# Showing papers in "Journal of Fluid Mechanics in 2016"

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TL;DR: This paper presents a method of using deep neural networks to learn a model for the Reynolds stress anisotropy tensor from high-fidelity simulation data and proposes a novel neural network architecture which uses a multiplicative layer with an invariant tensor basis to embed Galilean invariance into the predicted anisotropic tensor.

Abstract: There exists significant demand for improved Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) turbulence models that are informed by and can represent a richer set of turbulence physics. This paper presents a method of using deep neural networks to learn a model for the Reynolds stress anisotropy tensor from high-fidelity simulation data. A novel neural network architecture is proposed which uses a multiplicative layer with an invariant tensor basis to embed Galilean invariance into the predicted anisotropy tensor. It is demonstrated that this neural network architecture provides improved prediction accuracy compared with a generic neural network architecture that does not embed this invariance property. The Reynolds stress anisotropy predictions of this invariant neural network are propagated through to the velocity field for two test cases. For both test cases, significant improvement versus baseline RANS linear eddy viscosity and nonlinear eddy viscosity models is demonstrated.

1,159 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a high-resolution particle image velocimetry system was used to measure the three velocity components in the turbine wake under different yaw angles and tip-speed ratios.

Abstract: This work is dedicated to systematically studying and predicting the wake characteristics of a yawed wind turbine immersed in a turbulent boundary layer. To achieve this goal, wind tunnel experiments were performed to characterize the wake of a horizontal-axis wind turbine model. A high-resolution stereoscopic particle image velocimetry system was used to measure the three velocity components in the turbine wake under different yaw angles and tip-speed ratios. Moreover, power and thrust measurements were carried out to analyse the performance of the wind turbine. These detailed wind tunnel measurements were then used to perform a budget study of the continuity and Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations for the wake of a yawed turbine. This theoretical analysis revealed some notable features of the wakes of yawed turbines, such as the asymmetric distribution of the wake skew angle with respect to the wake centre. Under highly yawed conditions, the formation of a counter-rotating vortex pair in the wake cross-section as well as the vertical displacement of the wake centre were shown and analysed. Finally, this study enabled us to develop general governing equations upon which a simple and computationally inexpensive analytical model was built. The proposed model aims at predicting the wake deflection and the far-wake velocity distribution for yawed turbines. Comparisons of model predictions with the wind tunnel measurements show that this simple model can acceptably predict the velocity distribution in the far wake of a yawed turbine. Apart from the ability of the model to predict wake flows in yawed conditions, it can provide valuable physical insight on the behaviour of turbine wakes in this complex situation.

384 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the initial positions of deforming fluid elements coincide with tubular level surfaces of the Lagrangian-averaged vorticity deviation (LAVD), the trajectory integral of the normed difference of the vortivities from its spatial mean.

Abstract: Rotationally coherent Lagrangian vortices are formed by tubes of deforming fluid elements that complete equal bulk material rotation relative to the mean rotation of the deforming fluid volume. We show that the initial positions of such tubes coincide with tubular level surfaces of the Lagrangian-averaged vorticity deviation (LAVD), the trajectory integral of the normed difference of the vorticity from its spatial mean. The LAVD-based vortices are objective, i.e. remain unchanged under time-dependent rotations and translations of the coordinate frame. In the limit of vanishing Rossby numbers in geostrophic flows, cyclonic LAVD vortex centres are precisely the observed attractors for light particles. A similar result holds for heavy particles in anticyclonic LAVD vortices. We also establish a relationship between rotationally coherent Lagrangian vortices and their instantaneous Eulerian counterparts. The latter are formed by tubular surfaces of equal material rotation rate, objectively measured by the instantaneous vorticity deviation (IVD). We illustrate the use of the LAVD and the IVD to detect rotationally coherent Lagrangian and Eulerian vortices objectively in several two- and three-dimensional flows.

263 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) is proposed for spatially and temporally resolved data, which is based on the classical POD and involves an additional temporal constraint that enables a clear separation of phenomena that occur at multiple frequencies and energies.

Abstract: The identification of coherent structures from experimental or numerical data is an essential task when conducting research in fluid dynamics. This typically involves the construction of an empirical mode base that appropriately captures the dominant flow structures. The most prominent candidates are the energy-ranked proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and the frequency-ranked Fourier decomposition and dynamic mode decomposition (DMD). However, these methods are not suitable when the relevant coherent structures occur at low energies or at multiple frequencies, which is often the case. To overcome the deficit of these ‘rigid’ approaches, we propose a new method termed spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD). It is based on classical POD and it can be applied to spatially and temporally resolved data. The new method involves an additional temporal constraint that enables a clear separation of phenomena that occur at multiple frequencies and energies. SPOD allows for a continuous shifting from the energetically optimal POD to the spectrally pure Fourier decomposition by changing a single parameter. In this article, SPOD is motivated from phenomenological considerations of the POD autocorrelation matrix and justified from dynamical systems theory. The new method is further applied to three sets of PIV measurements of flows from very different engineering problems. We consider the flow of a swirl-stabilized combustor, the wake of an airfoil with a Gurney flap and the flow field of the sweeping jet behind a fluidic oscillator. For these examples, the commonly used methods fail to assign the relevant coherent structures to single modes. The SPOD, however, achieves a proper separation of spatially and temporally coherent structures, which are either hidden in stochastic turbulent fluctuations or spread over a wide frequency range. The SPOD requires only one additional parameter, which can be estimated from the basic time scales of the flow. In spite of all these benefits, the algorithmic complexity and computational cost of the SPOD are only marginally greater than those of the snapshot POD.

252 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used high-speed visualization and X-ray densitometry measurements to examine the cavity dynamics, including the time-resolved void-fraction fields within the cavity.

Abstract: Partial cavitation in the separated region forming from the apex of a wedge is examined to reveal the flow mechanism responsible for the transition from stable sheet cavity to periodically shedding cloud cavitation. High-speed visualization and time-resolved X-ray densitometry measurements are used to examine the cavity dynamics, including the time-resolved void-fraction fields within the cavity. The experimentally observed time-averaged void-fraction profiles are compared to an analytical model employing free-streamline theory. From the instantaneous void-fraction flow fields, two distinct shedding mechanisms are identified. The classically described re-entrant flow in the cavity closure is confirmed as a mechanism for vapour entrainment and detachment that leads to intermittent shedding of smaller-scale cavities. But, with a sufficient reduction in cavitation number, large-scale periodic cloud shedding is associated with the formation and propagation of a bubbly shock within the high void-fraction bubbly mixture in the separated cavity flow. When the shock front impinges on flow at the wedge apex, a large cloud is pinched off. For periodic shedding, the speed of the front in the laboratory frame is of the order of half the free-stream speed. The features of the observed condensation shocks are related to the average and dynamic pressure and void fraction using classical one-dimensional jump conditions. The sound speed of the bubbly mixture is estimated to determine the Mach number of the cavity flow. The transition from intermittent to transitional to strongly periodic shedding occurs when the average Mach number of the cavity flow exceeds that required for the generation of strong shocks.

225 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of thermal boundary conditions on developing turbulent pipe flows with fluids at supercritical pressure was studied using direct numerical simulations, and two different thermal wall boundary conditions were studied: one that permits temperature fluctuations and one that does not allow temperature fluctuations at the wall (equivalent to cases where the thermal effusivity ratio approaches infinity and zero, respectively).

Abstract: We use direct numerical simulations to study the effect of thermal boundary conditions on developing turbulent pipe flows with fluids at supercritical pressure. The Reynolds number based on pipe diameter and friction velocity at the inlet is and Prandtl number at the inlet is . The thermodynamic conditions are chosen such that the temperature range within the flow domain incorporates the pseudo-critical point where large variations in thermophysical properties occur. Two different thermal wall boundary conditions are studied: one that permits temperature fluctuations and one that does not allow temperature fluctuations at the wall (equivalent to cases where the thermal effusivity ratio approaches infinity and zero, respectively). Unlike for turbulent flows with constant thermophysical properties and Prandtl numbers above unity – where the effusivity ratio has a negligible influence on heat transfer – supercritical fluids shows a strong dependency on the effusivity ratio. We observe a reduction of 7 % in Nusselt number when the temperature fluctuations at the wall are suppressed. On the other hand, if temperature fluctuations are permitted, large property variations are induced that consequently cause an increase of wall-normal velocity fluctuations very close to the wall and thus an increased overall heat flux and skin friction.

205 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors show that for high impact velocities and negligible surface friction at the solid surface (i.e., free slip), approximately one-half of the initial kinetic energy is transformed into surface energy, independent of the impact parameters and detailed energy loss mechanism(s).

Abstract: The energy budget and dissipation mechanisms during droplet impact on solid surfaces are studied numerically and theoretically. We find that for high impact velocities and negligible surface friction at the solid surface (i.e. free slip), approximately one-half of the initial kinetic energy is transformed into surface energy, independent of the impact parameters and the detailed energy loss mechanism(s). We argue that this seemingly universal rule is related to the deformation mode of the droplet and is reminiscent of pipe flow undergoing a sudden expansion, for which the head loss can be calculated by multiplying the kinetic energy of the incoming flow by a geometrical factor. For impacts on a no-slip surface also dissipation in the shear boundary layer at the solid surface is important. In this case the geometric head loss acts as a lower bound on the total dissipation (i.e. the spreading on a no-slip surface approaches that on a free-slip surface when the droplet viscosity is sent to zero). This new view on the impact problem allows for simple analytical estimates of the maximum spreading diameter of impacting drops as a function of the impact parameters and the properties of the solid surface. It bridges the gap between previous momentum balance approaches and energy balance approaches, which hitherto did not give consistent predictions in the low viscosity limit. Good agreement is found between our models and experiments, both for impacts on ‘slippery’ or lubricated surfaces (e.g. Leidenfrost droplet impacts and head-on droplet–droplet collisions) and for impacts on no-slip surfaces.

196 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of the Taylor microscale Reynolds number on particle statistics is examined over the largest range to date (from to 597), at small, intermediate and large Kolmogorov-scale Stokes numbers.

Abstract: In this study, we analyse the statistics of both individual inertial particles and inertial particle pairs in direct numerical simulations of homogeneous isotropic turbulence in the absence of gravity. The effect of the Taylor microscale Reynolds number, , on the particle statistics is examined over the largest range to date (from to 597), at small, intermediate and large Kolmogorov-scale Stokes numbers . We first explore the effect of preferential sampling on the single-particle statistics and find that low- inertial particles are ejected from both vortex tubes and vortex sheets (the latter becoming increasingly prevalent at higher Reynolds numbers) and preferentially accumulate in regions of irrotational dissipation. We use this understanding of preferential sampling to provide a physical explanation for many of the trends in the particle velocity gradients, kinetic energies and accelerations at low , which are well represented by the model of Chun et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 536, 2005, pp. 219–251). As increases, inertial filtering effects become more important, causing the particle kinetic energies and accelerations to decrease. The effect of inertial filtering on the particle kinetic energies and accelerations diminishes with increasing Reynolds number and is well captured by the models of Abrahamson (Chem. Engng Sci., vol. 30, 1975, pp. 1371–1379) and Zaichik & Alipchenkov (Intl J. Multiphase Flow, vol. 34 (9), 2008, pp. 865–868), respectively. We then consider particle-pair statistics, and focus our attention on the relative velocities and radial distribution functions (RDFs) of the particles, with the aim of understanding the underlying physical mechanisms contributing to particle collisions. The relative velocity statistics indicate that preferential sampling effects are important for and that path-history/non-local effects become increasingly important for . While higher-order relative velocity statistics are influenced by the increased intermittency of the turbulence at high Reynolds numbers, the lower-order relative velocity statistics are only weakly sensitive to changes in Reynolds number at low . The Reynolds-number trends in these quantities at intermediate and large are explained based on the influence of the available flow scales on the path-history and inertial filtering effects. We find that the RDFs peak near of order unity, that they exhibit power-law scaling for low and intermediate and that they are largely independent of Reynolds number for low and intermediate . We use the model of Zaichik & Alipchenkov (New J. Phys., vol. 11, 2009, 103018) to explain the physical mechanisms responsible for these trends, and find that this model is able to capture the quantitative behaviour of the RDFs extremely well when direct numerical simulation data for the structure functions are specified, in agreement with Bragg & Collins (New J. Phys., vol. 16, 2014a, 055013). We also observe that at large , changes in the RDF are related to changes in the scaling exponents of the relative velocity variances. The particle collision kernel closely matches that computed by Rosa et al. (New J. Phys., vol. 15, 2013, 045032) and is found to be largely insensitive to the flow Reynolds number. This suggests that relatively low-Reynolds-number simulations may be able to capture much of the relevant physics of droplet collisions and growth in the adiabatic cores of atmospheric clouds.

170 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, an aerofoil leading-edge prole based on wavy (sinusoidal) protuberances/tubercles is investigated to understand the mechanisms by which they are able to reduce the noise produced through the interaction with turbulent mean flow.

Abstract: An aerofoil leading-edge prole based on wavy (sinusoidal) protuberances/tubercles is investigated to understand the mechanisms by which they are able to reduce the noise produced through the interaction with turbulent mean flow. Numerical simulations are performed for non-lifting at-plate aerofoils with straight and wavy leading edges (de- noted by SLE and WLE, respectively) subjected to impinging turbulence that is synthetically generated in the upstream zone (freestream Mach number of 0.24). Full three-dimensional Euler (inviscid) solutions are computed for this study thereby eliminating self-noise components. A high-order accurate nite-dierence method and artefact-free boundary conditions are used in the current simulations. Various statistical analysis methods, including frequency spectra, are implemented to aid the understanding of the noise-reduction mechanisms. It is found with WLEs, unlike the SLE, that the surface pressure fluctuations along the leading edge exhibit a signicant source cut-o eect due to geometric obliqueness which leads to reduced levels of radiated sound pressure. It is also found that there exists a phase interference eect particularly prevalent between the peak and the hill centre of the WLE geometry, which contributes to the noise reduction in the mid- to high-frequency range.

169 citations

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TL;DR: The route to turbulence in pipe flow is a complex, nonlinear, spatiotemporal process for which an increasingly clear theoretical understanding has emerged as discussed by the authors, exploiting analogies to coexisting thermodynamic phases and to excitable and bistable media.

Abstract: The route to turbulence in pipe flow is a complex, nonlinear, spatiotemporal process for which an increasingly clear theoretical understanding has emerged. This understanding is explained to the reader in several steps, exploiting analogies to co-existing thermodynamic phases and to excitable and bistable media. In the end, simple equations encapsulating the keys physical properties of pipe turbulence provide a comprehensive picture of all large-scale states and stages of the transition process. Important among these are metastable localized puffs, localized edge states, puff splitting and interactions between puffs, the critical point for the onset of sustained turbulence via spatiotemporal intermittency (directed percolation), and finally the rise of fully turbulent flow in the form of expanding weak and strong turbulent slugs.

167 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigate air entrainment and bubble statistics in three-dimensional breaking waves through direct numerical simulations of the two-phase air-water flow, resolving the length scales relevant for the bubble formation problem, the capillary length and the Hinze scale.

Abstract: We investigate air entrainment and bubble statistics in three-dimensional breaking waves through novel direct numerical simulations of the two-phase air-water flow, resolving the length scales relevant for the bubble formation problem, the capillary length and the Hinze scale. The dissipation due to breaking is found to be in good agreement with previous experimental observations and inertial-scaling arguments. The air-entrainment properties and bubble-size statistics are investigated for various initial characteristic wave slopes. For radii larger than the Hinze scale, the bubble size distribution, can be described by N (r, t) = B(V 0 /2π)(e(t − ∆τ)/W g)r −10/3 r −2/3 m during the active breaking stages, where e(t − ∆τ) is the time dependent turbulent dissipation rate, with ∆τ the collapse time of the initial air pocket entrained by the breaking wave, W a weighted vertical velocity of the bubble plume, r m the maximum bubble radius, g gravity , V 0 the initial volume of air entrained, r the bubble radius and B a dimensionless constant. The active breaking time-averaged bubble size distribution is described by ¯ N (r) = B(1/2π)(l L c /W gρ)r −10/3 r −2/3 m , where l is the wave dissipation rate per unit length of breaking crest, ρ the water density and L c the length of breaking crest. Finally, the averaged total volume of entrained air, ¯ V , per breaking event can be simply related to l by ¯ V = B(l L c /W gρ), which leads to a relationship to a characteristic slope, S, of ¯ V ∝ S 5/2. We propose a phenomenological turbulent bubble break-up model, based on earlier models and the balance between mechanical dissipation and work done against buoyancy forces. The model is consistent with the numerical results and existing experimental results.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provided theoretical conditions for the use and meaning of a stability analysis around a mean flow and showed that the spectral (or temporal Fourier) mode of the fluctuation field is equal to the action on a turbulent forcing term arising from linearisation about the mean flow.

Abstract: This article provides theoretical conditions for the use and meaning of a stability analysis around a mean flow. As such, it may be considered as an extension of the works by McKeon & Sharma (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 658, 2010, pp. 336–382) to non-parallel flows and by Turton et al. (Phys. Rev. E, vol. 91 (4), 2015, 043009) to broadband flows. Considering a Reynolds decomposition of the flow field, the spectral (or temporal Fourier) mode of the fluctuation field is found to be equal to the action on a turbulent forcing term by the resolvent operator arising from linearisation about the mean flow. The main result of the article states that if, at a particular frequency, the dominant singular value of the resolvent is much larger than all others and if the turbulent forcing at this frequency does not display any preferential direction toward one of the suboptimal forcings, then the spectral mode is directly proportional to the dominant optimal response mode of the resolvent at this frequency. Such conditions are generally met in the case of weakly non-parallel open flows exhibiting a convectively unstable mean flow. The spatial structure of the singular mode may in these cases be approximated by a local spatial stability analysis based on parabolised stability equations (PSE). We have also shown that the frequency spectrum of the flow field at any arbitrary location of the domain may be predicted from the frequency evolution of the dominant optimal response mode and the knowledge of the frequency spectrum at one or more points. Results are illustrated in the case of a high Reynolds number turbulent backward facing step flow.

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TL;DR: In this paper, Chen et al. proposed a recursive DMD (RDMD) based on the residual of an expansion using the first modes, which is orthogonal by construction, retains pure frequency content and aims at low residual.

Abstract: A novel data-driven modal decomposition of fluid flow is proposed, comprising key features of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and dynamic mode decomposition (DMD). The first mode is the normalized real or imaginary part of the DMD mode that minimizes the time-averaged residual. The th mode is defined recursively in an analogous manner based on the residual of an expansion using the first modes. The resulting recursive DMD (RDMD) modes are orthogonal by construction, retain pure frequency content and aim at low residual. Recursive DMD is applied to transient cylinder wake data and is benchmarked against POD and optimized DMD (Chen et al., J. Nonlinear Sci., vol. 22, 2012, pp. 887–915) for the same snapshot sequence. Unlike POD modes, RDMD structures are shown to have purer frequency content while retaining a residual of comparable order to POD. In contrast to DMD, with exponentially growing or decaying oscillatory amplitudes, RDMD clearly identifies initial, maximum and final fluctuation levels. Intriguingly, RDMD outperforms both POD and DMD in the limit-cycle resolution from the same snapshots. Robustness of these observations is demonstrated for other parameters of the cylinder wake and for a more complex wake behind three rotating cylinders. Recursive DMD is proposed as an attractive alternative to POD and DMD for empirical Galerkin models, in particular for nonlinear transient dynamics.

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TL;DR: In this article, the maximum spreading of drops impacting on smooth and rough surfaces is measured from low to high impact velocity for liquids with different surface tensions and viscosities, and it is shown that dynamic wetting plays an important role in the spreading at low velocity, characterized by the dynamic contact angle at maximum spreading.

Abstract: The maximum spreading of drops impacting on smooth and rough surfaces is measured from low to high impact velocity for liquids with different surface tensions and viscosities. We demonstrate that dynamic wetting plays an important role in the spreading at low velocity, characterized by the dynamic contact angle at maximum spreading. In the energy balance, we account for the dynamic wettability by introducing the capillary energy at zero impact velocity, which relates to the spreading ratio at zero impact velocity. Correcting the measured spreading ratio by the spreading ratio at zero velocity, we find a correct scaling behaviour for low and high impact velocity and, by interpolation between the two, we find a universal scaling curve. The influence of the liquid as well as the nature and roughness of the surface are taken into account properly by rescaling with the spreading ratio at zero velocity, which, as demonstrated, is equivalent to accounting for the dynamic contact angle.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a new analytical model is developed for the prediction of noise from serrated trailing edges, which generalizes Amiet's trailing-edge noise theory to sawtooth trailing edges.

Abstract: A new analytical model is developed for the prediction of noise from serrated trailing edges. The model generalizes Amiet’s trailing-edge noise theory to sawtooth trailing edges, resulting in a complicated partial differential equation. The equation is then solved by means of a Fourier expansion technique combined with an iterative procedure. The solution is validated through comparison with the finite element method for a variety of serrations at different Mach numbers. The results obtained using the new model predict noise reduction of up to 10 dB at 90 above the trailing edge, which is more realistic than predictions based on Howe’s model and also more consistent with experimental observations. A thorough analytical and numerical analysis of the physical mechanism is carried out and suggests that the noise reduction due to serration originates primarily from interference effects near the trailing edge. A closer inspection of the proposed mathematical model has led to the development of two criteria for the effectiveness of the trailing-edge serrations, consistent but more general than those proposed by Howe. While experimental investigations often focus on noise reduction at 90 above the trailing edge, the new analytical model shows that the destructive interference scattering effects due to the serrations cause significant noise reduction at large polar angles, near the leading edge. It has also been observed that serrations can significantly change the directivity characteristics of the aerofoil at high frequencies and even lead to noise increase at high Mach numbers.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the low-frequency unsteadiness in the direct numerical simulation of a Mach 2.9 shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction with mean flow separation is analyzed using dynamic mode decomposition (DMD).

Abstract: The low-frequency unsteadiness in the direct numerical simulation of a Mach 2.9 shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction with mean flow separation is analysed using dynamic mode decomposition (DMD). The analysis is applied both to three-dimensional and spanwise-averaged snapshots of the flow. The observed low-frequency DMD modes all share a common structure, characterized by perturbations along the shock, together with streamwise-elongated regions of low and high momentum that originate at the shock foot and extend into the downstream flow. A linear superposition of these modes, with dynamics governed by their corresponding DMD eigenvalues, accurately captures the unsteadiness of the shock. In addition, DMD analysis shows that the downstream regions of low and high momentum are unsteady and that their unsteadiness is linked to the unsteadiness of the shock. The observed flow structures in the downstream flow are reminiscent of Gortler-like vortices that are present in this type of flow due to an underlying centrifugal instability, suggesting a possible physical mechanism for the low-frequency unsteadiness in shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions.

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TL;DR: In this article, structural properties of uniform momentum zones in turbulent boundary layers are examined using experimental databases obtained from particle image velocimetry using a large range of Reynolds numbers, spanning more than an order of magnitude.

Abstract: Structural properties of regions of uniform streamwise momentum in turbulent boundary layers are examined using experimental databases obtained from particle image velocimetry. This investigation employs a large range of Reynolds numbers, spanning more than an order of magnitude ( ), enabling us to provide a detailed description of uniform momentum zones as a function of Reynolds number. Our analysis starts by examining the identification criterion used by Adrian et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 422, 2000, pp. 1–54) to report the presence of uniform momentum zones in turbulent boundary layers. This criterion is then applied to show that a zonal-like structural arrangement is prevalent in all datasets examined, emphasising its importance in the structural organisation. Streamwise velocity fluctuations within the zones are observed to be small but they are bounded by distinct step changes in streamwise momentum which indicate that shear layers of intense vorticity separate each zone. A log-linear increase in the number of these zones with increasing Reynolds number is revealed, together with an increase in the thicknesses of zones with increasing distance from the wall. These results support a hierarchical length-scale distribution of coherent structures, which generate zonal-like organisation within turbulent boundary layers. Interpretation of these findings is aided by employing synthetic velocity fields generated using a model based on the attached eddy hypothesis, which is described in the work of Perry and co-workers. Comparisons between the model and experimental results show that a hierarchy of self-similar structures leads to population densities and length-scale distributions of uniform momentum zones that closely adhere to those observed experimentally in this study.

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TL;DR: In this article, a large-eddy simulation (LES) was conducted to examine the mean flow behavior within the roughness layer of turbulent boundary layer flow over rough surfaces and the results provided clear evidence for exponential behavior of mean flow with respect to the wall normal distance.

Abstract: We conduct a series of large-eddy simulations (LES) to examine the mean flow behaviour within the roughness layer of turbulent boundary layer flow over rough surfaces. We consider several configurations consisting of arrays of rectangular-prism roughness elements with various spacings, aspect ratios and height distributions. The results provide clear evidence for exponential behaviour of the mean flow with respect to the wall normal distance. Such behaviour has been proposed before (see, e.g., Cionco, 1966 Tech. Rep. DTIC document), and is represented as , where is the spatially/temporally averaged fluid velocity, is the wall normal distance, represents the height of the roughness elements and is the velocity at . The attenuation factor depends on the density of the roughness element distribution and details of the roughness distribution on the wall. Once established, the generic velocity profile shape is used to formulate a fully analytical model for the effective drag exerted by turbulent flow on a surface covered with arrays of rectangular-prism roughness elements. The approach is based on the von Karman–Pohlhausen integral method, in which a shape function is assumed for the mean velocity profile and its parameters are determined based on momentum conservation and other fundamental constraints. In order to determine the attenuation parameter , wake interactions among surface roughness elements are accounted for by using the concept of flow sheltering. The model transitions smoothly between ‘ ’ and ‘ ’ type roughness conditions depending on the surface coverage density and the detailed geometry of roughness elements. Comparisons between model predictions and experimental/numerical data from the existing literature as well as LES data from this study are presented. It is shown that the analytical model provides good predictions of mean velocity and drag forces for the cases considered, thus raising the hope that analytical roughness modelling based on surface geometry is possible, at least for cases when the location of flow separation over surface elements can be easily predicted, as in the case of wall-attached rectangular-prism roughness elements.

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TL;DR: It is proposed to use swimmers equipped with adaptive decision-making that adjust their gaits through a reinforcement learning algorithm in response to nonlinearly varying hydrodynamic loads to identify schooling patterns that minimize the individual and collective swimming effort.

Abstract: Schooling, an archetype of collective behaviour, emerges from the interactions of fish responding to sensory information mediated by their aqueous environment. A fundamental and largely unexplored question in fish schooling concerns the role of hydrodynamics. Here, we investigate this question by modelling swimmers as vortex dipoles whose interactions are governed by the Biot–Savart law. When we enhance these dipoles with behavioural rules from classical agent-based models, we find that they do not lead robustly to schooling because of flow-mediated interactions. We therefore propose to use swimmers equipped with adaptive decision-making that adjust their gaits through a reinforcement learning algorithm in response to nonlinearly varying hydrodynamic loads. We demonstrate that these swimmers can maintain their relative position within a formation by adapting their strength and school in a variety of prescribed geometrical arrangements. Furthermore, we identify schooling patterns that minimize the individual and collective swimming effort, through an evolutionary optimization. The present work suggests that the adaptive response of individual swimmers to flow-mediated interactions is critical in fish schooling.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a theoretical decomposition of mean skin friction generation into physical phenomena across the whole profile of the incompressible zero-pressure-gradient smooth-flat-plate boundary layer is derived from a mean streamwise kinetic energy budget in an absolute reference frame (in which the undisturbed fluid is not moving).

Abstract: A theoretical decomposition of mean skin friction generation into physical phenomena across the whole profile of the incompressible zero-pressure-gradient smooth-flat-plate boundary layer is derived from a mean streamwise kinetic-energy budget in an absolute reference frame (in which the undisturbed fluid is not moving). The Reynolds-number dependences in the laminar and turbulent cases are investigated from direct numerical simulation datasets and Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes simulations, and the asymptotic trends are consistently predicted by theory. The generation of the difference between the mean friction in the turbulent and laminar cases is identified with the total production of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the boundary layer, represented by the second term of the proposed decomposition of the mean skin friction coefficient. In contrast, the analysis introduced by Fukagata et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 14 (11), 2002, pp. 73–76), based on a streamwise momentum budget in the wall reference frame, relates the turbulence-induced excess friction to the Reynolds shear stress weighted by a linear function of the wall distance. The wall-normal distribution of the linearly-weighted Reynolds shear stress differs from the distribution of TKE production involved in the present discussion, which consequently draws different conclusions on the contribution of each layer to the mean skin friction coefficient. At low Reynolds numbers, the importance of the buffer-layer dynamics is confirmed. At high Reynolds numbers, the present decomposition quantitatively shows for the first time that the generation of the turbulence-induced excess friction is dominated by the logarithmic layer. This is caused by the well-known decay of the relative contributions of the buffer layer and wake region to TKE production with increasing Reynolds numbers. This result on mean skin friction, with a physical interpretation relying on an energy budget, is consistent with the well-established general importance of the logarithmic layer at high Reynolds numbers, contrary to the friction breakdown obtained from the approach of Fukagata et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 14 (11), 2002, pp. 73–76), essentially based on a momentum budget. The new decomposition suggests that it may be worth investigating new drag reduction strategies focusing on TKE production and on the nature of the logarithmic layer dynamics. The decomposition is finally extended to the pressure-gradient case and to channel and pipe flows.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the mesoscale-driven surface frontogenesis and baroclinic mixed-layer instabilities are modeled using a simple quasi-geostrophic model, and a similar archetypical Eady-like model of submesoscale turbulence induced by mixed layer instabilities is formulated.

Abstract: Upper-ocean turbulence at scales smaller than the mesoscale is believed to exchange surface and thermocline waters, which plays an important role in both physical and biogeochemical budgets. But what energizes this submesoscale turbulence remains a topic of debate. Two mechanisms have been proposed: mesoscale-driven surface frontogenesis and baroclinic mixed-layer instabilities. The goal here is to understand the differences between the dynamics of these two mechanisms, using a simple quasi-geostrophic model. The essence of mesoscale-driven surface frontogenesis is captured by the well-known surface quasi-geostrophic model, which describes the sharpening of surface buoyancy gradients and the subsequent breakup in secondary roll-up instabilities. We formulate a similarly archetypical Eady-like model of submesoscale turbulence induced by mixed-layer instabilities. The model captures the scale and structure of this baroclinic instability in the mixed layer. A wide range of scales are energized through a turbulent inverse cascade of kinetic energy that is fuelled by the submesoscale mixed-layer instability. Major differences to mesoscale-driven surface frontogenesis are that mixed-layer instabilities energize the entire depth of the mixed layer and produce larger vertical velocities. The distribution of energy across scales and in the vertical produced by our simple model of mixed-layer instabilities compares favourably to observations of energetic wintertime submesoscale flows, suggesting that it captures the leading-order balanced dynamics of these flows. The dynamics described here in an oceanographic context have potential applications to other geophysical fluids with layers of different stratifications.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the physical mechanisms determining closure formation and transition between different closure modes and reconcile the observations from prior studies under various flow settings, including the role of internal flow physics on the observed features during supercavity formation and closure mode transition.

Abstract: Substantial discrepancy in the conditions for attainment of different closure modes of a ventilated supercavity has existed widely in the published literature. In this study, supercavity closure is investigated with an objective to understand the physical mechanisms determining closure formation and transition between different closure modes and to reconcile the observations from prior studies under various flow settings. The experiments are conducted in a closed-wall recirculating water tunnel to image ventilated supercavity closure using high speed and high-resolution photography and simultaneously measure pressure inside the cavity. The flow conditions are varied systematically to cover a broad range of water velocity, ventilation flow rate and cavitator size, which correspond to different Froude numbers, air entrainment coefficients and blockage ratios, respectively. In addition to the classical closure modes reported in the literature (e.g. re-entrant jet, twin vortex, quad vortex, etc.), the study has revealed a number of new closure modes that occur during the transition between classical modes, or under very specific flow conditions. Closure maps are constructed to depict the flow regimes, i.e. the range of Froude number and air entrainment coefficient, for various closure modes at different blockage ratios. From the closure map at each blockage ratio, a critical ventilation flow rate, below which the supercavity collapses into foamy cavity upon reduction of Froude number, is identified. The air entrainment coefficients corresponding to such critical ventilation rate are found to be independent of blockage ratio. It has been observed that in the process of generating a supercavity by increasing ventilation flow rate, the cavitation number gradually reduces to a minimum value and stays fixed upon further increments in the ventilation rate. Once a supercavity is formed, the ventilation rate can be decreased to a much lower value with no change in cavitation number while still maintaining a supercavity. This process is accompanied by a change in closure modes, which generally goes from twin vortex, to quad vortex, and then to re-entrant jet. In addition, the blockage effect is shown to play an important role in promoting the occurrence of twin-vortex closure modes. Subsequently, a physical framework governing the variation of different closure modes is proposed, and is used to explain mode transition upon the change of flow conditions, including the blockage effect. This framework is further extended to shed light on the occurrence of closure modes for ventilated supercavitation experiments across different types of flow facilities, the natural supercavity closure and the pulsating supercavity reported in the literature. Finally, in combination with a recent numerical study, our research discusses the role of the internal flow physics on the observed features during supercavity formation and closure-mode transition, paving the way for future investigations in this direction.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a wide range of friction Reynolds numbers,, and equivalent sand grain roughness Reynolds numbers (smooth wall:, rough wall: ; ; and sandpaper roughness: ) are used to determine the mean wall shear stress using a floating element drag balance.

Abstract: Turbulent boundary layer measurements above a smooth wall and sandpaper roughness are presented across a wide range of friction Reynolds numbers, , and equivalent sand grain roughness Reynolds numbers, (smooth wall: , rough wall: ; ; and ). For the rough-wall measurements, the mean wall shear stress is determined using a floating element drag balance. All smooth- and rough-wall data exhibit, over an inertial sublayer, regions of logarithmic dependence in the mean velocity and streamwise velocity variance. These logarithmic slopes are apparently the same between smooth and rough walls, indicating similar dynamics are present in this region. The streamwise mean velocity defect and skewness profiles each show convincing collapse in the outer region of the flow, suggesting that Townsend’s (The Structure of Turbulent Shear Flow, vol. 1, 1956, Cambridge University Press.) wall-similarity hypothesis is a good approximation for these statistics even at these finite friction Reynolds numbers. Outer-layer collapse is also observed in the rough-wall streamwise velocity variance, but only for flows with . At Reynolds numbers lower than this, profile invariance is only apparent when the flow is fully rough. In transitionally rough flows at low , the outer region of the inner-normalised streamwise velocity variance indicates a dependence on for the present rough surface.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the large-scale coherent motions in a realistic swirl fuel-injector geometry are analyzed by direct numerical simulations (DNS), proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), and linear global modes.

Abstract: The large-scale coherent motions in a realistic swirl fuel-injector geometry are analysed by direct numerical simulations (DNS), proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), and linear global modes. The ...

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TL;DR: In this paper, the early stages of drop impact onto a solid surface are considered and detailed numerical simulations and detailed asymptotic analysis of the process reveal a self-similar structure both for the velocity field and the pressure field.

Abstract: The early stages of drop impact onto a solid surface are considered. Detailed numerical simulations and detailed asymptotic analysis of the process reveal a self-similar structure both for the velocity field and the pressure field. The latter is shown to exhibit a maximum not near the impact point, but rather at the contact line. The motion of the contact line is furthermore shown to exhibit a ‘tank-treading’ motion. These observations are apprehended with the help of a variant of Wagner theory for liquid impact. This framework offers a simple analogy where the fluid motion within the impacting drop may be viewed as the flow induced by a flat rising expanding disk. The theoretical predictions are found to be in very close agreement both qualitatively and quantitatively with the numerical observations for approximately three decades in time. Interestingly, the inviscid self-similar impact pressure and velocities are shown to depend solely on the self-similar variables . The structure of the boundary layer developing along the wet substrate is investigated as well. It is found to be in first approximation analogous to the boundary layer growing in the trail of a shockwave. Interestingly, the corresponding boundary layer structure only depends on the impact self-similar variables. This allows us to construct a seamless uniform analytical approximation encompassing both impact and viscous effects. The depiction of the different dynamical fields enables to quantitatively predict observables of interest, such as the evolution of the integral viscous shearing force and of the net normal force.

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TL;DR: In this article, passive scalars in turbulent plane channels at computationally high Reynolds number were studied and the mean scalar profiles were found to obey a generalized logarithmic law which includes a linear correction term in the whole lower half-channel, and they follow a universal parabolic defect profile in the core region.

Abstract: We study passive scalars in turbulent plane channels at computationally high Reynolds number, thus allowing us to observe previously unnoticed effects. The mean scalar profiles are found to obey a generalized logarithmic law which includes a linear correction term in the whole lower half-channel, and they follow a universal parabolic defect profile in the core region. This is consistent with recent findings regarding the mean velocity profiles in channel flow. The scalar variances also exhibit a near universal parabolic distribution in the core flow and hints of a sizeable log layer, unlike the velocity variances. The energy spectra highlight the formation of large scalar-bearing eddies with size proportional to the channel height which are caused by a local production excess over dissipation, and which are clearly visible in the flow visualizations. Close correspondence of the momentum and scalar eddies is observed, with the main difference being that the latter tend to form sharper gradients, which translates into higher scalar dissipation. Another notable Reynolds number effect is the decreased correlation of the passive scalar field with the vertical velocity field, which is traced to the reduced effectiveness of ejection events.

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TL;DR: In this article, the impact of fluidic actuation on the wake and drag of a three-dimensional blunt body is investigated experimentally, and the results encourage further development of fluid control to improve the aerodynamics of road vehicles and provide a complementary insight into the relation between wake dynamics and drag.

Abstract: The impact of fluidic actuation on the wake and drag of a three-dimensional blunt body is investigated experimentally. Jets blowing tangentially to the main flow force the wake with variable frequency and amplitude. Depending on the forcing conditions, two flow regimes can be distinguished. First, in the case of broadband actuation with frequencies comprising the natural wake time scale, the convection of the jet structures enhances wake entrainment, shortens the length of the recirculating flow and increases drag. Secondly, at higher actuation frequencies, shear-layer deviation leads to fluidic boat tailing of the wake. It additionally lowers its turbulent kinetic energy thus reducing the entrainment of momentum towards the recirculating flow. The combination of both mechanisms produces a rise in the base pressure and reduces the drag of the model. Both actuation regimes are characterized by complementary velocity, pressure and drag measurements at several upstream conditions and control parameters. By adding curved surfaces to deviate the jets by the Coanda effect, periodic actuation is reinforced and drag reductions of approximately 20 % are achieved. The unsteady Coanda blowing not only intensifies the flow deviation and the base pressure recovery but also preserves the unsteady high-frequency forcing effect on the turbulent field. The present results encourage further development of fluidic control to improve the aerodynamics of road vehicles and provide a complementary insight into the relation between wake dynamics and drag.

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TL;DR: In this article, a dataset of more than 200 numerical models with Ekman numbers spanning, Rayleigh numbers within the range, and a Prandtl number of unity was constructed for Rayleigh-Benard convection in rotating spherical shells.

Abstract: Rayleigh–Benard convection in rotating spherical shells can be considered as a simplified analogue of many astrophysical and geophysical fluid flows. Here, we use three-dimensional direct numerical simulations to study this physical process. We construct a dataset of more than 200 numerical models that cover a broad parameter range with Ekman numbers spanning , Rayleigh numbers within the range and a Prandtl number of unity. The radius ratio is 0.6 in all cases and gravity is assumed to be proportional to . We investigate the scaling behaviours of both local (length scales, boundary layers) and global (Nusselt and Reynolds numbers) properties across various physical regimes from onset of rotating convection to weakly rotating convection. Close to critical, the convective flow is dominated by a triple force balance between viscosity, Coriolis force and buoyancy. For larger supercriticalities, a small subset of our numerical data approach the asymptotic diffusivity-free scaling of rotating convection in a narrow fraction of the parameter space delimited by . Using a decomposition of the viscous dissipation rate into bulk and boundary layer contributions, we establish a theoretical scaling of the flow velocity that accurately describes the numerical data. In rapidly rotating turbulent convection, the fluid bulk is controlled by a triple force balance between Coriolis, inertia and buoyancy, while the remaining fraction of the dissipation can be attributed to the viscous friction in the Ekman layers. Beyond , the rotational constraint on the convective flow is gradually lost and the flow properties continuously vary to match the regime changes between rotation-dominated and non-rotating convection. We show that the quantity provides an accurate transition parameter to separate rotating and non-rotating convection.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the formation and evolution of streamwise vortices at a low Reynolds number of, providing insight into both the averaged and time-dependent flow patterns.

Abstract: Sinusoidal modifications to the leading edge of a foil, or tubercles, have been shown to improve aerodynamic performance under certain flow conditions. One of the mechanisms of performance enhancement is believed to be the generation of streamwise vortices, which improve the momentum exchange in the boundary layer. This experimental and numerical study investigates the formation and evolution of these streamwise vortices at a low Reynolds number of , providing insight into both the averaged and time-dependent flow patterns. Furthermore, the strength of the vortices is quantified through calculation of the vorticity and circulation, and it is found that the circulation increases in the downstream direction. There is strong agreement between the experimental and numerical observations, and this allows close examination of the flow structure. The results demonstrate that the presence of strong pressure gradients near the leading edge gives rise to a significant surface flux of vorticity in this region. As soon as this vorticity is created, it is stretched, tilted and diffused in a highly three-dimensional manner. These processes lead to the generation of a pair of streamwise vortices between the tubercle peaks. A horseshoe-shaped separation zone is shown to initiate behind a tubercle trough, and this region of separation is bounded by a canopy of boundary-layer vorticity. Along the sides of this shear layer canopy, a continued influx of boundary-layer vorticity occurs, resulting in an increase in circulation of the primary streamwise vortices in the downstream direction. Flow visualisation and particle image velocimetry studies support these observations and demonstrate that the flow characteristics vary with time, particularly near the trailing edge and at a higher angle of attack. Numerical evaluation of the lift and drag coefficients reveals that, for this particular flow regime, the performance of a foil with tubercles is slightly better than that of an unmodified foil.

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TL;DR: The vortex interactions in two-dimensional decaying isotropic turbulence are examined and it is found that the vortical-interaction network can be characterized by a weighted scale-free network.

Abstract: The present paper reports on our effort to characterize vortical interactions in complex fluid flows through the use of network analysis. In particular, we examine the vortex interactions in two-dimensional decaying isotropic turbulence and find that the vortical-interaction network can be characterized by a weighted scale-free network. It is found that the turbulent flow network retains its scale-free behaviour until the characteristic value of circulation reaches a critical value. Furthermore, we show that the two-dimensional turbulence network is resilient against random perturbations, but can be greatly influenced when forcing is focused towards the vortical structures, which are categorized as network hubs. These findings can serve as a network-analytic foundation to examine complex geophysical and thin-film flows and take advantage of the rapidly growing field of network theory, which complements ongoing turbulence research based on vortex dynamics, hydrodynamic stability, and statistics. While additional work is essential to extend the mathematical tools from network analysis to extract deeper physical insights of turbulence, an understanding of turbulence based on the interaction-based network-theoretic framework presents a promising alternative in turbulence modelling and control efforts.