# Showing papers in "Journal of Geometry in 2020"

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[...]

TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that if a contact metric manifold admits a quasi-Yamabe soliton whose soliton field is the V-Ric vector field, then the Ricci operator Q commutes with the (1, 1) tensor.

Abstract: We prove that a contact metric manifold does not admit a proper quasi-Yamabe soliton ($$M,\, g,\,\xi ,\,\lambda ,\,\mu $$). Next we prove that if a contact metric manifold admits a quasi-Yamabe soliton ($$M,\, g,\, V,\, \lambda ,\, \mu $$) whose soliton field is pointwise collinear with the Reeb vector field, then the scalar curvature is constant, and the quasi-Yamabe soliton reduces to Yamabe soliton. Finally, it is shown that if a contact metric manifold admits a quasi-Yamabe soliton whose soliton field is the V-Ric vector field, then the Ricci operator Q commutes with the (1, 1) tensor $$\phi $$. As a consequence of the main result we obtain several corollaries.

7 citations

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[...]

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors established a one-to-one correspondence between homogeneous pseudo-Riemannian Einstein metrics on non-compact homogeneous spaces and homogeneous Riemannians on compact homogenous spaces.

Abstract: The aim of this work is to study homogeneous pseudo-Riemannian Einstein metrics on noncompact homogeneous spaces. First, we deduce a formula for Ricci tensor of a homogeneous pseudo-Riemannian manifold with compact isotropy subgroup. Based on this formula, we establish a one-to-one correspondence between homogeneous pseudo-Riemannian Einstein metrics on noncompact homogeneous spaces and homogeneous Riemannian Einstein metrics on compact homogeneous spaces. As an application, we prove that every noncompact connected simple Lie group except SL(2) admits at least two nonproportional left invariant pseudo-Riemannian Einstein metrics. Furthermore, we study left invariant pseudo-Riemannian Einstein metrics on solvable Lie groups. By showing that if a nilpotent Lie group admits a left invariant Riemannian Ricci soliton, then it admits a left invariant pseudo-Riemannian Ricci soliton as well, we construct a left invariant pseudo-Riemannian Einstein metric on any given Riemannian standard Einstein solvmanifold.

6 citations

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[...]

Osaka University

^{1}TL;DR: In this paper, the authors extend the family of operators with two cevian parameters and study its rich structure from arithmetic-geometric viewpoints, and find another useful parametrization of the operator family via finite Fourier analysis and apply it to investigate areapreserving operators on triangles.

Abstract: Given a plane triangle $$\Delta $$, one can construct a new triangle $$\Delta '$$ whose vertices are intersections of two cevian triples of $$\Delta $$. We extend the family of operators $$\Delta \mapsto \Delta '$$ by complexifying the defining two cevian parameters and study its rich structure from arithmetic-geometric viewpoints. We also find another useful parametrization of the operator family via finite Fourier analysis and apply it to investigate area-preserving operators on triangles.

5 citations

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[...]

TL;DR: In this article, points on the line at infinity in the extended plane of a triangle ABC are discussed in terms of barycentric coordinates that are polynomials in the sidelengths a, b, c, c.

Abstract: Points on the line at infinity in the extended plane of a triangle ABC are discussed in terms of barycentric coordinates that are polynomials in the sidelengths a, b, c. Various properties of the line at infinity are discussed, including two theorems, with related conjectures, on polynomial representations of triangle centers that are at opposite ends of a diameter of the circumcircle—along with their isogonal conjugates on the line at infinity. Also considered are an equal-areas locus, symbolic substitution, and historical comments.

4 citations

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[...]

TL;DR: In this article, the inner isoptic of an ellipse is explored, i.e., the envelopes of the lines joining the points of contact of the ellipso with the tangents through points on a given isoptric.

Abstract: For a given curve
$${\mathcal {C}}$$
and a given angle
$$\theta $$
, the
$$\theta $$
-isoptic curve of
$${\mathcal {C}}$$
is the geometric locus of points through which passes a pair of tangents to
$${\mathcal {C}}$$
making an angle equal to
$$\theta $$
If the curve
$${\mathcal {C}}$$
is smooth and convex, isoptics exist for any angle, and through every point exterior to the curve, there is exactly one pair of tangents The isoptics of conics are well known In this paper, we explore the inner isoptics of ellipses, ie the envelopes of the lines joining the points of contact of the ellipse with the tangents through points on a given isoptic If
$$\theta =90^{\circ }$$
, the isoptic is called orthoptic and the corresponding inner isoptic is called the inner orthoptic We show that the inner orthoptic of an ellipse is an ellipse, but in general the inner isoptics are more complicated

3 citations

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[...]

TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that if a non-constant solution of the critical point equation of a connected non-compact manifold admits a nonconstant function, then the manifold is locally isometric to the Ricci flat manifold and the function is harmonic.

Abstract: In the present paper, we characterize $$(k,\mu )'$$-almost Kenmotsu manifolds admitting $$*$$-critical point equation. It is shown that if $$(g, \lambda )$$ is a non-constant solution of the $$*$$-critical point equation of a connected non-compact $$(k,\mu )'$$-almost Kenmotsu manifold, then (1) the manifold M is locally isometric to $$\mathbb {H}^{n+1}(-4)$$$$\times $$$$\mathbb {R}^n$$, (2) the manifold M is $$*$$-Ricci flat and (3) the function $$\lambda $$ is harmonic. Finally an illustrative example is presented.

3 citations

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[...]

TL;DR: The generalized deltoid as discussed by the authors is a convex generalization of the Euclidean triangle, whose sides are disjoint, outwardly-looking arcs of convex curves.

Abstract: This paper studies a generalization of the Euclidean triangle, the generalized deltoid, which we believe to be the right one for convex geometry. To illustrate the process, our main result shows that the generalized deltoid satisfies a convex generalization of the Fermat–Torricelli theorem. A point that minimizes the sum of distances to the vertices of a triangle (Fermat–Torricelli point) is the same as one through which pass three equiangular affine diameters (Fermat–Ceder point). A generalized deltoid is a triangle whose sides are disjoint, outwardly-looking arcs of convex curves. The Fermat–Torricelli theorem in convex geometry extends the Fermat–Ceder point of a triangle to a Fermat–Ceder point of a generalized deltoid. As an application, we show that the Fermat–Ceder points for the continuous families of affine diameters, area-bisecting lines, and perimeter-bisecting lines are unique for every triangle, and non-unique for every pentagon. In the case of quadrilaterals, the uniqueness of the Fermat–Ceder point for affine diameters holds precisely for all non-trapezoids, the one for the Fermat–Ceder point for area-bisecting lines holds for all quadrilaterals, and the one for the Fermat–Ceder point for perimeter-bisecting lines is open.

3 citations

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[...]

Işık University

^{1}TL;DR: In this article, the authors study rotational Weingarten surfaces in the hyperbolic space with the principal curvatures satisfying a certain functional relation, and determine profile curves of such surfaces parameterized in terms of the principal curve.

Abstract: We study rotational Weingarten surfaces in the hyperbolic space $$\mathbb {H}^3(-1)$$ with the principal curvatures $$\kappa $$ and $$\lambda $$ satisfying a certain functional relation $$\kappa = F(\lambda )$$ for a given continuous function F. We determine profile curves of such surfaces parameterized in terms of the principal curvature $$\lambda $$. Then we consider some special cases by taking $$F(\lambda ) = a\lambda + b$$ and $$F(\lambda ) = a\lambda ^m$$ for particular values of the constants a, b, and m.

3 citations

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[...]

TL;DR: In this paper, an apparently weaker form of the Circle Axiom is considered, which leads to weaker properties of Euclidean fields, and it is shown that these weaker properties still characterize Euclideal fields.

Abstract: As well known, the underlying field K of an Euclidean plane E is Euclidean if and only if E fulfills the Circle Axiom. In this paper we consider an apparently weaker form of the Circle Axiom which leads to weaker properties of K. It will be shown that these weaker properties still characterize Euclidean fields. In the second remark we complete the construction of a certain kind of Hilbert plane considered in Pambuccian and Schacht (Beitr Algebra Geom, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13366-019-00445-y).

3 citations

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[...]

TL;DR: In this paper, the notion of Birkhoff orthogonality was extended from normed planes to gauge planes by neglecting the symmetry axiom, and the notions of evolutes and involutes were extended from the differential geometry of curves.

Abstract: In this paper results from the differential geometry of curves are extended from normed planes to gauge planes which are obtained by neglecting the symmetry axiom. Based on the gauge analogue of the notion of Birkhoff orthogonality from Banach space theory, we study all curvature types of curves in gauge planes, thus generalizing their complete classification for normed planes. We show that (as in the subcase of normed planes) there are four such types, and we call them analogously Minkowski, normal, circular, and arc-length curvature. We study relations between them and extend, based on this, also the notions of evolutes and involutes to gauge planes.

3 citations

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[...]

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors derived optimal inequalities involving generalized normalized normalized normalized δ -Casorati curvatures for slant submanifolds in a golden Riemannian space form.

Abstract: In the present paper, we derive optimal inequalities involving generalized normalized $$\delta $$
-Casorati curvatures for slant submanifolds in a golden Riemannian space form. We obtain these inequalities by analysing a suitable constrained extrememum problem on submanifold.

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[...]

TL;DR: Unlike the torus, the Klein bottle can collapse to a segment; it is shown that in such a situation, the loops in a short basis for homology must stay a uniform distance apart.

Abstract: In earlier work, we analyzed the impossibility of codimension-one collapse for surfaces of negative Euler characteristic under the condition of a lower bound for the Gaussian curvature. Here we show that, under similar conditions, the torus cannot collapse to a segment. Unlike the torus, the Klein bottle can collapse to a segment; we show that in such a situation, the loops in a short basis for homology must stay a uniform distance apart.

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[...]

TL;DR: The notion of complete sets on the sphere was introduced in this paper, where convex sets are defined as convex bodies of constant width on which any extra point increases their diameter.

Abstract: Similarly to the classic notion in Euclidean space, we call a set on the sphere
$$S^d$$
complete, provided adding any extra point increases its diameter. Complete sets are convex bodies on
$$S^d$$
. Our main theorem says that on
$$S^d$$
complete bodies of diameter
$$\delta $$
coincide with bodies of constant width
$$\delta $$
.

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[...]

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors extend the proof of Theorem 5.2 in [1], which characterizes the translating bowl as the only properly immersed translating soliton with finite topology.

Abstract: In this paper we extend the proof of Theorem 5.2 in [1], which characterizes the translating bowl
$$\mathcal {B}$$
in
$${\mathbb {H}}^2\times {\mathbb {R}}$$
as the only properly immersed translating soliton with finite topology and one end that is smoothly asymptotic to
$$\mathcal {B}$$
. We exploit the asymptotic behavior at infinity of
$$\mathcal {B}$$
and the possibility of applying Alexandrov’s reflection technique with respect to vertical planes.

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[...]

TL;DR: In this paper, a method to detect G-similarity of paths and curves is presented, and an evident form of a path and a curve in terms of their G-invariants is given.

Abstract: $$E^{2}_{1}$$ be the 2-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space of index 1,
$$G=Sim_{L}(E^{2}_{1})$$
be the group of all linear pseudo-similarities of
$$E^{2}_{1}$$
and
$$G=Sim_{L}^{+}(E^{2}_{1})$$
be the group of all orientation-preserving linear pseudo-similarities of
$$E^{2}_{1}$$
. In this paper, groups
$$Sim_{GL}^{+}(E^{2}_{1})$$
and
$$Sim_{GL}(E^{2}_{1})$$
are defined. For the groups
$$G=Sim_{GL}^{+}(E^{2}_{1}),Sim_{GL}(E^{2}_{1})$$
,
$$Sim_{L}(E^{2}_{1}),$$
$$Sim_{L}^{+}(E^{2}_{1})$$
, G-invariants of paths in
$$E^{2}_{1}$$
are investigated. Using hyperbolic numbers, a method to detect G-similarities of paths and curves is presented. We give an evident form of a path and a curve in terms of their G-invariants. For two paths and two curves with the common G-invariants, evident forms of all linear pseudo-similarity transformations, carrying the paths and the curves, are obtained.

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[...]

TL;DR: In this article, the same authors classify conics of rank one in Desarguesian projective planes over finite fields of odd order, namely, two-dimensional linear systems of conics containing a repeated line.

Abstract: We classify nets of conics of rank one in Desarguesian projective planes over finite fields of odd order, namely, two-dimensional linear systems of conics containing a repeated line. Our proof is geometric in the sense that we solve the equivalent problem of classifying the orbits of planes in
$$\mathrm {PG}(5,q)$$
which meet the quadric Veronesean in at least one point, under the action of
$$\mathrm {PGL}(3,q) \leqslant \mathrm {PGL}(6,q)$$
(for q odd). Our results complete a partial classification of nets of conics of rank one obtained by Wilson (Am J Math 36:187–210, 1914).

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[...]

TL;DR: In this article, the authors proved that the center of mass is the only center of a tetrahedron that has this property, and investigated the situation for the other well known centers, namely, the Gergonne center, Nagel center, Lemoine center, etc.

Abstract: It is well known that the center of mass of a tetrahedron is the intersection of the line segments that join its vertices to the centers of mass of the opposite faces, and that a similar statement holds for simplices in higher dimensions. This paper addresses the question whether this nice inductive property of the center of mass also holds for other centers. It proves that the center of mass is the only center that has this property, and investigates in detail the situation for the other well known centers, namely, the Gergonne center, the Nagel center, the Lemoine center, the incenter, the orthocenter, the Fermat-Torricelli center, and the circumcenter. Some questions for further research are raised.

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[...]

TL;DR: In this paper, a planar 4-web of confocal conics is shown to be of maximal rank and characterized from the web theory viewpoint, and it is shown that each of these 4-webs is of maximal order.

Abstract: Confocal conics form an orthogonal net. Supplementing this net with one of the following: (1) the net of Cartesian coordinate lines aligned along the principal axes of conics, (2) the net of Apollonian pencils of circles whose foci coincide with the foci of conics, (3) the net of tangents to a conic of the confocal family, we get a planar 4-web. We show that each of these 4-webs is of maximal rank and characterize confocal conics from the web theory viewpoint.

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[...]

TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that if every 3-space meeting a twisted cubic surface is a ruled cubic surface, then it is a Baer subplane of the Bruck-Bose representation.

Abstract: Let
$${{\mathcal {K}}}$$
be a set of
$$q^2+2q+1$$
points in
$$\text {PG}(4,q)$$
. We show that if every 3-space meets
$${{\mathcal {K}}}$$
in either one, two or three lines, a line and a non-degenerate conic, or a twisted cubic, then
$${{\mathcal {K}}}$$
is a ruled cubic surface. Moreover,
$${{\mathcal {K}}}$$
corresponds via the Bruck–Bose representation to a tangent Baer subplane of
$$\text {PG}(2,q^2)$$
. We use this to prove a characterisation in
$$\text {PG}(2,q^2)$$
of a set of points
$${{\mathcal {B}}}$$
as a tangent Baer subplane by looking at the intersections of
$${{\mathcal {B}}}$$
with Baer-pencils.

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[...]

TL;DR: This paper established sharp inequalities involving generalized normalized normalized Casorati curvatures for invariant, anti-invariant and slant submanifolds in metallic Riemannian space forms.

Abstract: In the present paper, we establish sharp inequalities involving generalized normalized
$$\delta $$
-Casorati curvatures for invariant, anti-invariant and slant submanifolds in metallic Riemannian space forms and characterize the submanifolds for which the equality holds.

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[...]

TL;DR: In this paper, the compatibility equations for a linear connection to a Randers metric were investigated and the extremal compatible linear connection was determined by taking the torsion components as variables, and it was shown that these equations have solutions when the Randers space becomes a generalized Berwald space admitting compatible linear connections.

Abstract: A linear connection on a Finsler manifold is called compatible to the metric if its parallel transports preserve the Finslerian length of tangent vectors. Generalized Berwald manifolds are Finsler manifolds equipped with a compatible linear connection. Since the compatibility to the Finslerian metric does not imply the unicity of the linear connection in general, the first step of checking the existence of compatible linear connections on a Finsler manifold is to choose the best one to look for. A reasonable choice is introduced in Vincze (J Differ Geom Appl, 2019.
arXiv:1909.03096
) called the extremal compatible linear connection, which has torsion of minimal norm at each point. Randers metrics are special Finsler metrics that can be written as the sum of a Riemannian metric and a 1-form (they are “translates” of Riemannian metrics). In this paper, we investigate the compatibility equations for a linear connection to a Randers metric. Since a compatible linear connection is uniquely determined by its torsion, we transform the compatibility equations by taking the torsion components as variables. We determine when these equations have solutions, i.e. when the Randers space becomes a generalized Berwald space admitting a compatible linear connection. Describing all of them, we can select the extremal connection with the norm minimizing property. As a consequence, we obtain the characterization theorem in Vincze (Indag Math 26(2):363–379, 2014): a Randers space is a non-Riemannian generalized Berwald space if and only if the norm of the perturbating term with respect to the Riemannian part of the metric is a positive constant.

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[...]

TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that a 3D almost f-cosymplectic manifold satisfying the Miao-Tam equation is an Einstein manifold if its Ricci tensor is pseudo anti-commuting.

Abstract: The purpose of this article is to study an almost f-cosymplectic manifold M satisfying the Miao–Tam equation:
$$-\,(\Delta _g\lambda )g+
abla ^2_g\lambda -\lambda Ric=g$$
. At first we consider a normal almost f-cosymplectic manifold satisfying the Miao–Tam equation and give a classification. In particular, it is proved that a connected f-cosymplectic manifold satisfying the Miao–Tam equation with
$$\lambda =\widetilde{f}$$
is an Einstein manifold. For the non-normal case, we prove that a three dimensional almost f-cosymplectic manifold satisfying the Miao–Tam equation is Einstein if its Ricci tensor is pseudo anti-commuting.

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[...]

TL;DR: In this article, an algebraic common generalization to various notions of curvature homogeneity is presented, and two examples of manifolds that meet this more general definition are provided.

Abstract: We present an entirely algebraic common generalization to various notions of curvature homogeneity. We investigate basic properties of this theory and provide two examples of manifolds that meet this more general definition. These examples are not curvature homogeneous or homothety curvature homogeneous at certain levels.

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[...]

TL;DR: The best known upper bound in three-dimensional case is due to Papadopoulos et al. as mentioned in this paper, who showed that the number of smaller homothetic copies of an n-dimensional convex body required to cover the whole body can be defined via illumination of the boundary of a convex boundary by external light sources.

Abstract: Let
$$H_n$$
be the minimal number of smaller homothetic copies of an n-dimensional convex body required to cover the whole body. Equivalently,
$$H_n$$
can be defined via illumination of the boundary of a convex body by external light sources. The best known upper bound in three-dimensional case is
$$H_3\le 16$$
and is due to Papadoperakis. We use Papadoperakis’ approach to show that
$$H_4\le 96$$
,
$$H_5\le 1091$$
and
$$H_6\le 15373$$
which significantly improve the previously known upper bounds on
$$H_n$$
in these dimensions.

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[...]

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors studied almost hypercomplex structure with Hermitian-Norden metrics on 4-dimensional Lie groups considered as smooth manifolds, and studied the geometrical characteristics of the respective almost hyper-complex manifolds.

Abstract: We study almost hypercomplex structure with Hermitian–Norden metrics on 4-dimensional Lie groups considered as smooth manifolds. All the basic classes of a classification of 4-dimensional indecomposable real Lie algebras depending on one parameter are investigated. There are studied some geometrical characteristics of the respective almost hypercomplex manifolds with Hermitian–Norden metrics.

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[...]

TL;DR: In this paper, a new approach is given for Bertrand curves in 3D Euclidean space, and the necessary and sufficient conditions including the known results have been obtained for a curve to be Bertrand curve in ¯¯{\mathbb {E}}^{3}$$¯¯¯¯¯¯.

Abstract: In this article, a new approach is given for Bertrand curves in 3-dimensional Euclidean space. According to this approach, the necessary and sufficient conditions including the known results have been obtained for a curve to be Bertrand curve in
$${\mathbb {E}}^{3}$$
. In addition, the related examples and graphs are given by showing that general helices and anti-Salkowski curves can be Bertrand curves or their mates, which is their new characterization.

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[...]

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors generalize this result by showing that the asymmetric expansion of a hyperbolic convex set about any point inside it also results in a convex subset.

Abstract: In an earlier paper we showed that the radial expansion of a hyperbolic convex set in the Poincare disk about any point inside it results in a hyperbolic convex set. In this work, we generalize this result by showing that the asymmetric expansion of a hyperbolic convex set about any point inside it also results in a hyperbolic convex set.

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[...]

TL;DR: In this paper, the classification of homogenous Ricci solitons on 3D Bianchi-Cartan-Vranceanu spaces is given. But the classification is restricted to homogeneous Ricci-solitons.

Abstract: We give the classification of homogenous Ricci solitons on three-dimensional Bianchi–Cartan–Vranceanu spaces.

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[...]

TL;DR: In this article, a rigid body is reflected in successive planes of a one parameter family of planes to make this a rigid-body motion, and the acceleration center of the general plane symmetric motion is found together with some other properties of the acceleration.

Abstract: This work studies the neglected subject of plane symmetric rigid-body motions. A plane symmetric motion is generated by reflecting a rigid body in successive planes of a one parameter family of planes. To make this a rigid-body motion we begin by reflecting the body in a fixed initial plane before reflecting in the next plane of the family. In particular the twist velocity and fixed axodes of these motion are investigated. Three families of planes can be associated to a space curve, the osculating, normal and rectifying planes. The plane symmetric motions generated by each of these families is investigated. The acceleration centre of the general plane symmetric motion is found together with some other properties of the acceleration of this motion. Special curves are known that have partner curves, the relationship between motions defined by some of these curves and their partners is studied. Finally, line symmetric motions generated by the normal and binormal lines to a curve are studied as combinations of pairs of plane symmetric motions.