical structure. The other is due to the induced velocities of streamwise vortex pairs in the flow. While the former mechanism, referred to here as the ωθ-dynamics, is responsible for a rapid axis switching in periodically forced jets, e.g. screeching supersonic jets, the effect of the tabs is governed mainly by the latter mechanism, referred to as the ωx-dynamics. Both dynamics can be active in a natural asymmetric jet; the tendency for axis switching caused by the ωθ-dynamics may be, depending on the streamwise vorticity distribution, either resisted or enhanced by the ωx-dynamics. While this simple framework qualitatively explains the various observations made on axis switching, mechanisms actually in play may be much more complex. The two dynamics are not independent as the flow field is replete with both azimuthal and streamwise vortical structures which continually interact. Phase-averaged measurements for a periodically forced case, over a volume of the flow field, are carried out in an effort to gain insight into the dynamics of these vortical structures. The results are used to examine such processes as the reorientation of the azimuthal vortices, the resultant evolution of streamwise vortex pairs, as well as the redistribution of streamwise vortices originating from secondary flow within the nozzle.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of compressibility on mixing layers was investigated using direct numerical simulation databases and it was found that the dilatational contribution to dissipation is negligible even when eddy shocklets are observed in the flow.

Abstract: Direct numerical simulation databases have been used to study the effect of compressibility on mixing layers. The simulations cover convective Mach numbers from 0.2 to 1.2 and all contain a fully resolved turbulent energy cascade to small spatial scales. Statistical information is extracted from the databases to determine reasons for the reduced growth rate that is observed as the convective Mach number is increased. It is found that the dilatational contribution to dissipation is negligible even when eddy shocklets are observed in the flow. Also pressure-dilatation is not found to be significant. Using an accurate relation between the momentum thickness growth rate and the production of turbulence kinetic energy together with integrated equations for the Reynolds stress tensor it is shown that reduced pressure fluctuations are responsible for the changes in growth rate via the pressure–strain term. A deterministic model for the required pressure fluctuations is given based on the structure of variable-density vortices and the assumption that the limiting eddies are sonic. Simple anisotropy considerations are used to close the averaged equations. Good agreement with turbulence statistics obtained from the simulations is found.

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TL;DR: In this article, topological features of the velocity gradient field of turbulent channel flow have been investigated using results from a direct numerical simulation for which the Reynolds number based on the channel halfwidth and the centreline velocity was 7860.

Abstract: An investigation of topological features of the velocity gradient field of turbulent channel flow has been carried out using results from a direct numerical simulation for which the Reynolds number based on the channel half-width and the centreline velocity was 7860. Plots of the joint probability density functions of the invariants of the rate of strain and velocity gradient tensors indicated that away from the wall region, the fine-scale motions in the flow have many characteristics in common with a variety of other turbulent and transitional flows: the intermediate principal strain rate tended to be positive at sites of high viscous dissipation of kinetic energy, while the invariants of the velocity gradient tensor showed that a preference existed for stable focus/stretching and unstable node/saddle/saddle topologies. Visualization of regions in the flow with stable focus/stretching topologies revealed arrays of discrete downstream-leaning flow structures which originated near the wall and penetrated into the outer region of the flow. In all regions of the flow, there was a strong preference for the vorticity to be aligned with the intermediate principal strain rate direction, with the effect increasing near the walls in response to boundary conditions.

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TL;DR: In this article, the three-dimensional boundary layer of a swept flat plate with the pressure gradient induced from outside is investigated to enhance knowledge of the transition process in the presence of pure crossflow instability.

Abstract: Experimental investigations in the three-dimensional boundary layer of a swept flat plate with the pressure gradient induced from outside are aimed at enhancing knowledge of the transition process in the presence of pure crossflow instability. The development of disturbances is characterized by the occurrence of both stationary and travelling instability modes, by early nonlinear development and by complex dependence upon the environmental conditions. Experiments under natural conditions of transition showed a good correspondence of the identified modes with those predicted by local linear stability theory. The disturbance growth, however, is generally overpredicted. Controlled excitation of crossflow vortices allowing measurements closer to the linear range of amplification confirmed this result. Nonlinear effects such as interaction between stationary disturbances and base flow and between travelling and stationary modes have already been observed when the naturally excited instabilities become of measurable size.The most striking feature of the disturbance development is the complex dependence on initial conditions. Experiments under systematically varied environments showed that surface roughness represents the key parameter responsible for the initiation of stationary crossflow vortices. In contrast to two-dimensional boundary layers, free-stream turbulence influences the transition process indirectly. Only for turbulence levels Tu > 0.2% and smooth surfaces do the travelling instability waves dominate. The location of the final breakdown of laminar flow is clearly determined by the saturation amplitude of crossflow vortices. The receptivity to sound, two-dimensional surface roughness and non-uniformities of the test-section mean flow was found to be very weak.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors calculate the change between the initial and final streamlines caused by roughness, and calculate the shear-induced diffusivity for both self-diffusion and down-gradient diffusion.

Abstract: In the absence of Brownian motion, inertia and inter-particle forces, two smooth spheres collide in a simple shear flow in a reversible way returning to their initial streamlines. Because the minimum separation during the collision can be less than 10−4 of the radius, quite a small surface roughness can have a significant irreversible effect on the collision. We calculate the change between the initial and final streamlines caused by roughness. Repeated random collisions in a dilute suspension lead to a diffusion of the particles across the streamlines. We calculate the shear-induced diffusivity for both self-diffusion and down-gradient diffusion.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors used simulations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with rigid upper and lower boundaries at fixed temperature and periodic sidewalls, and determined scaling with respect to Rayleigh number.

Abstract: Using direct simulations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with rigid upper and lower boundaries at fixed temperature and periodic sidewalls, scaling with respect to Rayleigh number is determined. At large aspect ratio (6:6:1) on meshes up to 288 × 288 × 96, a single scaling regime consistent with the properties of ‘hard’ convective turbulence is found for Pr = 0.7 between Ra = 5 × 104 and Ra = 2 × 107. The properties of this regime include Nu ∼ RaβT with βT = 0.28 ≈ 2/7, exponential temperature distributions in the centre of the cell, and velocity and temperature scales consistent with experimental measurements. Two velocity boundary-layer thicknesses are identified, one outside the thermal boundary layer that scales as Ra−1/7 and the other within it that scales as Ra−3/7. Large-scale shears are not observed; instead, strong local boundary-layer shears are observed in regions between incoming plumes and an outgoing network of buoyant sheets. At the highest Rayleigh number, there is a decade where the energy spectra are close to k−5/3 and temperature variance spectra are noticeably less steep. It is argued that taken together this is good evidence for ‘hard’ turbulence, even if individually each of these properties might have alternative explanations.

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TL;DR: Turbulent Boussinesq convection under the influence of rapid rotation was studied in this paper, where the transition to turbulence proceeds through a relatively simple bifurcation sequence, starting with unstable convection rolls at moderate Rayleigh (Ra) and Taylor numbers (Ta), and culminating in a state dominated by coherent plume structures at high Ra and Ta.

Abstract: Turbulent Boussinesq convection under the influence of rapid rotation (ie with comparable characteristic rotation and convection timescales) is studied The transition to turbulence proceeds through a relatively simple bifurcation sequence, starting with unstable convection rolls at moderate Rayleigh (Ra) and Taylor numbers (Ta) and culminating in a state dominated by coherent plume structures at high Ra and Ta Like non-rotating turbulent convection, the rapidly rotating state exhibits a simple power-law dependence on Ra for all statistical properties of the flow When the fluid layer is bounded by no-slip surfaces, the convective heat transport (Nu − 1, where Nu is the Nusselt number) exhibits scaling with Ra2/7 similar to non-rotating laboratory experiments When the boundaries are stress free, the heat transport obeys ‘classical’ scaling (Ra1/3) for a limited range in Ra, then appears to undergo a transition to a different law at Ra ≈ 4 × 107 Important dynamical differences between rotating and non-rotating convection are observed: aside from the (expected) differences in the boundary layers due to Ekman pumping effects, angular momentum conservation forces all plume structures created at flow-convergent sites of the heated and cooled boundaries to spin-up cyclonically; the resulting plume/cyclones undergo strong vortex-vortex interactions which dramatically alter the mean state of the flow and result in a finite background temperature gradient as Ra → ∞, holding Ra/Ta fixed

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TL;DR: In this paper, the fundamental hypotheses underlying Kolmogorov-Oboukhov (1962) turbulence theory were examined directly and quantitutivezy by using high-resolution numerical turbulence fields.

Abstract: The fundamental hypotheses underlying Kolmogorov-Oboukhov (1962) turbulence theory (K62) are examined directly and quantitutivezy by using high-resolution numerical turbulence fields. With the use of massively parallel Connection Machine-5, we have performed direct Navier-Stokes simulations (DNS) at 5123 resolution with Taylor microscale Reynolds number up to 195. Three very different types of flow are considered : free-decaying turbulence, stationary turbulence forced at a few large scales, and a 2563 large-eddy simulation (LES) flow field. Both the forced DNS and LES flow fields show realistic inertial-subrange dynamics. The Kolmogorov constant for the k-5/3 energy spectrum obtained from the 5123 DNS flow is 1.68 kO.15. The probability distribution of the locally averaged disspation rate E, over a length scale r is nearly log-normal in the inertial subrange, but significant departures are observed for high-order moments. The intermittency parameter p, appearing in Kolmogorov's third hypothesis for the variance of the logarithmic dissipation, is found to be in the range of 0.20 to 0.28. The scaling exponents over both E, and r for the conditionally averaged velocity increments ~,u(E, are quantified, and the direction of their variations conforms with the refined similarity theory. The dimensionless averaged velocity increments (&.PI~,)/(E,~)"/ ~ are found to depend on the local Reynolds number Recr = ~f/~r~/~/v in a manner consistent with the refined similarity hypotheses. In the inertial subrange, the probability distribution of ~5,u/(e,r)'/~ is found to be universal. Because the local Reynolds number of K62, I&, = ~:'~r~/~/v, spans a finite range at a given scale r as compared to a single value for the local Reynolds number R,. = Z1/3r4/3/v in Kolmogorov's (1941a,b) original theory (K41), the inertial range in the K62 context can be better realized than that in K41 for a given turbulence field at moderate Taylor microscale (global) Reynolds number RA. Consequently universal constants in the second refined similarity hypothesis can be determined quite accurately, showing a faster-than-exponential growth of the constants with order n. Finally, some consideration is given to the use of pseudo-dissipation in the context of the K62 theory where it is found that the probability distribution of locally averaged pseudo-dissipation ei deviates more from a log-normal model than the full dissipation

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors use three-dimensional simulations to study compressible convection in a rotating frame with magnetic fields and overshoot into surrounding stable layers, showing that the magnetic energy spectrum has a short inertial range with a slope compatible with k + 1/3 during the early growth phase of the dynamo.

Abstract: We use three-dimensional simulations to study compressible convection in a rotating frame with magnetic fields and overshoot into surrounding stable layers. The, initially weak, magnetic field is amplified and maintained by dynamo action and becomes organized into flux tubes that are wrapped around vortex tubes. We also observe vortex buoyancy which causes upward flows in the cores of extended down-draughts. An analysis of the angles between various vector fields shows that there is a tendency for the magnetic field to be parallel or antiparallel to the vorticity vector, especially when the magnetic field is strong. The magnetic energy spectrum has a short inertial range with a slope compatible with k +1/3 during the early growth phase of the dynamo. During the saturated state the slope is compatible with k -1 . A simple analysis based on various characteristic timescales and energy transfer rates highlights important qualitative ideas regarding the energy budget of hydromagnetic dynamos.

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TL;DR: In this article, a diagnostic measure of the amount of viscous fluid left behind on the tube wall has been found, for both vertical and horizontal tubes, as a function of the Peclet (Pe) and Atwood (At) numbers.

Abstract: Experiments have been performed, in capillary tubes, on the displacement of a viscous fluid (glycerine) by a less viscous one (a glycerine–water mixture) with which it is miscible in all proportions. A diagnostic measure of the amount of viscous fluid left behind on the tube wall has been found, for both vertical and horizontal tubes, as a function of the Peclet (Pe) and Atwood (At) numbers, as well as a parameter that is a measure of the relative importance of viscous and gravitational effects. The asymptotic value of this diagnostic quantity, for large Pe and an At of unity, has been found to agree with that found in immiscible displacements, while the agreement with the numerical results of Part 2 (Chen & Meiburg 1966), over the whole range of At, is very good. At values of the average Pe greater than 1000 a sharp interface existed so that it was possible to make direct comparisons between the present results and a prior experiment with immiscible fluids, in particular an effective surface tension at the diffusing interface could be evaluated. The effect of gravity on the amount of viscous fluid left on the tube wall has been investigated also, and compared with the results of Part 2. A subsidiary experiment has been performed to measure both the average value of the diffusion coefficient between pure glycerine and several glycerine–water mixtures, in order to be able to calculate a representative Peclet number for each experiment, and the local value as a function of the local concentration of glycerine, in the dilute limit.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a direct numerical simulation was carried out of plane turbulent Couette flow at a Reynolds number of 750, based on half the velocity difference between the walls and half the channel width.

Abstract: A direct numerical simulation was carried out of plane turbulent Couette flow at a Reynolds number of 750, based on half the velocity difference between the walls and half the channel width. Particular attention was paid to choosing a computational box that is large enough to accommodate even the largest scales of the turbulence. In the central region of the channel very large elongated structures were observed, in accordance with earlier findings. The study is focused on the properties of these structures, but is also aimed at obtaining accurate turbulence statistics. Terms in the energy budget were evaluated and discussed. Also, the limiting values of various quantities were determined and their relevance in high Reynolds number flows discussed. The large structures were shown to be very sensitive to an imposed system rotation. They could be essentially eliminated with a stabilizing system rotation (around the spanwise axis) small enough for only minor damping of the rest of the scales. Despite the fact that the large structures dominate the appearance of the flow field their energy content was shown to be relatively small, on the order of 10% of the total turbulent kinetic energy.

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TL;DR: In this paper, high-speed photography of the normal impact of water drops on a plane water surface is studied by means of high speed photography of a water drop that can either coalesce with the receiving liquid and form a vortex ring or splash.

Abstract: A drop that falls into a deep liquid can either coalesce with the receiving liquid and form a vortex ring or splash. Which phenomenon actually occurs depends on the impact conditions. When the impact conditions are gradually changed the transition between coalescence and splashing proceeds via a number of intermediate steps. These are studied by means of high-speed photography of the normal impact of water drops on a plane water surface. The characteristics of different flows that appear in the transitional regime and possible mechanisms causing these flows are discussed in detail. The phenomena considered include the rise of thick jets and the ejection of high-rising thin jets out of the impact crater, the entrainment of gas bubbles, crater dynamics, crown formation and the generation of splash droplets. Finally, a classification of the phenomena characteristic of the transitional regime is given.

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TL;DR: In this article, the results of experiments on unsteady disturbances in the boundary-layer flow over a disk rotating in otherwise still air are presented, where the flow was perturbed impulsively at a point corresponding to a Reynolds number R below the value at which transition from laminar to turbulent flow is observed.

Abstract: In this paper, the results of experiments on unsteady disturbances in the boundary-layer flow over a disk rotating in otherwise still air are presented. The flow was perturbed impulsively at a point corresponding to a Reynolds number R below the value at which transition from laminar to turbulent flow is observed. Among the frequencies excited are convectively unstable modes, which form a three-dimensional wave packet that initially convects away from the source. The wave packet consists of two families of travelling convectively unstable waves that propagate together as one packet. These two families are predicted by linear-stability theory: branch-2 modes dominate close to the source but, as the packet moves outwards into regions with higher Reynolds numbers, branch-1 modes grow preferentially and this behaviour was found in the experiment. However, the radial propagation of the trailing edge of the wave packet was observed to tend towards zero as it approaches the critical Reynolds number (about 510) for the onset of radial absolute instability. The wave packet remains convectively unstable in the circumferential direction up to this critical Reynolds number, but it is suggested that the accumulation of energy at a well-defined radius, due to the flow becoming radially absolutely unstable, causes the onset of laminar–turbulent transition. The onset of transition has been consistently observed by previous authors at an average value of 513, with only a small scatter around this value. Here, transition is also observed at about this average value, with and without artificial excitation of the boundary layer. This lack of sensitivity to the exact form of the disturbance environment is characteristic of an absolutely unstable flow, because absolute growth of disturbances can start from either noise or artificial sources to reach the same final state, which is determined by nonlinear effects.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the entrainment of ambient fluid into both two-dimensional and axisymmetric gravity currents using a novel neutralization technique, which involves titrative neutralization of an alkaline gravity current which intrudes into and entrains an acidic ambient.

Abstract: Entrainment of ambient fluid into both two-dimensional and axisymmetric gravity currents is investigated experimentally using a novel neutralization technique. The technique involves the titrative neutralization of an alkaline gravity current which intrudes into and entrains an acidic ambient, and is visualized using a pH indicator solution. Using this technique, we can determine quantitative results for the amount of dilution in the head of the current. The head of the current is able to entrain ambient fluid both by shear instabilities on the current/ambient interface and by over-riding (relatively light) ambient fluid. Guided by our experimental observations, we present two slightly different theoretical models to determine the entrainment into the head of the current as a function of distance from the source for the instantaneous release of a constant volume of fluid in a two-dimensional geometry. By dimensional analysis, we determine from both models that the dimensionless entrainment or dilution ratio, E, defined as the ratio of the volumes of ambient and original fluid in the head, is independent of the initial reduced gravity of the current ; and this result is confirmed by our experiments in Boussinesq situations. Our theoretical evaluation of E in terms of the initial cross-sectional area of the current agrees very well with our experimental measurements on the incorporation of an entrainment coefficient a, evaluated experimentally to be 0.063 ± 0.003. We also obtain experimental results for constant-volume gravity currents moving over horizontal surfaces of varying roughness. A particularly surprising result from all the experiments, which is reflected in the theoretical models, is that the head remains essentially unmixed - the entrainment is negligible - in the slumping phase. Thus the heads of gravity currents with identical initial cross-sectional areas but different initial aspect ratios (lock lengths) will begin to be diluted by ambient fluid at different positions and hence propagate at different rates. A range of similar results is determined, both theoretically and experimentally, for the instantaneous release of a fixed volume of (heavy) fluid in an axisymmetric geometry. By contrast, the results of our experiments with gravity currents fed by a constant flux exhibit markedly different entrainment dynamics due to the continual replenishment of the fluid in the head by the constant input of undiluted fluid from the tail.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a detailed numerical study has been conducted on the effect of unsteadiness on the dynamics of counterflowing strained diffusion methane/oxygen/nitrogen flames, and the results demonstrate that the flame's response is quasi-steady at low frequencies, while at higher frequencies the amplitudes of the induced oscillations are reduced and phase shifted with respect to the imposed signal.

Abstract: A detailed numerical study has been conducted on the effect of unsteadiness on the dynamics of counterflowing strained diffusion methane/oxygen/nitrogen flames. The modelling included the solution of the unsteady conservation equations of mass, momentum, energy, and species along the stagnation streamline in an opposed jet using detailed descriptions of chemistry and transport. The unsteadiness was introduced by independently imposing sinusoidal variations of the reactant velocity, concentration and temperature at the exits of the nozzles. The results demonstrate that the flame's response is quasi-steady at low frequencies, while at higher frequencies the amplitudes of the induced oscillations are reduced and phase shifted with respect to the imposed signal. At still higher frequencies, the flame no longer responds to the oscillations in the external field. A rigorous physical explanation of the frequency response was provided from first principles by identifying that oscillations imposed at the nozzle exits result in reactant concentration and temperature oscillations at the outer edge of the preflame diffusive zones. The diffusion attenuates the oscillations in this zone in a manner analogous to the velocity attenuation in Stokes' second problem. The validity of the analogy was confirmed by examining flames over a wide range of frequencies and initial conditions. The current analysis also provided a criterion for the cutoff frequency separating the quasi-steady and transient regimes - information which can be useful in the establishment of laminar flamelet libraries.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the Galerkin finite-element method with an elliptic mesh generation scheme was used to solve the nonlinear free-boundary problem composed of the Navier-Stokes system governing flow field and Laplace's system governing electric field.

Abstract: Axisymmetric steady flows driven by an electric field about a deformable fluid drop suspended in an immiscible fluid are studied within the framework of the leaky dielectric model. Deformations of the drop and the flow fields are determined by solving the nonlinear free-boundary problem composed of the Navier-Stokes system governing the flow field and Laplace's system governing the electric field. The solutions are obtained by using the Galerkin finite-element method with an elliptic mesh generation scheme. Under conditions of creeping flow and vanishingly small drop deformations, the results of finite-element computations recover the asymptotic results. When drop deformations become noticeable, the asymptotic results are often found to underestimate both the flow intensity and drop deformation. By tracking solution branches in parameter space with an arc-length continuation method, curves in parameter space of the drop deformation parameter D versus the square of the dimensionless field strength E usually exhibit a turning point when E reaches a critical value Ec. Along such a family of drop shapes, steady solutions do not exist for E > Ec. The nonlinear relationship revealed computationally between D and E2 appears to be capable of providing insight into discrepancies reported in the literature between experiments and predictions based on the asymptotic theory. In some special cases with fluid conductivities closely matched, however, drop deformations are found to grow with E2 indefinitely and no critical value Ec is encountered by the corresponding solution branches. For most cases with realistic values of physical properties, the overall electrohydrodynamic behaviour is relatively insensitive to effects of finite-Reynolds-number flow. However, under extreme conditions when fluids of very low viscosities are involved, computational results illustrate a remarkable shape turnaround phenomenon: a drop with oblate deformation at low field strength can evolve into a prolate-like drop shape as the field strength is increased.

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TL;DR: In this article, the deformation of axisymmetric jets with tabs placed at the nozzle exit was investigated using flow visualization and two-component LDV measurements, and it was shown that a pair of counter-rotating streamwise vortices generated by each tab are responsible for deformation.

Abstract: An experimental study involving flow visualization and two-component LDV measurements has been undertaken to elucidate the deformation of an axisymmetric jet ( Re D ≈ 1950 and 4160) caused by tabs placed at the nozzle exit. Previous studies have shown the profound distortion of high-speed jets with tabs and have demonstrated that a pair of counter-rotating streamwise vortices generated by each tab are responsible for the deformation of the jet core. This work illustrates the distortion as well as some of the more subtle features of the tab effect. Extensive visualizations taken simultaneously from two perspectives reveal the real-time evolution of complex three-dimensional flow structures. Velocity data show the expected overall distortion, and the existence and strength of the streamwise vortices responsible for this deformation. Furthermore, a second set of weaker streamwise vortices was detected near each tab, the size and location of which was consistent with a horseshoe vortex system. The data showed a widespread increase in both Reynolds normal and shear stresses and generally indicated the accelerated development of the mixing layer when tabs were inserted. A brief analysis employing vortex dynamics - an alternative to previous work which utilized pressure gradient arguments-is used to explain the tab effect, resulting in similar conclusions.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a number of new experiments have been performed on the rise of air bubbles in clean mixtures of distilled water and pure, reagent grade, glycerine covering a range of the relevant parameter, the Morton number, Mo = gv 4 ρ 3 /σ 3, of 10 13.

Abstract: A number of new experiments have been performed on the rise of air bubbles in clean mixtures of distilled water and pure, reagent grade, glycerine covering a range of the relevant parameter, the Morton number, Mo = gv 4 ρ 3 /σ 3 , of 10 13 . Here g is the acceleration due to gravity, v the kinematic viscosity, ρ the density and σ the surface tension of the mixture. In these careful measurements several scaling regimes have been found that have not been discussed before in the extensive literature on the subject. The transitions between these regimes have been delineated and attempts made to discuss the dynamical processes that might be important in each of them.