scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question

Showing papers in "Journal of Geophysical Research in 2017"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors evaluate two satellite rainfall products Global Precipitation Measurement Integrated MultisatellitE Retrievals and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 3B42V7 (GPM IMERG and TRMM 3B 42V7) in southern Tibetan Plateau region, with special focus on the dependence of products' performance on topography and rainfall intensity.
Abstract: The objective of this study is to evaluate two satellite rainfall products Global Precipitation Measurement Integrated MultisatellitE Retrievals and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 3B42V7 (GPM IMERG and TRMM 3B42V7) in southern Tibetan Plateau region, with special focus on the dependence of products' performance on topography and rainfall intensity. Over 500 in situ rain gauges constitute an unprecedentedly dense rain gauge network over this region and provide an exceptional resource for ground validation of satellite rainfall estimates. Our evaluation centers on the rainy season from May to October in 2014. Results indicate that (1) GPM product outperforms TRMM at all spatial scales and elevation ranges in detecting daily rainfall accumulation; (2) rainfall accumulation over the entire rainy season is negatively correlated with mean elevation for rain gauges and the two satellite rainfall products, while the performance of TRMM also significantly correlates with topographic variations; (3) in terms of the ability of rainfall detection, false alarming ratio of TRMM (21%) is larger than that of GPM (14%), while missing ratio of GPM (13%) is larger than that of TRMM (9%). GPM tends to underestimate the amount of light rain events of 0–1 mm/d, while the opposite (overestimation) is true for TRMM. GPM shows better detecting ability for light rainfall (0–5 mm/d) events but there is no detection skill for both GPM and TRMM at high-elevation (>4500 m) regions. Our results not only highlight the superiority of GPM to TRMM in southern Tibetan Plateau region but also recommend that further improvement on the rainfall retrieval algorithm is needed by considering topographical influences for both GPM and TRMM rainfall products.

293 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present the most complete, accurate, and up-to-date velocity field for India-Eurasia available, comprising 2576 velocities measured during 1991-2015.
Abstract: The India‐Eurasia collision zone is the largest deforming region on the planet; direct measurements of present‐day deformation from Global Positioning System (GPS) have the potential to discriminate between competing models of continental tectonics. But the increasing spatial resolution and accuracy of observations have only led to increasingly complex realizations of competing models. Here we present the most complete, accurate, and up‐to‐date velocity field for India‐Eurasia available, comprising 2576 velocities measured during 1991–2015. The core of our velocity field is from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China‐I/II: 27 continuous stations observed since 1999; 56 campaign stations observed annually during 1998–2007; 1000 campaign stations observed in 1999, 2001, 2004, and 2007; 260 continuous stations operating since late 2010; and 2000 campaign stations observed in 2009, 2011, 2013, and 2015. We process these data and combine the solutions in a consistent reference frame with stations from the Global Strain Rate Model compilation, then invert for continuous velocity and strain rate fields. We update geodetic slip rates for the major faults (some vary along strike), and find that those along the major Tibetan strike‐slip faults are in good agreement with recent geological estimates. The velocity field shows several large undeforming areas, strain focused around some major faults, areas of diffuse strain, and dilation of the high plateau. We suggest that a new generation of dynamic models incorporating strength variations and strain‐weakening mechanisms is required to explain the key observations. Seismic hazard in much of the region is elevated, not just near the major faults.

246 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Titan is the only moon with a substantial atmosphere, the only other thick N2 atmosphere besides Earth's, the site of extraordinarily complex atmospheric chemistry that far surpasses any other solar system atmosphere, and the only solar system body with stable liquid currently on its surface as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Titan is the only moon with a substantial atmosphere, the only other thick N2 atmosphere besides Earth's, the site of extraordinarily complex atmospheric chemistry that far surpasses any other solar system atmosphere, and the only other solar system body with stable liquid currently on its surface. The connection between Titan's surface and atmosphere is also unique in our solar system; atmospheric chemistry produces materials that are deposited on the surface and subsequently altered by surface-atmosphere interactions such as aeolian and fluvial processes resulting in the formation of extensive dune fields and expansive lakes and seas. Titan's atmosphere is favorable for organic haze formation, which combined with the presence of some oxygen-bearing molecules indicates that Titan's atmosphere may produce molecules of prebiotic interest. The combination of organics and liquid, in the form of water in a subsurface ocean and methane/ethane in the surface lakes and seas, means that Titan may be the ideal place in the solar system to test ideas about habitability, prebiotic chemistry, and the ubiquity and diversity of life in the universe. The Cassini-Huygens mission to the Saturn system has provided a wealth of new information allowing for study of Titan as a complex system. Here I review our current understanding of Titan's atmosphere and climate forged from the powerful combination of Earth-based observations, remote sensing and in situ spacecraft measurements, laboratory experiments, and models. I conclude with some of our remaining unanswered questions as the incredible era of exploration with Cassini-Huygens comes to an end.

216 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used ensemble simulations with the Community Earth System Model to assess the impacts of irrigation on climate extremes and found that irrigation has a small yet overall beneficial effect on the representation of present-day near-surface climate.
Abstract: Irrigation is an essential practice for sustaining global food production and many regional economies. Emerging scientific evidence indicates that irrigation substantially affects mean climate conditions in different regions of the world. Yet how this practice influences climate extremes is currently unknown. Here we use ensemble simulations with the Community Earth System Model to assess the impacts of irrigation on climate extremes. An evaluation of the model performance reveals that irrigation has a small yet overall beneficial effect on the representation of present-day near-surface climate. While the influence of irrigation on annual mean temperatures is limited, we find a large impact on temperature extremes, with a particularly strong cooling during the hottest day of the year (−0.78 K averaged over irrigated land). The strong influence on extremes stems from the timing of irrigation and its influence on land-atmosphere coupling strength. Together these effects result in asymmetric temperature responses, with a more pronounced cooling during hot and/or dry periods. The influence of irrigation is even more pronounced when considering subgrid-scale model output, suggesting that local effects of land management are far more important than previously thought. Our results underline that irrigation has substantially reduced our exposure to hot temperature extremes in the past and highlight the need to account for irrigation in future climate projections.

211 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors assess changes in VPD, es, and ea in the United States (U.S.) for the recent past (1979-2013) and the future (2065-2099) using gridded, observed climate data and output from general circulation models.
Abstract: Via air temperature increases and relative humidity changes, climate change will modify vapor pressure deficit (VPD), which is an important determinant of water vapor and CO2 exchange between the land surface and atmosphere. VPD is the difference between the water vapor the air can hold at saturation (es) and the actual amount of water vapor (ea). Here we assess changes in VPD, es, and ea in the United States (U.S.) for the recent past (1979–2013) and the future (2065–2099) using gridded, observed climate data and output from general circulation models. Historically, VPD has increased for all seasons, driven by increases in es and declines in ea. The spring, summer, and fall seasons exhibited the largest areal extent of significant increases in VPD, which was largely concentrated in the western and southern portions of the U.S. The changes in VPD stemmed from recent air temperature increases and relative humidity decreases. Projections indicate similar, amplified patterns into the future. For the summer, the general circulation model ensemble median showed a 51% projected increase (quartile range of 39 and 64%) in summer VPD for the U.S., reflecting temperature-driven increases in es but decreases or minimal changes in relative humidity that promotes negligible changes in ea. Using a simple model for plant hydraulic functioning, we also show that in the absence of stomatal acclimation, future changes in VPD can reduce stomatal conductance by 9–51%, which is a magnitude comparable to the expected decline in stomatal conductance from rising CO2.

203 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors report on the in-flight performance of the solar wind ion analyzer (SWIA) and observations of the Mars-solar wind interaction made during the MAVEN prime mission and a portion of its extended mission, covering 0.85 Martian years.
Abstract: We report on the in-flight performance of the Solar Wind Ion Analyzer (SWIA) and observations of the Mars-solar wind interaction made during the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) prime mission and a portion of its extended mission, covering 0.85 Martian years. We describe the data products returned by SWIA and discuss the proper handling of measurements made with different mechanical attenuator states and telemetry modes, and the effects of penetrating and scattered backgrounds, limited phase space coverage, and multi-ion populations on SWIA observations. SWIA directly measures solar wind protons and alpha particles upstream from Mars. SWIA also provides proxy measurements of solar wind and neutral densities based on products of charge exchange between the solar wind and the hydrogen corona. Together, upstream and proxy observations provide a complete record of the solar wind experienced by Mars, enabling organization of the structure, dynamics, and ion escape from the magnetosphere. We observe an interaction that varies with season and solar wind conditions. Solar wind dynamic pressure, Mach number, and extreme ultraviolet flux all affect the bow shock location. We confirm the occurrence of order-of-magnitude seasonal variations of the hydrogen corona. We find that solar wind Alfven waves, which provide an additional energy input to Mars, vary over the mission. At most times, only weak mass loading occurs upstream from the bow shock. However, during periods with near-radial interplanetary magnetic fields, structures consistent with Short Large Amplitude Magnetic Structures and their wakes form upstream, dramatically reconfiguring the Martian bow shock and magnetosphere.

202 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The European Space Agency's three Swarm satellites were launched on November 22, 2013 into nearly polar, circular orbits, eventually reaching altitudes of 460 km (Swarm A and C) and 510 km(Swarm B). Swarm's multi-year mission is to make precision, multi-point measurements of low-frequency magnetic and electric fields in Earth's ionosphere for the purpose of characterizing magnetic fields generated both inside and external to the Earth, along with other plasma parameters associated with electric current systems in the ionosphere and magnetosphere.
Abstract: The European Space Agency's three Swarm satellites were launched on November 22, 2013 into nearly-polar, circular orbits, eventually reaching altitudes of 460 km (Swarm A and C) and 510 km (Swarm B). Swarm's multi-year mission is to make precision, multi-point measurements of low-frequency magnetic and electric fields in Earth's ionosphere for the purpose of characterizing magnetic fields generated both inside and external to the Earth, along with the electric fields and other plasma parameters associated with electric current systems in the ionosphere and magnetosphere. Electric fields perpendicular to the magnetic field B→ are determined through ion drift velocity v→i and magnetic field measurements via the relation E→⊥=−v→i×B→. Ion drift is derived from two-dimensional images of low-energy ion distribution functions provided by two Thermal Ion Imager (TII) sensors viewing in the horizontal and vertical planes; v→i is corrected for spacecraft potential as determined by two Langmuir probes (LPs) which also measure plasma density ne and electron temperature Te. The TII sensors use a microchannel-plate-intensified phosphor screen imaged by a charge-coupled device to generate high-resolution distribution images ( 66x40 pixels) at a rate of 16 s−1. Images are partially processed on board and further on the ground to generate calibrated data products at a rate of 2 s−1; these include v→i, E→⊥, and ion temperature Ti in addition to electron temperature Te and plasma density ne from the LPs.

197 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors assess the importance of new particle formation (NPF) for both the present-day and the pre-industrial atmospheres using a global aerosol model with parametrizations of NPF from previously published CLOUD chamber experiments involving sulfuric acid, ammonia, organic molecules and ions.
Abstract: New particle formation has been estimated to produce around half of cloud-forming particles in the present-day atmosphere, via gas-to-particle conversion. Here we assess the importance of new particle formation (NPF) for both the present-day and the preindustrial atmospheres. We use a global aerosol model with parametrizations of NPF from previously published CLOUD chamber experiments involving sulfuric acid, ammonia, organic molecules, and ions. We find that NPF produces around 67% of cloud condensation nuclei at 0.2% supersaturation (CCN0.2%) at the level of low clouds in the preindustrial atmosphere (estimated uncertainty range 45–84%) and 54% in the present day (estimated uncertainty range 38–66%). Concerning causes, we find that the importance of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in NPF and CCN formation is greater than previously thought. Removing BVOCs and hence all secondary organic aerosol from our model reduces low-cloud-level CCN concentrations at 0.2% supersaturation by 26% in the present-day atmosphere and 41% in the preindustrial. Around three quarters of this reduction is due to the tiny fraction of the oxidation products of BVOCs that have sufficiently low volatility to be involved in NPF and early growth. Furthermore, we estimate that 40% of preindustrial CCN0.2% are formed via ion-induced NPF, compared with 27% in the present day, although we caution that the ion-induced fraction of NPF involving BVOCs is poorly measured at present. Our model suggests that the effect of changes in cosmic ray intensity on CCN is small and unlikely to be comparable to the effect of large variations in natural primary aerosol emissions.

186 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the radiative impact of mixed-phase clouds on global and regional radiation budgets, and found that mixed phase clouds exert a global net cloud radiative effect of −3.4 Wm−m−2, with contributions of −8.1 W m−m −2 and 4.7 W m −m−w −w −W m−2 from SW and LW radiation, respectively.
Abstract: The radiative impact of clouds strongly depends on their partitioning between liquid and ice phases. Until recently, however, it has been challenging to unambiguously discriminate cloud phase in a number of important global regimes. CloudSat and CALIPSO supply vertically resolved measurements necessary to identify clouds composed of both liquid and ice that are not easily detected using conventional passive sensors. The capability of these active sensors to discriminate cloud phase has been incorporated into the fifth generation of CloudSat's 2B-FLXHR-LIDAR algorithm. Comparisons with Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System fluxes at the top of atmosphere reveal that an improved representation of cloud phase leads to better agreement compared to earlier versions of the algorithm. The RMS differences in annual mean outgoing longwave (LW) radiation gridded at 2.5° resolution are 4.9 W m−2, while RMS differences in outgoing shortwave (SW) are slightly larger at 8.9 W m−2 due to the larger diurnal range of solar insolation. This study documents the relative contributions of clouds composed of only liquid, only ice, and a combination of both phases to global and regional radiation budgets. It is found that mixed-phase clouds exert a global net cloud radiative effect of −3.4 W m−2, with contributions of −8.1 W m−2 and 4.7 W m−2 from SW and LW radiation, respectively. When compared with the effects of warm liquid clouds (−11.8 W m−2), ice clouds (3.5 W m−2), and multilayered clouds consisting of distinct liquid and ice layers (−4.6 W m−2), these results reinforce the notion that accurate representation of mixed-phase clouds is essential for quantifying cloud feedbacks in future climate scenarios.

185 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model is used to evaluate the quantitative utility of FNR observed from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument and it is found that FNR in the model surface layer is a robust predictor of the simulated near-surface O3 production regime.
Abstract: Determining effective strategies for mitigating surface ozone (O3) pollution requires knowledge of the relative ambient concentrations of its precursors, NOx, and VOCs. The space-based tropospheric column ratio of formaldehyde to NO2 (FNR) has been used as an indicator to identify NOx-limited versus NOx-saturated O3 formation regimes. Quantitative use of this indicator ratio is subject to three major uncertainties: (1) the split between NOx-limited and NOx-saturated conditions may shift in space and time, (2) the ratio of the vertically integrated column may not represent the near-surface environment, and (3) satellite products contain errors. We use the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model to evaluate the quantitative utility of FNR observed from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument over three northern midlatitude source regions. We find that FNR in the model surface layer is a robust predictor of the simulated near-surface O3 production regime. Extending this surface-based predictor to a column-based FNR requires accounting for differences in the HCHO and NO2 vertical profiles. We compare four combinations of two OMI HCHO and NO2 retrievals with modeled FNR. The spatial and temporal correlations between the modeled and satellite-derived FNR vary with the choice of NO2 product, while the mean offset depends on the choice of HCHO product. Space-based FNR indicates that the spring transition to NOx-limited regimes has shifted at least a month earlier over major cities (e.g., New York, London, and Seoul) between 2005 and 2015. This increase in NOx sensitivity implies that NOx emission controls will improve O3 air quality more now than it would have a decade ago.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Wang et al. as discussed by the authors employed moisture budget analysis to quantify the contributions of different factors to the wetting trend in arid and semi-arid Northwest China, and showed that more than 50% of the increasing precipitation is balanced by the increased evaporation.
Abstract: The arid and semiarid Northwest China has experienced a significant wetting trend in summer during 1961-2010, but the reasons remain ambiguous. In this study, moisture budget analysis is employed to quantify the contributions of different factors to the wetting trend. The results show that more than 50% of the increasing precipitation is balanced by the increased evaporation. The convergence of moisture flux (the sum of horizontal moisture advection and wind convergence terms), has a significant positive contribution to the wetting trend. The increased net surface radiation, which is contributed by the increased downward longwave radiation, supplies more energy to favor the evaporation process of vaporization. The moisture flux convergence is further separated into thermodynamic component in association with changes in specific humidity, and dynamic component due to changes in atmospheric circulation. The thermodynamic contribution to the wetting trend is induced by the increased specific humidity which is associated with enhanced evaporation. The dynamic contribution is dominated by an anomalous cyclone over Central Asia. The anomalous cyclone is related with intensified horizontal vorticity advection which is associated with a significant southward displacement of Asian subtropical westerly jet. The results indicate that the changes of evaporation against the background of global warming deserve more attention in projecting the climate change in arid and semiarid regions.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an evaluation system to help users assess the suitability of the available inventories for different types of earthquake-induced landslide studies and model development, as well as the underlying characteristics of landslide size, topographic slope, roughness, local relief, distance to streams, peak ground acceleration and peak ground velocity.
Abstract: Earthquake-induced landslide (EQIL) inventories are essential tools to extend our knowledge of the relationship between earthquakes and the landslides they can trigger. Regrettably, such inventories are difficult to generate and therefore scarce, and the available ones differ in terms of their quality and level of completeness. Moreover, access to existing EQIL inventories is currently difficult because there is no centralized database. To address these issues, we compiled EQIL inventories from around the globe based on an extensive literature study. The database contains information on 363 landslide-triggering earthquakes and includes 66 digital landslide inventories. To make these data openly available, we created a repository to host the digital inventories that we have permission to redistribute through the U.S. Geological Survey ScienceBase platform. It can grow over time as more authors contribute their inventories. We analyze the distribution of EQIL events by time period and location, more specifically breaking down the distribution by continent, country and mountain region. Additionally, we analyze frequency distributions of EQIL characteristics, such as the approximate area affected by landslides, total number of landslides, maximum distance from fault rupture zone, and distance from epicenter when the fault plane location is unknown. For the available digital EQIL inventories, we examine the underlying characteristics of landslide size, topographic slope, roughness, local relief, distance to streams, peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, and Modified Mercalli Intensity. Also, we present an evaluation system to help users assess the suitability of the available inventories for different types of EQIL studies and model development.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors provide consistency assessment of four of the leading products, namely, Goddard Bootstrap (SB2), Goddard NASA Team (NT1), EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI-SAF 1.2), and Hadley HadISST 2.2 data in evaluating variability and trends in the Arctic sea ice cover.
Abstract: Variability and trend studies of sea ice in the Arctic have been conducted using products derived from the same raw passive microwave data but by different groups using different algorithms. This study provides consistency assessment of four of the leading products, namely, Goddard Bootstrap (SB2), Goddard NASA Team (NT1), EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI-SAF 1.2), and Hadley HadISST 2.2 data in evaluating variability and trends in the Arctic sea ice cover. All four provide generally similar ice patterns but significant disagreements in ice concentration distributions especially in the marginal ice zone and adjacent regions in winter and meltponded areas in summer. The discrepancies are primarily due to different ways the four techniques account for occurrences of new ice and meltponding. However, results show that the different products generally provide consistent and similar representation of the state of the Arctic sea ice cover. Hadley and NT1 data usually provide the highest and lowest monthly ice extents, respectively. The Hadley data also show the lowest trends in ice extent and ice area at negative 3.88 percent decade and negative 4.37 percent decade, respectively, compared to an average of negative 4.36 percent decade and negative 4.57 percent decade for all four. Trend maps also show similar spatial distribution for all four with the largest negative trends occurring at the Kara/Barents Sea and Beaufort Sea regions, where sea ice has been retreating the fastest. The good agreement of the trends especially with updated data provides strong confidence in the quantification of the rate of decline in the Arctic sea ice cover.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an extensive set of emission factors (EFs) for over 80 gases and 5 components of submicron particulate matter (PM_1) from three wildfires in the western U.S. were measured from aircraft during the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC^4RS) and the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP).
Abstract: Wildfires emit significant amounts of pollutants that degrade air quality. Plumes from three wildfires in the western U.S. were measured from aircraft during the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC^4RS) and the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP), both in summer 2013. This study reports an extensive set of emission factors (EFs) for over 80 gases and 5 components of submicron particulate matter (PM_1) from these temperate wildfires. These include rarely, or never before, measured oxygenated volatile organic compounds and multifunctional organic nitrates. The observed EFs are compared with previous measurements of temperate wildfires, boreal forest fires, and temperate prescribed fires. The wildfires emitted high amounts of PM_1 (with organic aerosol (OA) dominating the mass) with an average EF that is more than 2 times the EFs for prescribed fires. The measured EFs were used to estimate the annual wildfire emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, total nonmethane organic compounds, and PM_1 from 11 western U.S. states. The estimated gas emissions are generally comparable with the 2011 National Emissions Inventory (NEI). However, our PM_1 emission estimate (1530 ± 570 Gg yr^(−1)) is over 3 times that of the NEI PM_(2.5) estimate and is also higher than the PM_(2.5) emitted from all other sources in these states in the NEI. This study indicates that the source of OA from biomass burning in the western states is significantly underestimated. In addition, our results indicate that prescribed burning may be an effective method to reduce fine particle emissions.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling (SOCCOM) program has begun deploying a large array of biogeochemical sensors on profiling floats in the Southern Ocean as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling (SOCCOM) program has begun deploying a large array of biogeochemical sensors on profiling floats in the Southern Ocean. As of February 2016, 86 floats have been deployed. Here the focus is on 56 floats with quality controlled and adjusted data that have been in the water at least 6 months. The floats carry oxygen, nitrate, pH, chlorophyll fluorescence, and optical backscatter sensors. The raw data generated by these sensors can suffer from inaccurate initial calibrations and from sensor drift over time. Procedures to correct the data are defined. The initial accuracy of the adjusted concentrations is assessed by comparing the corrected data to laboratory measurements made on samples collected by a hydrographic cast with a rosette sampler at the float deployment station. The long-term accuracy of the corrected data is compared to the GLODAPv2 data set whenever a float made a profile within 20 km of a GLODAPv2 station. Based on these assessments, the fleet average oxygen data are accurate to 1±1%, nitrate to within 0.5±0.5 µmol kg−1, and pH to 0.005±0.01, where the error limit is 1 standard deviation of the fleet data. The bio-optical measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence and optical backscatter are used to estimate chlorophyll a and particulate organic carbon concentration. The particulate organic carbon concentrations inferred from optical backscatter appear accurate to with 35 mg C m−3 or 20%, whichever is larger. Factors affecting the accuracy of the estimated chlorophyll a concentrations are evaluated.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a transect-based, one-line model that predicts short-term and long-term shoreline response to climate change in the 21st century is presented.
Abstract: We present a shoreline change model for coastal hazard assessment and management planning. The model, CoSMoS-COAST (Coastal One-line Assimilated Simulation Tool), is a transect-based, one-line model that predicts short-term and long-term shoreline response to climate change in the 21st century. The proposed model represents a novel, modular synthesis of process-based models of coastline evolution due to longshore and cross-shore transport by waves and sea level rise. Additionally, the model uses an extended Kalman filter for data assimilation of historical shoreline positions to improve estimates of model parameters and thereby improve confidence in long-term predictions. We apply CoSMoS-COAST to simulate sandy shoreline evolution along 500 km of coastline in Southern California, which hosts complex mixtures of beach settings variably backed by dunes, bluffs, cliffs, estuaries, river mouths, and urban infrastructure, providing applicability of the model to virtually any coastal setting. Aided by data assimilation, the model is able to reproduce the observed signal of seasonal shoreline change for the hindcast period of 1995–2010, showing excellent agreement between modeled and observed beach states. The skill of the model during the hindcast period improves confidence in the model's predictive capability when applied to the forecast period (2010–2100) driven by GCM-projected wave and sea level conditions. Predictions of shoreline change with limited human intervention indicate that 31% to 67% of Southern California beaches may become completely eroded by 2100 under sea level rise scenarios of 0.93 to 2.0 m.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an iterative tropospheric decomposition interpolation model that decouples the elevation and turbulent components is presented, which can be used for correcting SAR images, for numeral weather prediction and for correcting Network Real-time Kinematic GPS observations.
Abstract: Pointwise GPS measurements of tropospheric zenith total delay can be interpolated to provide high resolution water vapor maps which may be used for correcting SAR images, for numeral weather prediction and for correcting Network Real-time Kinematic GPS observations. Several previous studies have addressed the importance of the elevation dependency of water vapor, but it is often a challenge to separate elevation-dependent tropospheric delays from turbulent components. In this paper, we present an iterative tropospheric decomposition interpolation model that decouples the elevation and turbulent tropospheric delay components. For a 150 km x 150 km California study region, we estimate real-time mode zenith total delays at 41 GPS stations over 1 year using the precise point positioning technique, and demonstrate that the decoupled interpolation model generates improved high resolution tropospheric delay maps compared with previous tropospheric turbulence and elevation dependent models. Cross validation of the GPS zenith total delays yields an RMS error of 4.6 mm with the decoupled interpolation model, compared with 8.4 mm with the previous model. On converting the GPS zenith wet delays to precipitable water vapor and interpolating to 1 km grid cells across the region, validations with the MODIS near-IR water vapor product show 1.7 mm RMS differences using the decoupled model, compared with 2.0 mm for the previous interpolation model. Such results are obtained without differencing the tropospheric delays or water vapor estimates in time or space, whilst the errors are similar over flat and mountainous terrain, as well as for both inland and coastal areas.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the influence of material heterogeneity on the strength and deformation behavior and the associated microcracking process of a felsic crystalline rock using a grain-based modeling approach in two-dimensional Particle Flow Code was numerically investigated.
Abstract: This study numerically investigates the influence of material heterogeneity on the strength and deformation behavior and the associated microcracking process of a felsic crystalline rock using a grain-based modeling approach in two-dimensional Particle Flow Code. By using a heterogeneity index defined in this study, the heterogeneity induced by variation of grain size distribution can be explicitly incorporated into the numerical specimen models quantitatively. Under compressive loading, the peak strength and the elastic modulus are found to increase as the numerical model gradually changes from heterogeneous to homogeneous, i.e., a decrease of heterogeneity index. Meanwhile, the number of grain boundary tensile cracks gradually decreases and the number of intragrain cracks increases at the moment of failure. However, the total number of generated microcracks seems not to be significantly influenced by heterogeneity. The orientation of grain boundary microcracks is mainly controlled by the geometry of assembled grain structure of the numerical specimen model, while the orientation of intragrain microcracks is to a large degree influenced by the confinement. In addition, the development of intragrain cracks (both tensile and shear) is much more favored in quartz than in other minerals. Under direct tensile loading, heterogeneity is found to have no significant influence on the simulated stress-strain responses and rock strength. Only grain boundary tensile cracks are generated when the numerical models are loaded in direct tension, and the position of generated macroscopic fracture developed upon failure of the specimen is largely affected by heterogeneity.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a double double-porosity model is introduced to model the wave effects (attenuation and velocity dispersion), where pores saturated with two different fluids overlap with pores having dissimilar compressibilities.
Abstract: Heterogeneity of rock's fabric can induce heterogeneous distribution of immiscible fluids in natural reservoirs, since the lithological variations (mainly permeability) may affect fluid migration in geological time scales, resulting in patchy saturation of fluids. Therefore, fabric and saturation inhomogeneities both affect wave propagation. To model the wave effects (attenuation and velocity dispersion), we introduce a double double-porosity model, where pores saturated with two different fluids overlap with pores having dissimilar compressibilities. The governing equations are derived by using Hamilton's principle based on the potential energy, kinetic energy, and dissipation functions, and the stiffness coefficients are determined by gedanken experiments, yielding one fast P wave and four slow Biot waves. Three examples are given, namely, muddy siltstones, clean dolomites, and tight sandstones, where fabric heterogeneities at three different spatial scales are analyzed in comparison with experimental data. In muddy siltstones, where intrapore clay and intergranular pores constitute a submicroscopic double-porosity structure, wave anelasticity mainly occurs in the frequency range (104–107 Hz), while in pure dolomites with microscopic heterogeneity of grain contacts and tight sandstones with mesoscopic heterogeneity of less consolidated sands, it occurs at 103–107 Hz and 101–103 Hz (seismic band), respectively. The predicted maximum quality factor of the fast compressional wave for the sandstone is the lowest (approximately 8), and that of the dolomite is the highest. The results of the diffusive slow waves are affected by the strong friction effects between solids and fluids. The model describes wave propagation in patchy-saturated rocks with fabric heterogeneity at different scales, and the relevant theoretical predictions agree well with the experimental data in fully and partially saturated rocks.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Sample Analysis at Mars instrument evolved gas analyzer (SAM-EGA) has detected evolved water, H2, SO2, H 2S, NO, CO2, CO, O2 and HCl from two eolian sediments and nine sedimentary rocks from Gale Crater.
Abstract: The Sample Analysis at Mars instrument evolved gas analyzer (SAM-EGA) has detected evolved water, H2, SO2, H2S, NO, CO2, CO, O2 and HCl from two eolian sediments and nine sedimentary rocks from Gale Crater, Mars. These evolved gas detections indicate nitrates, organics, oxychlorine phase, and sulfates are widespread with phyllosilicates and carbonates occurring in select Gale Crater materials. Coevolved CO2 (160 ± 248 - 2373 ± 820 μgC(CO2)/g), and CO (11 ± 3 - 320 ± 130 μgC(CO)/g) suggest organic-C is present in Gale Crater materials. Five samples evolved CO2 at temperatures consistent with carbonate (0.32± 0.05 - 0.70± 0.1 wt.% CO3). Evolved NO amounts to 0.002 ± 0.007 - 0.06 ± 0.03 wt.% NO3. Evolution of O2 suggests oxychlorine phases (chlorate/perchlorate) (0.05 ± 0.025 - 1.05 ± 0.44wt. % ClO4) are present while SO2 evolution indicates the presence of crystalline and/or poorly crystalline Fe- and Mg-sulfate and possibly sulfide. Evolved H2O (0.9 ± 0.3 - 2.5 ± 1.6 wt.% H2O) is consistent with the presence of adsorbed water, hydrated salts, interlayer/structural water from phyllosilicates, and possible inclusion water in mineral/amorphous phases. Evolved H2 and H2S suggest reduced phases occur despite the presence of oxidized phases (nitrate, oxychlorine, sulfate, carbonate). SAM results coupled with CheMin mineralogical and APXS elemental analyses indicate that Gale Crater sedimentary rocks have experienced a complex authigenetic/diagenetic history involving fluids with varying pH, redox, and salt composition. The inferred geochemical conditions were favorable for microbial habitability and if life ever existed, there was likely sufficient organic-C to support a small microbial population.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used infrared data from the LRO Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment to globally map thermophysical properties of the Moon's regolith fines layer, and identified anomalous regions are identified in the global 128 pixels-per-degree maps presented here.
Abstract: We used infrared data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment to globally map thermophysical properties of the Moon's regolith fines layer. Thermal conductivity varies from 7.4×10-4 W m-1 K-1 at the surface, to 3.4×10-3 W m-1 K-1 at depths of ~1 m, given density values of 1100 kg m-3 at the surface, to 1800 kg m-3 at 1-m depth. On average, the scale height of these profiles is ~7 cm, corresponding to a thermal inertia of 55 ±2 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 at 273 K, relevant to the diurnally active near-surface layer, ~4-7 cm. The temperature-dependence of thermal conductivity and heat capacity leads to a ~2x diurnal variation in thermal inertia at the equator. On global scales, the regolith fines are remarkably uniform, implying rapid homogenization by impact gardening of this layer on timescales 100 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2) in the interiors and ejecta of Copernican-aged impact craters, and lower thermal inertia (< 50 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2) within the lunar cold spots identified by Bandfield et al. (2014). Observed trends in ejecta thermal inertia provide a potential tool for age-dating craters of previously unknown age, complementary to the approach suggested by Ghent et al. (2014). Several anomalous regions are identified in the global 128 pixels-per-degree maps presented here, including a high-thermal inertia deposit near the antipode of Tycho crater.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The DEEPWAVE (deep-propagating wave experiment) campaign was designed for an airborne and ground-based exploration of gravity waves from their tropospheric sources up to their dissipation at high altitudes as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The DEEPWAVE (deep-propagating wave experiment) campaign was designed for an airborne and ground-based exploration of gravity waves from their tropospheric sources up to their dissipation at high altitudes It was performed in and around New Zealand from 24 May till 27 July 2014, being the first comprehensive field campaign of this kind A variety of airborne instruments was deployed onboard the research aircraft NSF/NCAR Gulfstream V (GV) and the DLR Falcon Additionally, ground-based measurements were conducted at different sites across the southern island of New Zealand, including the DLR Rayleigh lidar located at Lauder (4504 S, 16968 E) We focus on the intensive observing period (IOP) 10 on the 4 July 2014, when strong WSW winds of about 40 m/s at 700 hPa provided intense forcing conditions for mountain waves At tropopause level, the horizontal wind exceeded 50 m/s and favored the vertical propagation of gravity waves into the stratosphere The DLR Rayleigh Lidar measured temperature fluctuations with peak-to-peak amplitudes of about 20 K in the mesosphere (60 km to 80 km MSL) over a period of more than 10 hours Two research flights were conducted by the DLR Falcon (Falcon Flight 04 and 05) during this period with straight transects (Mt Aspiring 2a) over New Zealand´s Alps at three different flight-levels around the tropopause (approx 11 km MSL) These research flights were coordinated with the GV (Research Flight 16) where the largest mountain wave amplitudes at flight-level (approx 13 km MSL) were measured during DEEPWAVE Additionally a first analysis of Falcon's in-situ flight-level data revealed amplitudes in the vertical wind larger than 4 m/s at all altitudes in the vicinity of the highest peaks of the Southern Alps Here, we present a comprehensive picture of the gravity wave characteristics and propagation properties during this interesting gravity wave event We use the airborne observations combined with a comprehensive set of ground-based measurements consisting of 13 radiosoundings (15 hourly interval) together with the DLR Rayleigh lidar To cover the altitude range from the troposphere to the mesosphere, high-resolution (1 hourly) ECMWF analyses and forecasts are used to estimate the propagation conditions of the excited mountain waves The goal of our investigation is to find out whether the large amplitude mesospheric gravity waves are caused by the strong tropospheric forcing

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used the MOST Special Fund from the State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources (China University of Geosciences) to support the development of a geoscience research project.
Abstract: This research was financially supported by the MOST of China (No. 2016YFC0600304 and No. 2016YFC0600407), the Strategic Priority Research Program (B) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDB03010301), the National Science Foundation of China (41225006 and 41472061), and the MOST Special Fund from the State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources (China University of Geosciences).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a non-dimensional divide migration number, NDm, is defined as the ratio of the timescale of channel profile response to a change in drainage area (TdA) to the timescales of divide migration (TDm).
Abstract: Efforts to extract information about climate and tectonics from topography commonly assume that river networks are static. Drainage divides can migrate through time, however, and recent work has shown that divide mobility can potentially induce changes in river profiles comparable to changes caused by variation in rock uplift, climate, or rock properties. We use 1D river profile and 2D landscape evolution simulations to evaluate how mobile divides influence the interpretation of river profiles in tectonically active settings. We define a non-dimensional divide migration number, NDm, as the ratio of the timescale of channel profile response to a change in drainage area (TdA) to the timescale of divide migration (TDm). In simulations of headward divide migration, NDm is much less than unity with no measurable perturbation of channel profiles. Only in simulations configured to induce rapid lateral divide migration are there occasional large stream capture events and zones where localized drainage area loss is fast enough to support NDm values near unity. The rapid response of channel profiles to changes in drainage area ensures that under most conditions profiles maintain quasi-equilibrium forms and thus generally reflect spatio-temporal variation in rock uplift, climate, or rock properties even during active divide migration. This implies that channel profile form may not reliably record divide mobility, so we evaluate alternate metrics of divide mobility. In our simulations and an example in Taiwan, we find that simple measures of cross-divide contrasts in topography are more robust metrics of divide mobility than measures of drainage network topology.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors argue that the pseudo-single domain (PSD) does not describe the relevant physical processes, which have been documented extensively using three-dimensional micromagnetic modeling, and by parallel research in materials science and solid-state physics.
Abstract: The term ‘pseudo-single domain’ (PSD) has been used to describe the transitional state in rock magnetism that spans the particle size range between the single domain (SD) and multi-domain (MD) states. The particle size range for the stable SD state in the most commonly occurring terrestrial magnetic mineral, magnetite, is so narrow (~20-75 nm) that it is widely considered that much of the paleomagnetic record of interest is carried by ‘PSD’ rather than stable SD particles. The PSD concept has, thus, become the dominant explanation for the magnetization associated with a major fraction of particles that record paleomagnetic signals throughout geological time. In this paper, we argue that in contrast to the SD and MD states, the term ‘PSD’ does not describe the relevant physical processes, which have been documented extensively using three-dimensional micromagnetic modeling, and by parallel research in materials science and solid-state physics. We also argue that features attributed to ‘PSD’ behavior can be explained by nucleation of a single magnetic vortex immediately above the maximum stable SD transition size. With increasing particle size, multiple vortices, antivortices, and domain walls can nucleate, which produce variable cancellation of magnetic moments and a gradual transition into the MD state. Thus, while the term ‘PSD’ describes a well-known transitional state, it fails to describe adequately the physics of the relevant processes. We recommend that use of this term should be discontinued in favor of “vortex state”, which spans a range of behaviors associated with magnetic vortices.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present new insights into the evolution and interactions of stratospheric aerosol using an updated version of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM).
Abstract: We present new insights into the evolution and interactions of stratospheric aerosol using an updated version of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). Improved horizontal resolution, dynamics, and chemistry now produce an internally generated quasi-biennial oscillation and significant improvements to stratospheric temperatures and ozone compared to observations. We present a validation of WACCM column ozone and climate calculations against observations. The prognostic treatment of stratospheric sulfate aerosols accurately represents the evolution of stratospheric aerosol optical depth and perturbations to solar and longwave radiation following the June 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo. We confirm the inclusion of interactive OH chemistry as an important factor in the formation and initial distribution of aerosol following large inputs of sulfur dioxide (SO_2) to the stratosphere. We calculate that depletion of OH levels within the dense SO_2 cloud in the first weeks following the Pinatubo eruption significantly prolonged the average initial e-folding decay time for SO_2 oxidation to 47 days. Previous observational and model studies showing a 30 day decay time have not accounted for the large (30–55%) losses of SO_2 on ash and ice within 7–9 days posteruption and have not correctly accounted for OH depletion. We examine the variability of aerosol evolution in free-running climate simulations due to meteorology, with comparison to simulations nudged with specified dynamics. We assess calculated impacts of volcanic aerosols on ozone loss with comparisons to observations. The completeness of the chemistry, dynamics, and aerosol microphysics in WACCM qualify it for studies of stratospheric sulfate aerosol geoengineering.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors conducted an internet-based survey of the workplace experiences of 474 astronomers and planetary scientists between 2011 and 2015 and found that women of color experienced the highest rates of negative workplace experiences, including harassment and assault.
Abstract: Women generally, and women of color specifically, have reported hostile workplace experiences in astronomy and related fields for some time. However, little is known of the extent to which individuals in these disciplines experience inappropriate remarks, harassment, and assault. We hypothesized that the multiple marginality of women of color would mean that they would experience a higher frequency of inappropriate remarks, harassment, and assault in the astronomical and planetary science workplace. We conducted an internet-based survey of the workplace experiences of 474 astronomers and planetary scientists between 2011 and 2015 and found support for this hypothesis. In this sample, in nearly every significant finding, women of color experienced the highest rates of negative workplace experiences, including harassment and assault. Further, 40% of women of color reported feeling unsafe in the workplace as a result of their gender or sex, and 28% of women of color reported feeling unsafe as a result of their race. Finally, 18% of women of color, and 12% of white women, skipped professional events because they did not feel safe attending, identifying a significant loss of career opportunities due to a hostile climate. Our results suggest that the astronomy and planetary science community needs to address the experiences of women of color and white women as they move forward in their efforts to create an inclusive workplace for all scientists.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors demonstrate that earthquakes in this region cluster into distinct sequences in time, space, and focal mechanism using cross-correlation detection methods to delineate transient temporal relationships, double-difference relocations to confirm spatial clustering, and moment tensor solutions to assess fault motion consistency.
Abstract: This paper summarizes the current state of understanding regarding the induced seismicity in connection with hydraulic fracturing operations targeting the Duvernay Formation in central Alberta, near the town of Fox Creek. We demonstrate that earthquakes in this region cluster into distinct sequences in time, space, and focal mechanism using (i) cross-correlation detection methods to delineate transient temporal relationships, (ii) double-difference relocations to confirm spatial clustering, and (iii) moment tensor solutions to assess fault motion consistency. The spatiotemporal clustering of the earthquake sequences is strongly related to the nearby hydraulic fracturing operations. In addition, we identify a preference for strike-slip motions on subvertical faults with an approximate 45° P axis orientation, consistent with expectation from the ambient stress field. The hypocentral geometries for two of the largest-magnitude (M ~4) sequences that are robustly constrained by local array data provide compelling evidence for planar features starting at Duvernay Formation depths and extending into the shallow Precambrian basement. We interpret these lineaments as subvertical faults orientated approximately north-south, consistent with the regional moment tensor solutions. Finally, we conclude that the sequences were triggered by pore pressure increases in response to hydraulic fracturing stimulations along previously existing faults.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the effect of environmental conditions on the relationship of OCO-2 SIF with tower GPP over the course of a growing season at a well-characterized natural grassland site.
Abstract: Recent studies have utilized coarse spatial and temporal resolution remotely sensed solar induced fluorescence (SIF) for modeling terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) at regional scales. Although these studies have demonstrated the potential of SIF, there have been concerns about the ecophysiological basis of the relationship between SIF and GPP in different environmental conditions. Launched in 2014, the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) has enabled fine scale (1.3-by-2.5 km) retrievals of SIF that are comparable with measurements recorded at eddy covariance towers. In this study, we examine the effect of environmental conditions on the relationship of OCO-2 SIF with tower GPP over the course of a growing season at a well-characterized natural grassland site. Combining OCO-2 SIF and eddy covariance tower data with a canopy radiative transfer and an ecosystem model, we also assess the potential of OCO-2 SIF to constrain the estimates of V_(cmax), one of the most important parameters in ecosystem models. Based on the results, we suggest that although environmental conditions play a role in determining the nature of relationship between SIF and GPP, overall the linear relationship is more robust at ecosystem scale than the theory based on leaf-level processes might suggest. Our study also shows that the ability of SIF to constrain V_(cmax) is weak at the selected site.