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Showing papers in "Journal of Genocide Research in 2013"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Barriers to Peace in Civil War David E. Cunningham Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011 296 pp., US $114.95 (hbk) In conflict studies, quantitative analyses of civil war have grown in popula...
Abstract: Barriers to Peace in Civil War David E. Cunningham Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011 296 pp., US $114.95 (hbk) In conflict studies, quantitative analyses of civil war have grown in popula...

59 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Preston as mentioned in this paper has written a text that is masterly and authoritative in scope, seeking to place the extermination of the Spanish during this period in analysis of genocide, and he quite evenly, detailed the crimes against humanity of both the left and right as well as the subsequent concealment of the same.
Abstract: Paul Preston is a renowned historian, and is considered one of the world’s leading experts on 20th-century Spanish history. His book on the genocidal actions taken against Spanish civilians between 1936 and 1945 is an important resource that has changed historiography on the period. From the perceived failures of the elected government to the rise of Francisco Franco and his subsequent authoritative takeover of Spain (that lasted 41 years), his book covers these events in painstaking detail. The ensuing, bloody civil war led to the death of hundreds of thousands, and the author carefully detailed every aspect of how the murders enfolded. Repression occurred on both sides, and Preston carefully laid out the origins of extermination in Spain, from the legacy of the Africanistas, to emerging genocidal rhetoric to finally murder on a massive scale. He has written a text that is masterly and authoritative in scope, seeking to place the extermination of the Spanish during this period in analysis of genocide. He quite evenly, detailed the crimes against humanity of both the left and the right as well as the subsequent concealment of the same. The radical rightists, the army, and even citizen mobs carried out mass acts of genocide against civilians who had been categorized, dehumanized, and purposely targeted for death. Preston, who in March 2012 speaking at the Embassy of Spain in London, argued that the Francoists, like Francisco Franco and other military – and civilian – conspirators killed more Spanish than the Nazis killed Germans.(1) Preston begins the text with a prologue that defends his use of the word holocaust in the title of the book, a decision, and his intent with selecting the word, will be discussed later in this review.

55 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The efforts of Romania’s political elite to extricate itself from the Nazi alliance are as ugly and sordid as its original enthusiasm for it, not least as a route to a mass vomiting-out of all its ethnically non-Romanian citizens.
Abstract: Kill anything that moves: the real American war in Vietnam Nick Turse New York: Metropolitan Books, 2013 370 pp., $30 (hbk) In March 1968, briefing the infantrymen of Charlie Company on their next ...

44 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a review article scrutinizes recent research into, and disputes about, continuities from European colonialism and imperialism in the nineteenth century to the Holocaust and to the Nazi conquest in Eastern Europe.
Abstract: This review article scrutinizes recent research into, and disputes about, continuities from European colonialism and imperialism in the nineteenth century to the Holocaust and to the Nazi conquest in Eastern Europe. Five different versions of this colonial paradigm of Holocaust and Nazi history are considered: Jurgen Zimmerer's argument about a particular German continuity from the pre-WWI genocide in Africa to the Nazi genocide; the notion of a European archive of colonial knowledge used by the Nazis to legitimize or obfuscate their own programmes of subjugation and annihilation; the focusing on settler colonialism as a crucial model of Nazi expansion; the idea of specific East European colonial continuities from the Middle Ages to the Third Reich; and Dirk Moses's suggestion to analyze the Holocaust as ‘subaltern genocide’. Eventually, the review leads to an ambivalent assessment of the explanatory potential of the colonial paradigm.

43 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present two models (and further robustness tests) to assess the risk of genocide onset one year into the future, and identify a number of factors that correlate with genocide onset, adding to existing research.
Abstract: Can genocides be predicted? I present two models (and further robustness tests) to assess the risk of genocide onset one year into the future. The first model is global and includes all country-years for which data are available. While it does a good job at identifying the few cases of genocide onset in the sample, it also generates a high number of false alarms. The second model uses a smaller sample restricted to conflict-years. It correctly identifies nine of the ten cases of genocide onset and the number of false alarms is reduced, although the model needs further improvements before it can be put to practical use. While developing the models in an inductive, iterative way, I identify a number of factors that correlate with genocide onset, adding to existing research. These include direct threats to a government (riots, assassinations and, in one of the robustness tests, anti-government demonstrations) and economic discrimination against ethnic groups.

39 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The making of modern Turkey: nation and state in eastern Anatolia, 1913-1950 Ugur Umit Ungor Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011 303 pp., $45 (pbk) as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The making of modern Turkey: nation and state in eastern Anatolia, 1913–1950 Ugur Umit Ungor Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011 303 pp., $45 (pbk) Ugur Umit Ungor's groundbreaking study of Turke...

30 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Roland Burke1
TL;DR: The human rights revolution: an international history as discussed by the authors is a history of the human rights movement in the 20th century, with a focus on women's empowerment. But it does not consider the role of women.
Abstract: The human rights revolution: an international history Akira Iriye, Petra Goedde, and William I. Hitchcock (eds.) New York: Oxford University Press, 2012 353 pp., $27.95 (pbk) Human rights in the tw...

30 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors surveys the use of the term "genocide" before, during, and after the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1992 to 1995, arguing that an excessive focus on this term represents a misguided and counterproductive approach to the analysis of mass violence.
Abstract: This article surveys the use of the term ‘genocide’ before, during and after the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1992 to 1995. The article argues that although ‘genocide’ remains an important legal and analytical concept, an excessive focus on this term represents a misguided and counterproductive approach to the analysis of mass violence. Discussions revolving around a ‘genocide or not’ dichotomy do not further our understanding of the Bosnian war, and are in their essence more connected to desires for past and future international military interventions and to internal Bosnian political struggles than to a scholarly agenda. The ongoing obsession with the label of ‘genocide’ has distortive effects on international criminal justice, because anything less than a genocide conviction is counted as a ‘failure.’ Recent scholarly accusations that international legal findings of crimes other than genocide constitute ‘genocide denial’ are particularly troubling. In Bosnia, the disproportionate attention on gen...

28 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article argued that the systematic qualities of organised French violence in the form of massacres known as "razzias" have been underestimated and that the Algerian case merits study by functionalist and intentionalist scholars of genocide.
Abstract: While the French colony of Algeria was known to have been a violent place, historians have rarely compared the specificities and contours of its violent culture with those of other nineteenth-century settler colonies such as Australia and America. This review article asks why this has been the case and whether new definitions of genocide that have emerged from the study of other colonies might not be applied to Algeria. It contends that the systematic qualities of organised French violence—chiefly in the form of massacres known as ‘razzias’—have been underestimated and that the Algerian case merits study by functionalist and intentionalist scholars of genocide. While work still needs to be undertaken connecting French ‘exterminationist’ literatures to the practice of mass killing in the colony, a series of recent histories of Algeria have suggested that traditional literatures underestimated the scope and effects of French violence upon the indigenous peoples of Algeria.

26 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, Solonari describes population exchange and ethnic cleansing in Nazi-allied Romania in the 1940s and 1950s: population exchange, ethnic cleansing, and population exchange.
Abstract: Purifying the nation: population exchange and ethnic cleansing in Nazi-allied Romania Vladimir Solonari Washington, DC and Baltimore, MD: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press and The John Hopkins Univer...

22 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Forgotten Genocides: Oblivion, Denial, and Memory Rene Lemarchand (ed.) Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011 200 pp., US $49.95 (hbk) as mentioned in this paper
Abstract: Forgotten Genocides: Oblivion, Denial, and Memory Rene Lemarchand (ed.) Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011 200 pp., US $49.95 (hbk) Rene Lemarchand, Professor Emeritus of Poli...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article denies the actuality of straight links between American west and Nazi Germany's eastward expansion and argues that the Nazis did not use the settlement of western North America as a model for their occupation, colonization and extermination policies.
Abstract: Many scholars of German and Native American history and the field of genocide studies argue that during World War II the Nazis' genocidal attempt to turn vast portions of Eastern Europe into Lebensraum [living space] for Aryan settlers was connected to the near-extinction of America's Native Peoples during the ‘conquest’ of the American west by the United States. In their view, there exist direct historical continuities between settler colonialism and genocide in the American west and Eastern Europe between 1939 and 1945. This article denies the actuality of straight links between American west and Nazi Germany's eastward expansion and argues that the Nazis did not use the settlement of western North America as a model for their occupation, colonization and extermination policies. In addition, this study shows that at least on the ground in the Soviet Union, German soldiers were not under the impression that they were carrying out a colonialist land-grab exercise. As a result, this article also challenges...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Young Turks’ crime against humanity: the Armenian genocide and ethnic cleansing in the Ottoman Empire, appears in Princeton University Press’s prestigious Human Rights and Crimes against Humanity series, edited by Eric D. Weitz.
Abstract: Turkish-raised, German-trained and American-based, Taner Akcam is the Kaloosdian and Mugar Chair in Armenian Genocide Studies at Clark University. His first book on the Armenian question was publis...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The first humanitarian law of the UN, the Convention was singlehandedly pushed by the jurist Raphael Lemkin, who coined the word genocide in Axis rule in occupied Europe (1944) as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: On 9 December 1948, the United Nations adopted the Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. The first humanitarian law of the UN, the Convention was singlehandedly pushed by the jurist Raphael Lemkin, who coined the word genocide in Axis rule in occupied Europe (1944). Using Lemkin's unpublished writings, this essay seeks to correct several misunderstandings of Lemkin's thinking on genocide as the destruction of nations. Lemkin defined nations more broadly than simply a group of people inhabiting a particular state. Instead, Lemkin used the work of an art historian to define nations as ‘families of minds’, arguing that the idea of a nation exists within the minds of people. In doing so, Lemkin broke from the tradition that nations had an objective organic existence defined by language, blood and territory. He took on an understanding of nations that sided with the political thought of Mazzini, who offered the dictum: ‘the Patria is the consciousness of the Patria’. The Genoci...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Whether massacre was prevalent in the British colony of the Cape of Good Hope is investigated to ascertain whether massacre was indeed prevalent.
Abstract: During the first three decades of the British occupation of the Cape the government was committed to stopping the massacre of the San (the hunter–gatherer inhabitants of southern Africa). Under the rule of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) commandos had waged a genocidal war against the San on the colony's frontier. British policy, in contrast, was to protect and ‘civilize’ the San. By 1828, however, the Cape San were in a worse situation than they had ever been in. The superintendent of the London Missionary Society, Dr Philip, claimed this was because the British authorities at the Cape had presided over and permitted one of the bloodiest episodes in British history, the destruction of the San. This article seeks to evaluate Philip's accusations and to ascertain whether massacre was indeed prevalent in the British colony of the Cape of Good Hope.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examines Raphael Lemkin's campaign for the Genocide Convention in the context of other internationalist projects pursued at the UN in the postwar era, including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Nuremberg Judgment, concluding that Lemkin cannily sought to distance the Convention from those promoting the renewal of international law in a period defined more by realist skepticism about interwar approaches.
Abstract: This article examines Raphael Lemkin's campaign for the Genocide Convention in the context of other internationalist projects pursued at the UN in the postwar era. Lemkin's papers at the American Jewish Historical Society, as well as at the New York Public Library, testify to his concern that his ambition to establish genocide as a particularly criminal act would be disrupted either by advocates of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights or by international lawyers and civil servants working at the UN Legal Commission, prioritizing the concept of crimes against humanity and the Nuremberg Judgment. While his project to create an internationally recognized law to make genocide a crime was legalistic in its implicit faith in the power of lawmaking, Lemkin cannily sought to distance the Convention from those promoting the renewal of international law in a period defined more by realist skepticism about interwar approaches. Instead, he rooted genocide in a religiously inflected moral idiom that could distanc...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper explored whether the degree of agency, initiative and individual malleability in a dictatorship is visible from this vantage point, and investigated the kind of understanding of leadership and agency held by the subjects themselves, and the model of action they sought to embody.
Abstract: Using the example of several recent biographies of leading Nazis, the article explores whether biography enables us to understand involvement in racial violence and genocide. In particular, it questions whether the degree of agency, initiative and individual malleability in a dictatorship is visible from this vantage point. It also investigates the kind of understanding of leadership and agency held by the subjects themselves, and the model of action they sought to embody. Along the way it explores the methodological issues confronting any attempt to penetrate the minds of such figures. It argues that biography offers valuable glimpses, but the nature of the sources and the difficulty of interpreting speech acts before, during and after the Nazi period make it extremely difficult to identify the limits of agency and Eigensinn even of high-profile players in the Nazi system. Finally, it confronts the challenge of empathy and argues that the moral inadmissibility of empathizing with the perpetrators sets in...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the extent to which Raphael Lemkin influenced the Nuremberg prosecutors to incorporate genocide into the indictments, how the crime was prosecuted in the courtroom and how it was understood by the court in their judgments.
Abstract: Between 1945 and 1949, American, British, French and Soviet prosecutors, indicted and tried approximately 207 former Nazis for war crimes and crimes against humanity in what has come to be called collectively, ‘The Nuremberg Trials’. This article explores the place of genocide in these trials. It examines the extent to which Raphael Lemkin influenced the Nuremberg prosecutors to incorporate genocide into the indictments, how the crime was prosecuted in the courtroom and, ultimately, how it was understood by the court in their judgments. Although there were thirteen separate trials at Nuremberg, this article focuses mainly on one of these, the SS–Einsatzgruppen trial of 1947–48, in which twenty-two high-ranking SS officers were tried for crimes against humanity. The SS–Einsatzgruppen were the vanguard of the ‘Final Solution’. As ideological soldiers of the Third Reich they had killed one million civilians, mainly Jews, between June 1941 and July 1943, clear evidence of genocide according to Lemkin's defini...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper reviewed the debate about settler massacre in relation to Aboriginal resistance and found that the punitive expedition is most likely a euphemism for massacre, and established a new framework, which combines both aspects of frontier violence to explore a variety of published sources about Australia's first frontier at the Hawkesbury River in New South Wales 1794-1810.
Abstract: The Australian frontier wars have only recently emerged as an accepted part of the history of Australia. But there is still a reluctance to accept that settler massacre was widespread across the frontier and that it made deep inroads into the Aboriginal population. This article reviews the debate about settler massacre in relation to Aboriginal resistance and finds that the punitive expedition is most likely a euphemism for massacre. It then establishes a new framework, which combines both aspects of frontier violence to explore a variety of published sources about Australia's first frontier at the Hawkesbury River in New South Wales 1794–1810. The article finds that as an agricultural frontier where the settlers' produce was vital to the colony's survival, the British deployed large numbers of troops to disperse the Bediagal Aborigines from the region, when they resisted the invasion of the agricultural settlers. It cites numerous examples of the punitive expedition and how it operated to force a rapid A...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In Eichmann in Jerusalem, Hannah Arendt introduced the term "banality of evil" to describe the "superficial mind" of an over-conformist bureaucrat whose organizational expertise was the emigration of Jews as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: In Eichmann in Jerusalem, Hannah Arendt introduced the term ‘banality of evil’ to describe the ‘superficial mind’ of an over-conformist bureaucrat, whose organizational expertise was the emigration of Jews. The literature that examined the roots of Arendt's thesis on the banality of evil assumed that she had portrayed a pathological and malfunctioning rational bureaucracy, motivated by a strong culture of instrumental rationality. In contrast to this instrumental rationality thesis—and despite Arendt's own reservations about a wholesale comparison between British imperialism and Nazism—I suggest that: (a) Arendt's depiction of Nazi bureaucracy was anchored in her reading of imperial bureaucracy as analysed in The origins of totalitarianism; (b) Arendt's analysis of Eichmann's Nazi bureaucracy was, in several respects, similar to her analysis of Lord Cromer's principles of imperial bureaucracy formulated in Egypt in the early years of the twentieth century; and (c) the ‘instrumental rationality’ thesis ove...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Belonging and genocide: Hitler's community, 1918-1945 Thomas Kuhne New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010 171 pp., US $40 (hbk) as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Belonging and genocide: Hitler's community, 1918–1945 Thomas Kuhne New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010 171 pp., US $40 (hbk) Thomas Kuhne has written a succinct, thought-provoking and ultima...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Lemkin's published and unpublished writings show that he regarded genocide as a multifaceted phenomenon, calling it a synchronized attack that involved a variety of techniques targeting all aspects of life of the victim nation.
Abstract: Although much has been published on Raphael Lemkin in the last ten years, few scholars have paid sufficient attention to the interrelation of Lemkin's various ‘fields’ of genocide. Lemkin's published and unpublished writings show, however, that he regarded genocide as a multifaceted phenomenon, calling it a ‘synchronized attack’ that involved a variety of techniques targeting all ‘aspects of life’ of the victim nation. Although we now know that Lemkin cared deeply about ‘cultural genocide’, it is important to remember that in his view ‘cultural genocide’ was not a special ‘type’ or ‘kind’ of genocide, but rather just one part of a complete, integrated policy. In examining Lemkin's writings, I focus in particular upon Lemkin's descriptions of the cultural relationship between a group of people and the physical space that they occupied. Lemkin held that techniques of genocide that attack the relationship between a people and their physical space are extraordinarily effective, because they affect multiple ‘a...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors argued that far from being peripheral, massacre was on the contrary a method used by the French state in an effort to impose rule on conquered territories and to assimilate them into the empire and that the territorial expansion of the French empire and the subjugation of neighbouring states should consequently be seen as part of a colonizing enterprise.
Abstract: Violence and the French Revolution has generated a considerable body of work, much of which focuses on the processes leading toward the Terror, or aspects of the Terror and Counter-Revolution. In contrast, the violence committed by French troops abroad during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars has largely been neglected, treated as something peripheral to the dynamics of conquest or as something peculiar to the nature of mass revolutionary armies. This article argues that far from being peripheral, massacre was on the contrary a method used by the French state in an effort to impose rule on conquered territories and to assimilate them into the empire. The territorial expansion of the French empire and the subjugation of neighbouring states should consequently be seen as part of a colonizing enterprise. To that extent, the methods used by the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic armies to subdue recalcitrant populations were no more violent than earlier periods. However, the purpose of the subjuga...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article analyzed the atrocities committed by French troops during the Leclerc-Rochambeau expedition, which Napoleon Bonaparte sent to Haiti in 1802-1803.
Abstract: This article analyzes the atrocities committed by French troops during the Leclerc–Rochambeau expedition, which Napoleon Bonaparte sent to Saint-Domingue (Haiti) in 1802–1803 These emerged as a lo

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigate the problem of how to judge genocidal intent in a contextual and interdisciplinary perspective, with the case of Goran Jelisic as an example.
Abstract: This article investigates the challenging question of how to judge genocidal intent in a contextual and interdisciplinary perspective. With the case of Goran Jelisic as an example, the paper will discuss the problems involved in judging individual genocidal intent. Jelisic was not sentenced for genocide in his trial. The reasons given are assessed in light of other trials and the case of Josef Schwammberger, SS ghetto commander in Przemyśl (Poland) in 1943–44, in particular. The article argues that the reasoning of the Trial Chamber in the Jelisic case regarding his ‘inconsistent’ or ‘arbitrary’ behaviour is not convincing since perpetrators of mass violence or genocide are hardly ever ‘consistent’ in their actions. If—in theory—similar arguments were made regarding perpetrators of the Holocaust, it would also prove very difficult to charge them with genocide – even though the Genocide Convention has its roots in the experience of the Holocaust. The different and sometimes contradicting interpretations of...

Journal ArticleDOI
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Abstract: Taylor & Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the “Content”) contained in the publications on our platform. However, Taylor & Francis, our agents, and our licensors make no representations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinions and views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors, and are not the views of or endorsed by Taylor & Francis. The accuracy of the Content should not be relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sources of information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable for any losses, actions, claims, proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to or arising out of the use of the Content.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe the fractal nature of successive waves of attacks, deconstruct U.S. massacre rhetoric, and highlight the contemporary analyses of events by the Native peoples of the Old Northwest.
Abstract: Between 1784 and 1795, the first U.S. standing armies were sent in relentless waves against the peoples of the Old Northwest, to initiate the conquest of the American empire in ‘the West’. Typically, following a short pretense of diplomacy, the U.S. army initiated campaigns of terror accompanied by massacres of inconvenient peoples. Using the specific example of the Miami peoples of Indiana between 1788 and 1791, this article will describe the fractal nature of the successive waves of attacks, deconstruct U.S. massacre rhetoric, and highlight the contemporary analyses of events by the Native peoples of the Old Northwest.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The 1798 rebellion was probably the bloodiest political upheaval to occur in Ireland between the 1640s and the 1910s as mentioned in this paper, and it was largely inspired by the French Revolution, yet many had long anticipated such an event.
Abstract: Although the 1798 rebellion seldom figures prominently in histories of the Revolutionary Wars, it was probably the bloodiest political upheaval to occur in Ireland between the 1640s and the 1910s. The rebellion was largely inspired by the French Revolution, yet many had long anticipated such an event. They saw it as another round in a struggle that would only end with the extirpation of either Catholics or Protestants. Such beliefs lent ferocity to the fighting and encouraged massacre. Yet, at the same time, individuals on all sides sought to prevent or at least restrain bloodshed. Enlightenment and republican values and the ties of family and community were by no means submerged, and many marked for death were saved, although often deeply traumatized by their experiences. For, while the rebellion looked back to the sectarian massacres of the seventeenth century, it at the same time looked forward to the much less violent Irish nationalist struggles of the nineteenth century.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The US/UN Military Humanitarian Intervention (MHI) in Somalia has given rise to a vast body of writing to which the MHI's relationships with Somalis and the devastating political and moral impact on them have often remained incidental.
Abstract: The US/UN Military Humanitarian Intervention (MHI) in Somalia has given rise to a vast body of writing to which the MHI's relationships with Somalis and the devastating political and moral impact on them have often remained incidental. This article focuses on how the MHI in Somalia, taken as a whole, was unable to keep or enforce peace, failed to benefit the humanitarian wellbeing and human rights of ordinary Somalis and itself caused the latter new violence. With the benefit of hindsight and drawing on recent political and military memoirs, this article analyses how the US leadership of the MHI's first stage (UNITAF or United Task Force) used the discourse of a ‘politics-free’ humanitarianism to pursue policies that empowered Somali perpetrators of crimes against humanity, undermined the wellbeing of common Somalis and set the UN up for failure in the MHI's second stage (UNOSOM or United Nations Operation in Somalia II). It further shows that, during this second stage, the MHI's military dimension came t...