Journal of Hazardous Materials
About: Journal of Hazardous Materials is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Adsorption & Freundlich equation. It has an ISSN identifier of 0304-3894. Over the lifetime, 25532 publication(s) have been published receiving 1233312 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: An overview of second-order kinetic expressions is described in this paper based on the solid adsorption capacity, which shows that a pseudo-second-order rate expression has been widely applied to the Adsorption of pollutants from aqueous solutions onto adsorbents.
Abstract: Applications of second-order kinetic models to adsorption systems were reviewed. An overview of second-order kinetic expressions is described in this paper based on the solid adsorption capacity. An early empirical second-order equation was applied in the adsorption of gases onto a solid. A similar second-order equation was applied to describe ion exchange reactions. In recent years, a pseudo-second-order rate expression has been widely applied to the adsorption of pollutants from aqueous solutions onto adsorbents. In addition, the earliest rate equation based on the solid adsorption capacity is also presented in detail.
TL;DR: Strong acids and bases seem to be the best desorbing agents to produce arsenic concentrates, and some commercial adsorbents which include resins, gels, silica, treated silica tested for arsenic removal come out to be superior.
Abstract: Arsenic's history in science, medicine and technology has been overshadowed by its notoriety as a poison in homicides. Arsenic is viewed as being synonymous with toxicity. Dangerous arsenic concentrations in natural waters is now a worldwide problem and often referred to as a 20th-21st century calamity. High arsenic concentrations have been reported recently from the USA, China, Chile, Bangladesh, Taiwan, Mexico, Argentina, Poland, Canada, Hungary, Japan and India. Among 21 countries in different parts of the world affected by groundwater arsenic contamination, the largest population at risk is in Bangladesh followed by West Bengal in India. Existing overviews of arsenic removal include technologies that have traditionally been used (oxidation, precipitation/coagulation/membrane separation) with far less attention paid to adsorption. No previous review is available where readers can get an overview of the sorption capacities of both available and developed sorbents used for arsenic remediation together with the traditional remediation methods. We have incorporated most of the valuable available literature on arsenic remediation by adsorption ( approximately 600 references). Existing purification methods for drinking water; wastewater; industrial effluents, and technological solutions for arsenic have been listed. Arsenic sorption by commercially available carbons and other low-cost adsorbents are surveyed and critically reviewed and their sorption efficiencies are compared. Arsenic adsorption behavior in presence of other impurities has been discussed. Some commercially available adsorbents are also surveyed. An extensive table summarizes the sorption capacities of various adsorbents. Some low-cost adsorbents are superior including treated slags, carbons developed from agricultural waste (char carbons and coconut husk carbons), biosorbents (immobilized biomass, orange juice residue), goethite and some commercial adsorbents, which include resins, gels, silica, treated silica tested for arsenic removal come out to be superior. Immobilized biomass adsorbents offered outstanding performances. Desorption of arsenic followed by regeneration of sorbents has been discussed. Strong acids and bases seem to be the best desorbing agents to produce arsenic concentrates. Arsenic concentrate treatment and disposal obtained is briefly addressed. This issue is very important but much less discussed.
TL;DR: The technical feasibility of various low-cost adsorbents for heavy metal removal from contaminated water has been reviewed and it is evident from the literature survey of about 100 papers that low- cost adsorbent have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for certain metal ions as compared to activated carbon.
Abstract: In this article, the technical feasibility of various low-cost adsorbents for heavy metal removal from contaminated water has been reviewed. Instead of using commercial activated carbon, researchers have worked on inexpensive materials, such as chitosan, zeolites, and other adsorbents, which have high adsorption capacity and are locally available. The results of their removal performance are compared to that of activated carbon and are presented in this study. It is evident from our literature survey of about 100 papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for certain metal ions as compared to activated carbon. Adsorbents that stand out for high adsorption capacities are chitosan (815, 273, 250 mg/g of Hg(2+), Cr(6+), and Cd(2+), respectively), zeolites (175 and 137 mg/g of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+), respectively), waste slurry (1030, 560, 540 mg/g of Pb(2+), Hg(2+), and Cr(6+), respectively), and lignin (1865 mg/g of Pb(2+)). These adsorbents are suitable for inorganic effluent treatment containing the metal ions mentioned previously. It is important to note that the adsorption capacities of the adsorbents presented in this paper vary, depending on the characteristics of the individual adsorbent, the extent of chemical modifications, and the concentration of adsorbate.
TL;DR: This paper presents a literature review of the various Fenton reagent reactions which constitute the overall kinetic scheme with all possible side reactions and discusses the possibility of improving sludge dewaterability using Fenton's reagent.
Abstract: Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is a strong oxidant and its application in the treatment of various inorganic and organic pollutants is well established. Still H(2)O(2) alone is not effective for high concentrations of certain refractory contaminants because of low rates of reaction at reasonable H(2)O(2) concentrations. Improvements can be achieved by using transition metal salts (e.g. iron salts) or ozone and UV-light can activate H(2)O(2) to form hydroxyl radicals, which are strong oxidants. Oxidation processes utilising activation of H(2)O(2) by iron salts, classically referred to as Fenton's reagent is known to be very effective in the destruction of many hazardous organic pollutants in water. The first part of our paper presents a literature review of the various Fenton reagent reactions which constitute the overall kinetic scheme with all possible side reactions. It also summarises previous publications on the relationships between the dominant parameters (e.g. [H(2)O(2)], [Fe(2+)], . . .). The second part of our review discusses the possibility of improving sludge dewaterability using Fenton's reagent.
TL;DR: The biodegradation of PAHs has been observed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and the rate can be enhanced by physical/chemical pretreatment of contaminated soil.
Abstract: PAHs are aromatic hydrocarbons with two or more fused benzene rings with natural as well as anthropogenic sources. They are widely distributed environmental contaminants that have detrimental biological effects, toxicity, mutagenecity and carcinogenicity. Due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity, the PAHs have gathered significant environmental concern. Although PAH may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical degradation, microbial degradation is the major degradation process. PAH degradation depends on the environmental conditions, number and type of the microorganisms, nature and chemical structure of the chemical compound being degraded. They are biodegraded/biotransformed into less complex metabolites, and through mineralization into inorganic minerals, H2O, CO2 (aerobic) or CH4 (anaerobic) and rate of biodegradation depends on pH, temperature, oxygen, microbial population, degree of acclimation, accessibility of nutrients, chemical structure of the compound, cellular transport properties, and chemical partitioning in growth medium. A number of bacterial species are known to degrade PAHs and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil or sediments. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomons fluoresens, Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied PAH-degrading bacteria. Lignolytic fungi too have the property of PAH degradation. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Bjerkandera adusta, and Pleurotus ostreatus are the common PAH-degrading fungi. Enzymes involved in the degradation of PAHs are oxygenase, dehydrogenase and lignolytic enzymes. Fungal lignolytic enzymes are lignin peroxidase, laccase, and manganese peroxidase. They are extracellular and catalyze radical formation by oxidation to destabilize bonds in a molecule. The biodegradation of PAHs has been observed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and the rate can be enhanced by physical/chemical pretreatment of contaminated soil. Addition of biosurfactant-producing bacteria and light oils can increase the bioavailability of PAHs and metabolic potential of the bacterial community. The supplementation of contaminated soils with compost materials can also enhance biodegradation without long-term accumulation of extractable polar and more available intermediates. Wetlands, too, have found an application in PAH removal from wastewater. The intensive biological activities in such an ecosystem lead to a high rate of autotrophic and heterotrophic processes. Aquatic weeds Typha spp. and Scirpus lacustris have been used in horizontal–vertical macrophyte based wetlands to treat PAHs. An integrated approach of physical, chemical, and biological degradation may be adopted to get synergistically enhanced removal rates and to treat/remediate the contaminated sites in an ecologically favorable process.