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Showing papers in "Journal of Fluid Mechanics in 2018"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) has been studied in the context of the analysis of the Ginzburg-Landau equation and a turbulent jet.
Abstract: We consider the frequency domain form of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), called spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD). Spectral POD is derived from a space–time POD problem for statistically stationary flows and leads to modes that each oscillate at a single frequency. This form of POD goes back to the original work of Lumley (Stochastic Tools in Turbulence, Academic Press, 1970), but has been overshadowed by a space-only form of POD since the 1990s. We clarify the relationship between these two forms of POD and show that SPOD modes represent structures that evolve coherently in space and time, while space-only POD modes in general do not. We also establish a relationship between SPOD and dynamic mode decomposition (DMD); we show that SPOD modes are in fact optimally averaged DMD modes obtained from an ensemble DMD problem for stationary flows. Accordingly, SPOD modes represent structures that are dynamic in the same sense as DMD modes but also optimally account for the statistical variability of turbulent flows. Finally, we establish a connection between SPOD and resolvent analysis. The key observation is that the resolvent-mode expansion coefficients must be regarded as statistical quantities to ensure convergent approximations of the flow statistics. When the expansion coefficients are uncorrelated, we show that SPOD and resolvent modes are identical. Our theoretical results and the overall utility of SPOD are demonstrated using two example problems: the complex Ginzburg–Landau equation and a turbulent jet.

756 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the rheology of concentrated suspensions of non-colloidal particles is studied in the presence of hydrodynamic interactions or lubrication forces between the particles and the fluid.
Abstract: Suspensions are composed of mixtures of particles and fluid and are omnipresent in natural phenomena and in industrial processes. The present paper addresses the rheology of concentrated suspensions of non-colloidal particles. While hydrodynamic interactions or lubrication forces between the particles are important in the dilute regime, they become of lesser significance when the concentration is increased, and direct particle contacts become dominant in the rheological response of concentrated suspensions, particularly those close to the maximum volume fraction where the suspension ceases to flow. The rheology of these dense suspensions can be approached via a diversity of approaches that the paper introduces successively. The mixture of particles and fluid can be seen as a fluid with effective rheological properties but also as a two-phase system wherein the fluid and particles can experience relative motion. Rheometry can be undertaken at an imposed volume fraction but also at imposed values of particle normal stress, which is particularly suited to yield examination of the rheology close to the jamming transition. The response of suspensions to unsteady or transient flows provides access to different features of the suspension rheology. Finally, beyond the problem of suspension of rigid, non-colloidal spheres in a Newtonian fluid, there are a great variety of complex mixtures of particles and fluid that remain relatively unexplored.

311 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the structure of turbulence in jets in the subsonic, transonic and supersonic regimes was examined by large-eddy simulation (LES) data and resolvent analysis of the mean flow.
Abstract: Informed by large-eddy simulation (LES) data and resolvent analysis of the mean flow, we examine the structure of turbulence in jets in the subsonic, transonic and supersonic regimes. Spectral (frequency-space) proper orthogonal decomposition is used to extract energy spectra and decompose the flow into energy-ranked coherent structures. The educed structures are generally well predicted by the resolvent analysis. Over a range of low frequencies and the first few azimuthal mode numbers, these jets exhibit a low-rank response characterized by Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) type wavepackets associated with the annular shear layer up to the end of the potential core and that are excited by forcing in the very-near-nozzle shear layer. These modes too have been experimentally observed before and predicted by quasi-parallel stability theory and other approximations – they comprise a considerable portion of the total turbulent energy. At still lower frequencies, particularly for the axisymmetric mode, and again at high frequencies for all azimuthal wavenumbers, the response is not low-rank, but consists of a family of similarly amplified modes. These modes, which are primarily active downstream of the potential core, are associated with the Orr mechanism. They occur also as subdominant modes in the range of frequencies dominated by the KH response. Our global analysis helps tie together previous observations based on local spatial stability theory, and explains why quasi-parallel predictions were successful at some frequencies and azimuthal wavenumbers, but failed at others.

278 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The sparse identification of nonlinear dynamics (SINDy) is a recently proposed data-driven modeling framework that uses sparse regression techniques to identify nonlinear low-order models.
Abstract: The sparse identification of nonlinear dynamics (SINDy) is a recently proposed data-driven modelling framework that uses sparse regression techniques to identify nonlinear low-order models. With the goal of low-order models of a fluid flow, we combine this approach with dimensionality reduction techniques (e.g. proper orthogonal decomposition) and extend it to enforce physical constraints in the regression, e.g. energy-preserving quadratic nonlinearities. The resulting models, hereafter referred to as Galerkin regression models, incorporate many beneficial aspects of Galerkin projection, but without the need for a high-fidelity solver to project the Navier–Stokes equations. Instead, the most parsimonious nonlinear model is determined that is consistent with observed measurement data and satisfies necessary constraints. Galerkin regression models also readily generalize to include higher-order nonlinear terms that model the effect of truncated modes. The effectiveness of such an approach is demonstrated on two canonical flow configurations: the two-dimensional flow past a circular cylinder and the shear-driven cavity flow. For both cases, the accuracy of the identified models compare favourably against reduced-order models obtained from a standard Galerkin projection procedure. Finally, the entire code base for our constrained sparse Galerkin regression algorithm is freely available online.

245 citations


Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors reviewed the current knowledge about some particular kinds of coherent structures in the logarithmic and outer layers of wall-bounded turbulent flows and argued that a concerned effort is required to quantitatively identify which one (or ones) of the plausible available dynamical models is a better representation of the observed behaviour.
Abstract: The current knowledge about some particular kinds of coherent structures in the logarithmic and outer layers of wall-bounded turbulent flows is briefly reviewed. It is shown that a lot has been learned about their geometry, flow properties and temporal behaviour. It is also shown that, although the wall-attached structures carry the largest fraction of most flow properties, they are only extreme cases of smaller wall-detached eddies, and that the latter connect with the more classical behaviour of homogeneous turbulence away from walls. Nevertheless, it is argued that little is known about the dynamical origin of these structures, and that a concerned effort is required to quantitatively identify which one (or ones) of the plausible available dynamical models is a better representation of the observed behaviour.

231 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A grey-box modelling strategy is successfully applied to the transient and post-transient laminar cylinder wake, and compares favourably with a proper orthogonal decomposition model.
Abstract: We propose a general dynamic reduced-order modelling framework for typical experimental data: time-resolved sensor data and optional non-time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) snapshots. This framework can be decomposed into four building blocks. First, the sensor signals are lifted to a dynamic feature space without false neighbours. Second, we identify a sparse human-interpretable nonlinear dynamical system for the feature state based on the sparse identification of nonlinear dynamics (SINDy). Third, if PIV snapshots are available, a local linear mapping from the feature state to the velocity field is performed to reconstruct the full state of the system. Fourth, a generalized feature-based modal decomposition identifies coherent structures that are most dynamically correlated with the linear and nonlinear interaction terms in the sparse model, adding interpretability. Steps 1 and 2 define a black-box model. Optional steps 3 and 4 lift the black-box dynamics to a grey-box model in terms of the identified coherent structures, if non-time-resolved full-state data are available. This grey-box modelling strategy is successfully applied to the transient and post-transient laminar cylinder wake, and compares favourably with a proper orthogonal decomposition model. We foresee numerous applications of this highly flexible modelling strategy, including estimation, prediction and control. Moreover, the feature space may be based on intrinsic coordinates, which are unaffected by a key challenge of modal expansion: the slow change of low-dimensional coherent structures with changing geometry and varying parameters.

174 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, large-eddy simulations of an isothermal Mach 0.9 jet issued from a convergent-straight nozzle are performed at a diameter-based Reynolds number of 1 x 10^6.
Abstract: To investigate the effects of the nozzle-exit conditions on jet flow and sound fields, large-eddy simulations of an isothermal Mach 0.9 jet issued from a convergent-straight nozzle are performed at a diameter-based Reynolds number of 1 x 10^6. The simulations feature near-wall adaptive mesh refinement, synthetic turbulence and wall modelling inside the nozzle. This leads to fully turbulent nozzle-exit boundary layers and results in significant improvements for the flow field and sound predictions compared with those obtained from the typical approach based on laminar flow in the nozzle. The far-field pressure spectra for the turbulent jet match companion experimental measurements, which use a boundary-layer trip to ensure a turbulent nozzle-exit boundary layer to within 0.5 dB for all relevant angles and frequencies. By contrast, the initially laminar jet results in greater high-frequency noise. For both initially laminar and turbulent jets, decomposition of the radiated noise into azimuthal Fourier modes is performed, and the results show similar azimuthal characteristics for the two jets. The axisymmetric mode is the dominant source of sound at the peak radiation angles and frequencies. The first three azimuthal modes recover more than 97 % of the total acoustic energy at these angles and more than 65 % (i.e. error less than 2 dB) for all angles. For the main azimuthal modes, linear stability analysis of the near-nozzle mean-velocity profiles is conducted in both jets. The analysis suggests that the differences in radiated noise between the initially laminar and turbulent jets are related to the differences in growth rate of the Kelvin–Helmholtz mode in the near-nozzle region.

162 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that most commonly used two-equation turbulence closure models are unconditionally, rather than conditionally, unstable in regions of nearly potential flow with finite strain, resulting in exponential growth of the turbulent kinetic energy and eddy viscosity.
Abstract: In previous computational fluid dynamics studies of breaking waves, there has been a marked tendency to severely over-estimate turbulence levels, both pre- and post-breaking. This problem is most likely related to the previously described (though not sufficiently well recognized) conditional instability of widely used turbulence models when used to close Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations in regions of nearly potential flow with finite strain, resulting in exponential growth of the turbulent kinetic energy and eddy viscosity. While this problem has been known for nearly 20 years, a suitable and fundamentally sound solution has yet to be developed. In this work it is demonstrated that virtually all commonly used two-equation turbulence closure models are unconditionally, rather than conditionally, unstable in such regions. A new formulation of the is the dissipation.)

143 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors view a yawed turbine as a lifting surface with an elliptic distribution of transverse lift and use it as initial conditions in a wake model of the downstream evolution of the turbulent wake flow and compare predicted wake deflection with measurements from wind tunnel experiments.
Abstract: Yawing wind turbines has emerged as an appealing method for wake deflection. However, the associated flow properties, including the magnitude of the transverse velocity associated with yawed turbines, are not fully understood. In this paper, we view a yawed turbine as a lifting surface with an elliptic distribution of transverse lift. Prandtl’s lifting line theory provides predictions for the transverse velocity and magnitude of the shed counter-rotating vortex pair known to form downstream of the yawed turbine. The streamwise velocity deficit behind the turbine can then be obtained using classical momentum theory. This new model for the near-disk inviscid region of the flow is compared to numerical simulations and found to yield more accurate predictions of the initial transverse velocity and wake skewness angle than existing models. We use these predictions as initial conditions in a wake model of the downstream evolution of the turbulent wake flow and compare predicted wake deflection with measurements from wind tunnel experiments.

125 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of flow interaction with porous media, in particular in the context of the manipulation of flow over blunt trailing edges and attenuation of vortex shedding, were investigated.
Abstract: This paper is concerned with the application of porous treatments as a means of flow and aerodynamic noise reduction. An extensive experimental investigation is undertaken to study the effects of flow interaction with porous media, in particular in the context of the manipulation of flow over blunt trailing edges and attenuation of vortex shedding. Comprehensive boundary layer and wake measurements have been carried out for a long flat plate with solid and porous blunt trailing edges. Unsteady velocity and surface pressure measurements have also been performed to gain an in-depth understanding of the changes to the energy–frequency content and coherence of the boundary layer and wake structures as a result of the flow interaction with a porous treatment. Results have shown that permeable treatments can effectively delay the vortex shedding and stabilize the flow over the blunt edge via mechanisms involving flow penetration into the porous medium and discharge into the near-wake region. It has also been shown that the porous treatment can effectively destroy the spanwise coherence of the boundary layer structures and suppress the velocity and pressure coherence, particularly at the vortex shedding frequency. The flow–porous scrubbing and its effects on the near-wall and large coherent structures have also been studied. The emergence of a quasi-periodic recirculating flow field inside highly permeable surface treatments has also been investigated. Finally, the paper has identified several important mechanisms concerning the application of porous treatments for aerodynamic and aeroacoustic purposes, which can help more effective and tailored designs for specific applications.

115 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a single collapsing bubble was used as a new way of ice breaking, where the bubble was generated by underwater electric discharge and collapsed at various distances under ice plates with different thicknesses.
Abstract: This work focuses on using the power of a collapsing bubble in ice breaking. We experimentally validated the possibility and investigated the mechanism of ice breaking with a single collapsing bubble, where the bubble was generated by underwater electric discharge and collapsed at various distances under ice plates with different thicknesses. Characteristics of the ice fracturing, bubble jets and shock waves emitted during the collapse of the bubble were captured. The pattern of the ice fracturing is related to the ice thickness and the bubble–ice distance. Fractures develop from the top of the ice plate, i.e. the ice–air interface, and this is attributed to the tension caused by the reflection of the shock waves at the interface. Such fracturing is lessened when the thickness of the ice plate or the bubble–ice distance increases. Fractures may also form from the bottom of the ice plate upon the shock wave incidence when the bubble–ice distance is sufficiently small. The ice plate motion and its effect on the bubble behaviour were analysed. The ice plate motion results in higher jet speed and greater elongation of the bubble shape along the vertical direction. It also causes the bubble initiated close to the ice plate to split and emit multiple shock waves at the end of the collapse. The findings suggest that collapsing bubbles can be used as a brand new way of ice breaking.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a combed-saw-tooth serration was used to mitigate turbulent boundary-layer trailing-edge noise in wind-turbine blades, and it was found that the presence of combs significantly reduced the intensity of scattered noise but not the frequency range of noise reduction.
Abstract: Trailing-edge serrations are add ons retrofitted to wind-turbine blades to mitigate turbulent boundary-layer trailing-edge noise. This manuscript studies the physical mechanisms behind the noise reduction by investigating the far-field noise and the hydrodynamic flow field. A conventional sawtooth and a combed-sawtooth trailing-edge serration are studied. Combed-sawtooth serrations are obtained by filling the empty space between the teeth with combs (i.e. solid filaments). Both serration geometries are retrofitted to a NACA 0018 aerofoil at zero degree angle of attack. Computations are carried out by solving the explicit, transient, compressible lattice Boltzmann equation, while the acoustic far field is obtained by means of the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings analogy. The numerical results are validated against experiments. It is confirmed that the combed-sawtooth serrations reduce noise more than the conventional sawtooth ones for the low- and mid-frequency range. It is found that the presence of combs affects the intensity of the scattered noise but not the frequency range of noise reduction. For both configurations, the intensity of the surface pressure fluctuations decreases from the root to the tip, and noise sources are mainly located at the serrations root for the low- and mid-frequency range. The presence of the filaments generates a more uniform distribution of the noise sources along the edges with respect to the conventional serration. The installation of combs mitigates the interaction between the two sides of the aerofoil at the trailing edge and the generation of a turbulent wake in the empty space between teeth. As a result, the inward (i.e. from the serration edge to the centreline) and outward (i.e. from the serration centreline to the edge) flow motions, due to the presence of the teeth, are mitigated. It is found that the installation of serrations affects the surface pressure fluctuations integral parameters. Both the spanwise correlation length and convective velocity of the surface pressure fluctuations increase with respect to the baseline straight configuration. When both quantities are similar to the one obtained for the straight trailing edge, the effect of the slanted edge is negligible, thus corresponding to no noise reduction. It is concluded that the changes in sound radiation are mainly caused by destructive interference of the radiated sound waves for which a larger spanwise correlation length is beneficial. Finally, the difference between measurements and the literature is caused by an incorrect modelling of the spanwise correlation length, which shows a different decay rate with respect to the one obtained for a straight trailing edge.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Thakkar et al. as mentioned in this paper presented a direct numerical solution of turbulent boundary layer flow over an industrial grit blasted surface at relevant roughness Reynolds numbers, from hydraulically smooth to fully rough regimes, to parametrically study a wide range of surface roughness.
Abstract: Thakkar et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 837, 2018, R1) represents a significant advancement in the ability to computationally model rough wall flows. Direct numerical solution (DNS) of turbulent boundary layer flow over an industrial grit blasted surface at relevant roughness Reynolds numbers, from hydraulically smooth to fully rough regimes, is a path forward to parametrically study a wide range of surface roughness. The methodology described in this paper, coupled with validation experiments, ultimately should lead to improved frictional drag predictions.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that the upstream-travelling waves in two jets screeching in the A1 and A2 modes are not free-stream acoustic waves, but rather waves with support within the jet.
Abstract: Experimental evidence is provided to demonstrate that the upstream-travelling waves in two jets screeching in the A1 and A2 modes are not free-stream acoustic waves, but rather waves with support within the jet. Proper orthogonal decomposition is used to educe the coherent fluctuations associated with jet screech from a set of randomly sampled velocity fields. A streamwise Fourier transform is then used to isolate components with positive and negative phase speeds. The component with negative phase speed is shown, by comparison with a vortex-sheet model, to resemble the upstream-travelling jet wave first studied by Tam & Hu (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 201, 1989, pp. 447–483). It is further demonstrated that screech tones are only observed over the frequency range where this upstream-travelling wave is propagative.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined four different, mechanically durable, large-scale superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) and found that significant drag reduction was observed on some of the surfaces, dependent on their exact morphology.
Abstract: A significant amount of the fuel consumed by marine vehicles is expended to overcome skin-friction drag resulting from turbulent boundary layer flows. Hence, a substantial reduction in this frictional drag would notably reduce cost and environmental impact. Superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs), which entrap a layer of air underwater, have shown promise in reducing drag in small-scale applications and/or in laminar flow conditions. Recently, the efficacy of these surfaces in reducing drag resulting from turbulent flows has been shown. In this work we examine four different, mechanically durable, large-scale SHSs. When evaluated in fully developed turbulent flow, in the height-based Reynolds number range of 10 000 to 30 000, significant drag reduction was observed on some of the surfaces, dependent on their exact morphology. We then discuss how neither the roughness of the SHSs, nor the conventional contact angle goniometry method of evaluating the non-wettability of SHSs at ambient pressure, can predict their drag reduction under turbulent flow conditions. Instead, we propose a new characterization parameter, based on the contact angle hysteresis at higher pressure, which aids in the rational design of randomly rough, friction-reducing SHSs. Overall, we find that both the contact angle hysteresis at higher pressure, and the non-dimensionalized surface roughness, must be minimized to achieve meaningful turbulent drag reduction. Further, we show that even SHSs that are considered hydrodynamically smooth can cause significant drag increase if these two parameters are not sufficiently minimized.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a dynamical system approach is used to devise a linear estimation tool for channel flow at a friction Reynolds number of. The estimator uses time-resolved velocity measurements at a single wall normal location to estimate the velocity field at other wall-normal locations (the data coming from direct numerical simulations).
Abstract: A dynamical systems approach is used to devise a linear estimation tool for channel flow at a friction Reynolds number of . The estimator uses time-resolved velocity measurements at a single wall-normal location to estimate the velocity field at other wall-normal locations (the data coming from direct numerical simulations). The estimation tool builds on the work of McKeon & Sharma (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 658, 2010, pp. 336–382) by using a Navier–Stokes-based linear model and treating any nonlinear terms as unknown forcings to an otherwise linear system. In this way nonlinearities are not ignored, but instead treated as an unknown model input. It is shown that, while the linear estimator qualitatively reproduces large-scale flow features, it tends to overpredict the amplitude of velocity fluctuations – particularly for structures that are long in the streamwise direction and thin in the spanwise direction. An alternative linear model is therefore formed in which a simple eddy viscosity is used to model the influence of the small-scale turbulent fluctuations on the large scales of interest. This modification improves the estimator performance significantly. Importantly, as well as improving the performance of the estimator, the linear model with eddy viscosity is also able to predict with reasonable accuracy the range of wavenumber pairs and the range of wall-normal heights over which the estimator will perform well.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used the nano-scale thermal anemometry probe (NSTAP), developed at Princeton University to conduct velocity measurements in the high Reynolds number boundary layer facility at the University of Melbourne.
Abstract: Fully resolved measurements of turbulent boundary layers are reported for the Reynolds number range . Despite several decades of research in wall-bounded turbulence there is still controversy over the behaviour of streamwise turbulence intensities near the wall, especially at high Reynolds numbers. Much of it stems from the uncertainty in measurement due to finite spatial resolution. Conventional hot-wire anemometry is limited for high Reynolds number measurements due to limited spatial resolution issues that cause attenuation in the streamwise turbulence intensity profile near the wall. To address this issue we use the nano-scale thermal anemometry probe (NSTAP), developed at Princeton University to conduct velocity measurements in the high Reynolds number boundary layer facility at the University of Melbourne. The NSTAP has a sensing length almost one order of magnitude smaller than conventional hot-wires. This enables us to acquire fully resolved velocity measurements of turbulent boundary layers up to . Results show that in the near-wall region, the viscous-scaled streamwise turbulence intensity grows with in the Reynolds number range of the experiments. A second outer peak in the streamwise turbulence intensity is also shown to emerge at the highest Reynolds numbers. Moreover, the energy spectra in the near-wall region show excellent inner scaling over the small to moderate wavelength range, followed by a large-scale influence that increases with Reynolds number. Outer scaling in the outer region is found to collapse the energy spectra over high wavelengths across various Reynolds numbers.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors studied the kinetic energy transfer in compressible isotropic turbulence at turbulent Mach numbers ranging from 0.4 to 1.0 and at a Taylor Reynolds number of approximately 250.
Abstract: Kinetic energy transfer in compressible isotropic turbulence is studied using numerical simulations with solenoidal forcing at turbulent Mach numbers ranging from 0.4 to 1.0 and at a Taylor Reynolds number of approximately 250. The pressure dilatation plays an important role in the local conversion between kinetic energy and internal energy, but its net contribution to the average kinetic energy transfer is negligibly small, due to the cancellation between compression and expansion work. The right tail of probability density function (PDF) of the subgrid-scale (SGS) flux of kinetic energy is found to be longer at higher turbulent Mach numbers. With an increase of the turbulent Mach number, compression motions enhance the positive SGS flux, and expansion motions enhance the negative SGS flux. Average of SGS flux conditioned on the filtered velocity divergence is studied by numerical analysis and a heuristic model. The conditional average of SGS flux is shown to be proportional to the square of filtered velocity divergence in strong compression regions for turbulent Mach numbers from 0.6 to 1.0. Moreover, the antiparallel alignment between the large-scale strain and the SGS stress is observed in strong compression regions. The inter-scale transfer of solenoidal and compressible components of kinetic energy is investigated by Helmholtz decomposition. The SGS flux of solenoidal kinetic energy is insensitive to the change of turbulent Mach number, while the SGS flux of compressible kinetic energy increases drastically as the turbulent Mach number becomes larger. The compressible mode persistently absorbs energy from the solenoidal mode through nonlinear advection. The kinetic energy of the compressible mode is transferred from large scales to small scales through the compressible SGS flux, and is dissipated by viscosity at small scales.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors demonstrate the logarithmic region of the turbulence intensity by identifying wall-attached structures of the velocity fluctuations ( structures) and suggest that these structures are prime candidates for Townsend's attached-eddy hypothesis and that they can serve as cornerstones for understanding the multiscale phenomena of high-Reynolds-number boundary layers.
Abstract: Wall turbulence is a ubiquitous phenomenon in nature and engineering applications, yet predicting such turbulence is difficult due to its complexity. High-Reynolds-number turbulence arises in most practical flows, and is particularly complicated because of its wide range of scales. Although the attached-eddy hypothesis postulated by Townsend can be used to predict turbulence intensities and serves as a unified theory for the asymptotic behaviours of turbulence, the presence of coherent structures that contribute to the logarithmic behaviours has not been observed in instantaneous flow fields. Here, we demonstrate the logarithmic region of the turbulence intensity by identifying wall-attached structures of the velocity fluctuations ( structures. These findings suggest that the identified structures are prime candidates for Townsend’s attached-eddy hypothesis and that they can serve as cornerstones for understanding the multiscale phenomena of high-Reynolds-number boundary layers.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a generalized bubble cap drainage model was proposed to account for both curvature-pressure-induced drainage and Marangoni flows induced by the coupling between the bubble and its surrounding air.
Abstract: Upon burst, surface bubbles transfer biological and chemical material from water bodies to the air we breathe via the production of droplets. An understanding of what shapes the size and payload of such droplets starts by understanding the fundamental physics of bubble birth, drainage and burst. Our combined experimental and theoretical investigation focuses on film-drop-producing surface bubbles. Controlling fluid properties such as temperature, salinity and volatility, coupled with changes of ambient air saturation, we elucidate the ageing and lifetime of bubbles. We derive and validate a generalized bubble cap drainage model accounting for both curvature-pressure-induced drainage and Marangoni flows induced by the coupling between the bubble and its surrounding air. We show that this deterministic drainage is coupled with stochastic local perturbations, both intrinsic and extrinsic, from impacts by mist droplets to microbubbles. We derive the conditions for such perturbations to be lethal to the cap film, involving the competition of mixing and drainage time scales on the bubble, the film thickness, the size of the perturbation and the local Marangoni stresses introduced. We explain how the mixing dynamics on the cap ensures that bursts mostly occur at the foot of bubbles rather than on their cap. Our study sheds light on the coupling between the deterministic cap thinning and the stochastic events leading to bubble death. We conclude that ubiquitous water contaminants enable the birth of a bubble, sustain it through its ageing, but ultimately also kill it.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors study the tonal dynamics that occur when an isothermal turbulent jet grazes a sharp edge, and show that the strongest tones are due to coupling between Kelvin-Helmholtz wavepackets and a family of trapped, upstream-travelling acoustic modes in the potential core.
Abstract: Motivated by the problem of jet–flap interaction noise, we study the tonal dynamics that occurs when an isothermal turbulent jet grazes a sharp edge. We perform hydrodynamic and acoustic pressure measurements to characterise the tones as a function of Mach number and streamwise edge position. The observed distribution of spectral peaks cannot be explained using the usual edge-tone model, in which resonance is underpinned by coupling between downstream-travelling Kelvin–Helmholtz wavepackets and upstream-travelling sound waves. We show, rather, that the strongest tones are due to coupling between Kelvin–Helmholtz wavepackets and a family of trapped, upstream-travelling acoustic modes in the potential core, recently studied by Towne et al. (J. Fluid Mech. vol. 825, 2017) and Schmidt et al. (J. Fluid Mech. vol. 825, 2017). We also study the band-limited nature of the resonance, showing the high-frequency cutoff to be due to the frequency dependence of the upstream-travelling waves. Specifically, at high Mach number, these modes become evanescent above a certain frequency, whereas at low Mach number they become progressively trapped with increasing frequency, which inhibits their reflection in the nozzle plane.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors study turbulent flows in pressure-driven ducts with square cross-section through direct numerical simulation in a wide enough range of Reynolds number to reach flow conditions which are representative of fully developed turbulence.
Abstract: We study turbulent flows in pressure-driven ducts with square cross-section through direct numerical simulation in a wide enough range of Reynolds number to reach flow conditions which are representative of fully developed turbulence ( ). Numerical simulations are carried out over very long integration times to get adequate convergence of the flow statistics, and specifically to achieve high-fidelity representation of the secondary motions which arise. The intensity of the latter is found to be on the order of 1 %–2 % of the bulk velocity, and approximately unaffected by Reynolds number variation, at least in the range under scrutiny. The smallness of the mean convection terms in the streamwise vorticity equation points to a simple characterization of the secondary flows, which in the asymptotic high- regime are approximated with good accuracy by eigenfunctions of the Laplace operator, in the core part of the duct. Despite their effect of redistributing the wall shear stress along the duct perimeter, we find that secondary motions do not have a large influence on the bulk flow properties, and the streamwise velocity field can be characterized with good accuracy as resulting from the superposition of four flat walls in isolation. As a consequence, we find that parametrizations based on the hydraulic diameter concept, and modifications thereof, are successful in predicting the duct friction coefficient.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a new vector quantity called the vortex vector is defined to describe the local fluid rotation and it is the rotational part of the vorticity, which can fully describe the complex vertical structures of turbulence.
Abstract: Although the vortex is ubiquitous in nature, its definition is somewhat ambiguous in the field of fluid dynamics. In this absence of a rigorous mathematical definition, considerable confusion appears to exist in visualizing and understanding the coherent vortical structures in turbulence. Cited in the previous studies, a vortex cannot be fully described by vorticity, and vorticity should be further decomposed into a rotational and a non-rotational part to represent the rotation and the shear, respectively. In this paper, we introduce several new concepts, including local fluid rotation at a point and the direction of the local fluid rotation axis. The direction and the strength of local fluid rotation are examined by investigating the kinematics of the fluid element in two- and three-dimensional flows. A new vector quantity, which is called the vortex vector in this paper, is defined to describe the local fluid rotation and it is the rotational part of the vorticity. This can be understood as that the direction of the vortex vector is equivalent to the direction of the local fluid rotation axis, and the magnitude of vortex vector is the strength of the location fluid rotation. With these new revelations, a vortex is defined as a connected region where the vortex vector is not zero. In addition, through direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES) examples, it is demonstrated that the newly defined vortex vector can fully describe the complex vertical structures of turbulence.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the aerobreakup of a spherical water droplet in the flow behind a normal shock wave is simulated using the compressible multicomponent Euler equations in a finite-volume scheme with shock and interface capturing.
Abstract: We present a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the aerobreakup of a spherical water droplet in the flow behind a normal shock wave. The droplet and surrounding gas flow are simulated using the compressible multicomponent Euler equations in a finite-volume scheme with shock and interface capturing. The aerobreakup process is compared with available experimental visualizations. Features of the droplet deformation and breakup in the stripping breakup regime, as well as descriptions of the surrounding gas flow, are discussed. Analyses of observed surface instabilities and a Fourier decomposition of the flow field reveal asymmetrical azimuthal modulations and broadband instability growth that result in chaotic flow within the wake region.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used axisymmetric compressible volume-of-fluid solver from the OpenFOAM framework to solve the flow in the boundary layer and discussed the resulting wall shear stress generated for a non-dimensional distance.
Abstract: The collapse of a cavitation bubble near a rigid boundary induces a high-speed transient jet accelerating liquid onto the boundary. The shear flow produced by this event has many applications, examples of which are surface cleaning, cell membrane poration and enhanced cooling. Yet the magnitude and spatio-temporal distribution of the wall shear stress are not well understood, neither experimentally nor by simulations. Here we solve the flow in the boundary layer using an axisymmetric compressible volume-of-fluid solver from the OpenFOAM framework and discuss the resulting wall shear stress generated for a non-dimensional distance,γ = 1.0 (γ = h/Rmax, where h is the distance of the initial bubble centre to the boundary, and Rmax is the maximum spherical equivalent radius of the bubble). The calculation of the wall shear stress is found to be reliable once the flow region with constant shear rate in the boundary layer is determined. Very high wall shear stresses of 100 kPa are found during the early spreading of the jet, followed by complex flows composed of annular stagnation rings and secondary vortices. Although the simulated bubble dynamics agrees very well with experiments, we obtain only qualitative agreement with experiments due to inherent experimental challenges.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors carried out numerical investigations of turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection over rough conducting plates and found that roughness does not always mean a heat-transfer enhancement, but in some cases it can also reduce the overall heat transport through the system.
Abstract: Rough surfaces have been widely used as an efficient way to enhance the heat-transfer efficiency in turbulent thermal convection. In this paper, however, we show that roughness does not always mean a heat-transfer enhancement, but in some cases it can also reduce the overall heat transport through the system. To reveal this, we carry out numerical investigations of turbulent Rayleigh–Benard convection over rough conducting plates. Our study includes two-dimensional (2D) simulations over the Rayleigh number range and three-dimensional (3D) simulations at . The Prandtl number is fixed to for both the 2D and the 3D cases. At a fixed Rayleigh number , reduction of the Nusselt number is observed for small roughness height , whereas heat-transport enhancement occurs for large . The crossover between the two regimes yields a critical roughness height , which is found to decrease with increasing as . Through dimensional analysis, we provide a physical explanation for this dependence. The physical reason for the reduction is that the hot/cold fluid is trapped and accumulated inside the cavity regions between the rough elements, leading to a much thicker thermal boundary layer and thus impeding the overall heat flux through the system.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors analyse unsteady cavity dynamics, cavitation patterns and instability mechanisms governing partial cavitation in the flow past a sharp convergent-divergent wedge.
Abstract: We analyse unsteady cavity dynamics, cavitation patterns and instability mechanisms governing partial cavitation in the flow past a sharp convergent–divergent wedge. Reproducing a recent reference experiment by numerical simulation, the investigated flow regime is characterised by large-scale cloud cavitation. In agreement with the experiments, we find that cloud shedding is dominated by the periodic occurrence of condensation shocks, propagating through the two-phase medium. The physical model is based on the homogeneous mixture approach, the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium, and a closed-form barotropic equation of state. Compressibility of water and water vapour is taken into account. We deliberately suppress effects of molecular viscosity, in order to demonstrate that inertial effects dominate the flow evolution. We qualify the flow predictions, and validate the numerical approach by comparison with experiments. In agreement with the experiments, the vapour volume fraction within the partial cavity reaches values for its spanwise average. Very good agreement is further obtained for the shedding Strouhal number, the cavity growth and collapse velocities, and for typical coherent flow structures. In accordance with the experiments, the simulations reproduce a condensation shock forming at the trailing part of the partial cavity. It is demonstrated that it satisfies locally Rankine–Hugoniot jump relations. Estimation of the shock propagation Mach number shows that the flow is supersonic. With a magnitude of only a few kPa, the pressure rise across the shock is much lower than for typical cavity collapse events. It is thus far too weak to cause cavitation erosion directly. However, by affecting the dynamics of the cavity, the flow aggressiveness can be significantly altered. Our results indicate that, in addition to classically observed re-entrant jets, condensation shocks feed an intrinsic instability mechanism of partial cavitation.

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TL;DR: In this article, a micro-continuum approach is proposed to simulate the dissolution of solid minerals at the pore scale in the presence of multiple fluid phases, using an extended Darcy-Brinkman-Stokes formulation that accounts for the interfacial tension between the two immiscible fluid phases and the moving contact line at the mineral surface.
Abstract: A micro-continuum approach is proposed to simulate the dissolution of solid minerals at the pore scale in the presence of multiple fluid phases. The approach employs an extended Darcy–Brinkman–Stokes formulation that accounts for the interfacial tension between the two immiscible fluid phases and the moving contact line at the mineral surface. The simulation framework is validated using an experimental microfluidic device that provides time-lapse images of the dissolution dynamics. The set-up involves a single-calcite crystal and the subsequent generation of bubbles during the injection of acid in a carbonate formation may limit the overall dissolution rate and prevent the emergence of wormholes.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a random forcing approach was implemented into a high-order accurate finite-difference code in order to investigate the natural laminar-turbulent transition in hypersonic boundary layers.
Abstract: A random forcing approach was implemented into a high-order accurate finite-difference code in order to investigate ‘natural’ laminar–turbulent transition in hypersonic boundary layers. In hypersonic transition wind-tunnel experiments, transition is caused ‘naturally’, by free-stream disturbances even when so-called quiet tunnels are employed such as the Boeing/AFOSR Mach 6 Quiet Tunnel (BAM6QT) at Purdue University. The nature and composition of the free-stream disturbance environment in high-speed transition experiments is difficult to assess and therefore largely unknown. Consequently, in the direct numerical simulations (DNS) presented here, the free-stream disturbance environment is simply modelled by random pressure (acoustic) disturbances with a broad spectrum of frequencies and a wide range of azimuthal wavenumbers. Results of a high-resolution DNS for a flared cone at Mach 6, using the random forcing approach, are presented and compared to a fundamental breakdown simulation using a ‘controlled’ disturbance input (with a specified frequency and azimuthal wavenumber). The DNS results with random forcing clearly exhibit the ‘primary’ and ‘secondary’ streak pattern, which has previously been observed in our ‘controlled’ breakdown simulations and the experiments in the BAM6QT. In particular, the spanwise spacing of the ‘primary’ streaks for the random forcing case is identical to the spacing obtained from the ‘controlled’ fundamental breakdown simulation. A comparison of the wall pressure disturbance signals between the random forcing DNS and experimental data shows remarkable agreement. The random forcing approach seems to be a promising strategy to investigate nonlinear breakdown in hypersonic boundary layers without introducing any bias towards a distinct nonlinear breakdown mechanism and/or the selection of specific frequencies or wavenumbers that is required in the ‘controlled’ breakdown simulations.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a perturbation approach for the flow rate-pressure drop relation in a shallow deformable microchannel using the theory of isotropic quasi-static plate bending and the Stokes equations under a lubrication approximation was presented.
Abstract: Laminar flow in devices fabricated from soft materials causes deformation of the passage geometry, which affects the flow rate–pressure drop relation. For a given pressure drop, in channels with narrow rectangular cross-section, the flow rate varies as the cube of the channel height, so deformation can produce significant quantitative effects, including nonlinear dependence on the pressure drop (Gervais et al., Lab on a Chip, vol. 6, 2006, pp. 500–507). Gervais et al. proposed a successful model of the deformation-induced change in the flow rate by heuristically coupling a Hookean elastic response with the lubrication approximation for Stokes flow. However, their model contains a fitting parameter that must be found for each channel shape by performing an experiment. We present a perturbation approach for the flow rate–pressure drop relation in a shallow deformable microchannel using the theory of isotropic quasi-static plate bending and the Stokes equations under a lubrication approximation (specifically, the ratio of the channel’s height to its width and of the channel’s height to its length are both assumed small). Our result contains no free parameters and confirms Gervais et al.’s observation that the flow rate is a quartic polynomial of the pressure drop. The derived flow rate–pressure drop relation compares favourably with experimental measurements.