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Showing papers in "Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants in 2015"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Stable genotypes G-4, 5, 16, and 34 showed the widest adaptability/stability due to their ability to tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions and were identified by using additive main effects and multiplicative interactions (AMMI) analysis.
Abstract: The investigation was carried out to determine the genetic diversity, stability, and adaptability pattern among 40 genetic stocks of vetiver assembled from different states of India, with exotic collections from Indonesia, Reunion Island, Haiti, and Thailand. Samples were examined in terms of quantified degree of divergence using multivariate analysis. The range of D2 values from 30.16 to 16356.60 was indicative of high genetic diversity present in genetic stocks of vetiver. Further, stable genotypes for high oil yield were identified over the course of a year by using additive main effects and multiplicative interactions (AMMI) analysis. Based on the AMMI model, genotypes G-4, 5, 16, and 34 showed the widest adaptability/stability due to their ability to tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions.

18 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Dehydrated peels from ash gourd (Benincasa hispida), ridge goursd (Luffa acutangula), and cho-chow marrow (Sechium edule) were analyzed for chemical composition and bioactive potential as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Dehydrated peels from ash gourd (Benincasa hispida), ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula), and cho-chow marrow (Sechium edule) were analyzed for chemical composition and bioactive potential. The range of constituents per 100g dry peels were protein, 3 to 15 g; insoluble fiber, 45 to 58 g; ether extractives, 2.3 to 3.3 g; iron, 5.1 to 17.4 mg; calcium, 307 to 704 mg; tannins, 580 to 848 mg; carotenoids, 1,712 to 35,663 μg; and ascorbic acid, 37 to 51 mg. Polyphenols, total antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), and reducing power of peel were highest in aqueous extracts. FRSA of cho-chow marrow peel was the highest (87.32%) followed by ridge gourd (85.4%) and ash gourd (63.31%) peels that correlated well with bioactive components. Methanol and aqueous extracts of the peel exhibited bile acid binding (61%–98%) and α-amylase inhibitory activity.

15 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The bioactive phenolic compounds in Alpinia galanga and A. calcarata were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy method as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The bio-active phenolic compounds in Alpinia galanga and A. calcarata were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy method. LC-MS/MS analysis showed that gallic acid and ellagic acid were the major phenolic compounds in A. galanga (320 and 518 mg.kg−1, respectively) and A. calcarata (75 and 1,200 mg.kg−1, respectively). The method was validated for its linearity, precision, and accuracy as well as sensitivity. A. galanga showed better free radical scavenging activity against DPPH. and ABTS+. with an IC50 value of 21.26 and 25.54 μ g.mL−1, respectively than A. calcarata (56.51 and 62.35 μ g.mL−1, respectively). The antioxidant activity of A. galanga may be due to higher amounts of phenolic compounds present in this plant.

14 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The essential oils exhibited varying repellency properties against An.
Abstract: The essential oils of three aromatic plant species, Lantana viburnoides sp. viburnoides var. kisi (A. Rich.) Verdc., Clausena anisata (Willd.) Benth. and Uvariodendron gorgonis Verdc., were analysed for their chemical compositions and repellency activity against Anopheles gambiae s.s. The major chemical constituents were piperitenone (25.25%) and artemisia ketone (13.96%) in L. viburnoides oil; Estragol (88.38%) in C. anisata; and eugenol (89.82%) in U. gorgonis. The essential oils exhibited varying repellency properties against An. gambiae confirming the ethnobotanical usage as insect repellent. Further prospect exist of improving repellency of U. gorgonis and L. viburnoides essential oils by incorporating some inactive carriers.

13 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In vitro inhibitory activity of Carissa spinarum leaf extracts against Bungarus caeruleus and Vipera russelli toxic snake venom enzymes was determined.
Abstract: In vitro inhibitory activity of Carissa spinarum leaf extracts against Bungarus caeruleus and Vipera russelli toxic snake venom enzymes was determined. The leaf extracts in non-polar and polar solvents were concentrated and were used for inhibitory activity determination. Methanol extracts (100 μg.mL−1) inhibited acetylcholinesterase, phospholipase A2, hyaluronidase, phosphomonoesterase, phosphodiesterase, 5′ nucleotidase enzymes of B. caeruleus and V. russelli venoms.

12 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a heat-stable, polyphenol-rich extract (RauPre) was prepared from the dried basidiocarps and analyzed for free radical scavenging activity of Ramaria aurea.
Abstract: Free radical scavenging activity of Ramaria aurea, an edible mushroom, naturally grown in Shilong, India, was evaluated. A heat-stable, polyphenol-rich extract (RauPre) was prepared from the dried basidiocarps and analyzed. The major chemical constituent of RauPre was phenols (26.86 μg gallic acid equivalents [GAE] mg−1 of dry extract); flavonoids, β-carotene, lycopene, and ascorbic acid were present in minor amounts. Main phenolic acids identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were caffeic acid > cinnamic acid > gallic acid. Results from antioxidant assays demonstrated potential for superoxide and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity (EC50 0.283 mg mL−1 and 0.384 mg mL−1, respectively). RauPre chelated ferrous ion (EC50 0.95 mg mL−1) and had Fe3+ to Fe2+ reducing power (EC50 1.025 mg mL−1). The activity of 1 mg of RauPre was equivalent to 86.7 μg ascorbic acid for total antioxidant capacity.

11 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The aerial parts of Thymus capitatus were examined for fungicidal activities and analyzed for their fatty acids concentrations, using trans-esterification and gas chromatography mass spectroscopy analysis, and two major fatty acids were found in abundance in the hexane extract.
Abstract: The aerial parts of Thymus capitatus were examined for fungicidal activities and analyzed for their fatty acids concentrations, using trans-esterification and gas chromatography mass spectroscopy analysis. Fifteen fatty acids were identified, accounting for 95.0 % of the lipid content. Two major fatty acids, α-linolenic (29.6 %) and linoleic (15.1 %), were found in abundance in the hexane extract. The effect of fatty acids and hexane extract on the growth of the plant pathogenic fungi isolated by citrus fruits—Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryza, Penicillium digitatum, and Fusarium solani—fungi were examined by in vitro studies. The fatty acids and hexane extract inhibited the mycelial growth of all strains tested.

7 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Paullinia pinnata could be a good alternative in the treatment of infections caused by these organisms and killing kinetic showed that the plant extract eliminated Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.
Abstract: The in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activities of the methanolic leaves extract of Paullinia pinnata were evaluated. The phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of alkaloids, cardenolides, anthraquinones and tannins. The killing kinetic showed that the plant extract eliminated Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4 hr at 800 mg.mL−1) and Staphylococcus aureus (8 hr at 400 mg.mL−1). Groups A-C were infected and treated with 800, 400, and 200 mg.mL−1 of the plant extract with no observable tissue damage. Group D was infected but not treated and histopathological analysis of the organs showed some tissue damages. Paullinia pinnata could be a good alternative in the treatment of infections caused by these organisms.

7 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The antioxidant activity of the callus of Phyllanthus emblica was tested by using DPPH− radical scavenging, reducing power, superoxide anion, and metal chelating scavenging models as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The antioxidant activity of the callus of Phyllanthus emblica was tested by using DPPH− radical scavenging, reducing power, superoxide anion, and metal chelating scavenging models. Digallic acid was the major compound in quantity both in vivo (2.61 ± 0.887%) and in vitro (2.89 ± 0.997%) in 6-week-old cell cultures. Digallic acid demonstrated maximum antioxidant activity against the antioxidant systems, while other compounds exhibited mild-to-moderate antioxidant activity. Among the isolated phytochemicals, putranjivain-A showed maximum activity against Escherichia coli (85 μg.mL−1) and Rhizoctonia phaseoli (70 μg.mL−1).

7 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the physiology of noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit ripening, as well as the chemical and microbial properties of its fermented juice, were determined.
Abstract: The physiology of noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit ripening, as well as the chemical and microbial properties of its fermented juice, were determined. The ripening fruit had a nonclimacteric respiratory pattern (34 mg CO2·kg−1h−1) and no detectable ethylene production. The fungus, Mucor circinelloides, was consistently isolated from fermented juice, with peak populations at 14 d coincident with an increase in headspace CO2 and a decline in pH and soluble solids. Bacterial populations were greatest at 42 d, with Erwinia pyrifoliae and Gluconobacter frateurii isolated from fermented juice. Sugar concentration (64.8 mg·mL−1) decreased by 37% after 7 d, while organic acids (26.6 mg·mL−1) were the highest at 28 d. Major non-volatile acids present in the fermented juice included acetic, ascorbic, dehydroascorbic, galacturonic, malonic, succinic, and tartaric acids.

7 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In vitro effects of Combretum zeyheri leaf ethanol extract (CZLE) on ergosterol biosynthesis of Candida albicans were investigated by quantifying the ergosterols in C. albican in the presence and absence of the extract using UV-visible spectrophotometric analyses.
Abstract: The in vitro effects of Combretum zeyheri leaf ethanol extract (CZLE) on ergosterol biosynthesis of Candida albicans were investigated by quantifying the ergosterol in C. albicans in the presence and absence of the extract using UV-visible spectrophotometric analyses. Miconazole was used as the positive control. CZLE showed ergosterol biosynthesis inhibition at sub-inhibitory concentration for growth of C. albicans and also at the MIC (0.08 mg.mL−1). The decrease in ergosterol in C. albicans cells was dose-dependant with 67%, 79%, and 100% after growing in 20, 40, and 80 μg.mL−1 of CZLE, respectively. CZLE exerted its fungicidal effects by targeting the ergosterol biosynthesis in C. albicans and disrupting the membrane integrity.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Solvent leaf extracts of Blepharis maderaspatensis and Maesa indica were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy and their antimicrobial potential evaluated and tested positive for the presence of bioactive constituents that revealed the existence of saponin, phenols, tannin, glycoside, flavonoid, steroid, alkaloid, and oils when analyzed.
Abstract: Solvent leaf extracts of Blepharis maderaspatensis and Maesa indica were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GCMS) and their antimicrobial potential evaluated. Ethyl acetate extract of B. maderaspatensis showed highest activity against Escherichia coli (20 mm) in well method, while its acetone extract showed high antibacterial potential against E. faecalis (18 mm) by the disc diffusion method. The GCMS profile of B. maderaspatensis (ethyl acetate extract) and M. indica (acetone extract) tested positive for the presence of bioactive constituents that revealed the presence of saponin, phenols, tannin, glycoside, flavonoid, steroid, alkaloid, and oils when analyzed.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Pretreatment of Caco-2 cells with the bioaccessible fraction of bMO suppressed IL-1β-induced COX-2, IL-8 and MCP-1 and intracellular ROS content and partly modulated the phosphorylation of p-38 and IκB to provide supportive health promoting activity of M. oleifera pods on the gut.
Abstract: Pretreatment of Caco-2 cells with the bioaccessible fraction of bMO suppressed IL-1β-induced COX-2, IL-8 and MCP-1 and intracellular ROS content. Omission of bile extract during digestion decreased the extent of inhibitory effect of digested bMO on IL-1β activated IL-8 and MCP-1 production. Both lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds of bMO contribute to suppressive response to the pro-inflammatory insult, but only the hydrophilic compounds are responsible for its antioxidant activity. The suppressive effect of the bioaccessible fraction of bMO was partly modulated by inhibiting the phosphorylation of p-38 and IκB. These data provide supportive health promoting activity of M. oleifera pods on the gut.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a total of fifteen plant extracts were screened for their inhibitory activity against H-PGDS using 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) as a substrate.
Abstract: Increased expression of hematopoietic prostaglandin D2 synthase (H-PGDS) is responsible for allergic reactions promoting the inflammatory processes. A total of fifteen plant extracts were screened for their inhibitory activity against H-PGDS using 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) as a substrate at 0.3 mg.mL−1. Seven of these plant extracts that were effective inhibitors of H-PGDS were then used to determine the half maximum inhibitory concentrations (IC50s). Parinari curatellifolia leaf ethanol extract was the most potent plant extract with an IC50 of 3.8μg.mL−1 that was comparable to 2.1 μg.mL−1 of the standard Cibacron blue. P. curatellifolia extract directly inhibited H-PGDS activity, which was a kind of reversible inhibition of mixed type with respect to both GSH and CDNB as substrates. The results obtained in this study validate the ethnomedicinal use of P. curatellifolia in the reduction of symptoms of inflammation.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the antiulcer effect of Matricaria chamomilla flower head extracts was investigated on indomethacin-induced ulcer models in rats.
Abstract: The antiulcer effect of Matricaria chamomilla flower head extracts were investigated on indomethacin-induced ulcer models in rats. All extracts exhibited antiulcer effect; the highest percent of inhibition was shown by the ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions (84, 80%) respectively, followed by petroleum ether and aqueous ethanol residue (57, 50%), respectively, while the total alcoholic extract showed 62%. Phytochemical investigation of the ethyl acetate fraction allowed isolation and identification of apigenin-7-methoxy -8-O-arabinopyranoside, apigenin -7-O-β-glucoside - 6″ acetate, apigenin-7-O-galactoside - 6″ acetate, and apigenin -7-O-β-glucoside, by NMR, mass analysis, and acid hydrolysis.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In vitro antibacterial aptitude of Avicennia marina, A. marina var acutissima, Rhizophora mucronata, and R. annamalayana leaves were evaluated for urinary tract infective bacterial strains and methanolic extracts had diverse phytochemicals.
Abstract: In vitro antibacterial aptitude of Avicennia marina, A. marina var acutissima, Rhizophora mucronata, and R. annamalayana leaves were evaluated for urinary tract infective bacterial strains. A. marina var. acutissima and R. annamalayana methanolic extracts had diverse phytochemicals and demonstrated lower antibacterial activity at the concentrations of 100 to 250 μg.mL−1 and greater activity at 500 to 1,000 μg.mL−1. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration intensity of methanolic extracts were at 150 to 375 μg.mL−1. Alkaloids and genstine were noted in TLC fractionation, and their bioactivities were determined in bioautography analysis. Active functional groups OH alcoholic (hydrogen bond), C-H methylene, and C-O- aldehyde were present in both active guided fractions, but R2C=CH2 alkene and N-O nitraso groups were only in A. marina var. acutissima.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Traditional knowledge available on 148 plant species used in Argentina for gastroprotection and treating gastrointestinal ulcers, gastritis, and heartburn, was compiled to analyze their taxonomic grouping, floristic richness, the life form, and organs used, and to determine their susceptibility to over-collection.
Abstract: Traditional knowledge available on 148 plant species used in Argentina for gastroprotection and treating gastrointestinal ulcers, gastritis, and heartburn, was compiled to analyze their taxonomic grouping, floristic richness, the life form, and organs used, and to determine their susceptibility to over-collection.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Histopathology studies revealed no changes in cellular structure of the organs studied and AE did not affect the biochemical parameters (except glucose) and the organs’ weight in rats.
Abstract: Toxicity of aqueous extract (AE) of stem bark of Bauhinia variegata was evaluated. In the acute toxicity study, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated orally with AE (2,000 or 5,000 mg.kg−1 b.w). The animal behavior and mortality were observed periodically for up to 14 d. In the repeated dose toxicity study, the AE was administered daily at doses of 1,000 or 2,000 mg.kg−1 b.w, for 28 d. Behavior and mortality of animals were observed during the test period and hematological, biochemical parameters and histopathological examinations were carried out. In acute toxicity study, AE did not produce any mortality, changes in behavior, or any other physiological activities in rats at all selected doses. In repeated dose toxicity study, the monocytes and lymphocytes decreased at high doses. AE did not affect the biochemical parameters (except glucose) and the organs’ weight. Histopathology studies revealed no changes in cellular structure of the organs studied. The AE of B. variegata had maximally tolerated dose (MTD) o...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the major metabolite of each extract was identified by chromatographic and spectroscopic means, and the redox properties were assessed with a battery of assays, which revealed that the ethyl acetate extract demonstrated an interesting scavenging activity of DPPH and superoxide radicals and an ascorbic acid-like pro-oxidant activity.
Abstract: Leaf extracts of Cassia roxburghii DC., prepared in petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and methanol/water (70:30, v/v), were evaluated as antioxidant, pro-oxidant, anti-infectious, and cytotoxic agents. The major metabolite of each extract was identified by chromatographic and spectroscopic means. The redox properties were assessed with a battery of assays, which revealed that the ethyl acetate extract demonstrated an interesting scavenging activity of DPPH and superoxide radicals and an ascorbic acid-like pro-oxidant activity. All the tested extracts showed moderate antiplasmodial activity against a chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum, by possible disruption of parasite fine redox balance. Cytotoxicity was evaluated against a human breast cancer cell line. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were estimated against representative bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus hirae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli) and fungal species (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger). The ethylacetate extract possessed the highest redox properties and exhibited the highest antiplasmodial activity; there was no correlation between antibacterial activity and the redox properties of the extracts.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, three kinds of herbal teas were tested through determination on total phenolics content, total antioxidant activity, ferrous ion-chelating ability, as well as antimicrobial activity, and activity effects on enzyme catalase.
Abstract: Antioxidant activity (AOA) of three kinds of herbal teas was tested through determination on total phenolics content, total antioxidant activity, ferrous ion-chelating ability, as well as antimicrobial activity, and activity effects on enzyme catalase. Green tea showed the highest total phenolics and best ferrous ion-chelating ability. The teas were not effective against bacteria, although they had an activating effect on enzyme catalase.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Pithecolobine isolated from alkaloid extract of Albizia saman showed antimicrobial activity against seven human pathogenic bacteria and two yeasts with minimum inhibitory concentrations and exhibited antioxidant activity with IC50 value at 250μg mL−1.
Abstract: Pithecolobine isolated from alkaloid extract of Albizia saman showed antimicrobial activity against seven human pathogenic bacteria and two yeasts with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values of 1.9–125 μg mL−1. In addition, it also exhibited antioxidant activity with IC50 value at 250μg mL−1. Pithecolobine may be useful as a natural bioactive molecule for developing potent antimicrobial and antioxidant agents.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GCMS) analysis of unsaponifiable matters of aerial parts of Dichrostachys cinerea revealed the identification of 34 compounds representing 93.67% of the total peak area.
Abstract: Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GCMS) analysis of unsaponifiable matters of aerial parts of Dichrostachys cinerea revealed the identification of 34 compounds representing 93.67% of the total peak area. The main compounds were isophytol (25.43%), butylated hydroxyl toluene (15.08%), octadecene (8.57%), hexdecene (8.51%), 5-eicosene (6.86%), 3-tetradecene (4.30%), p.nonyl phenol (4.13%), 1-eicosanol (3.41%), and teracosene (2.74%). Thirty-one compounds representing 92.08% of the total peak area were identified by GCMS analysis of fatty acid methyl esters, the main compounds were methyl 9,12,15 octadecatrienoate (25.55%), methyl-12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoate (22.43%), methyl octadecanoate (6.31%), and methyl tetracosanoate (3.83%). Unsaturated fatty acids constituted 53.63% while saturated fatty acids constituted 38.45%. Analgesic and antipyretic activity of the total ethanol extract and successive extracts showed highest activities after 2 h by100 mg of total ethanol extract (80.87% potency) comparable t...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There was no difference in the bioactivity due to the plant part used in the extract; however, samples collected from higher altitudes showed higher antimicrobial capacity than those from lower altitudes.
Abstract: Antibacterial activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of vegetative and reproductive thalli of the liverwort Pellia endiviifolia from eastern Himalaya were tested against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Shigella dysenteriae (ATCC 9361), Enterobacter cloacae (ATCC 13047), and Serratia marcescens (ATCC 13880) strains by well diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration. Antibiosis depended on the altitude of growth as well as the tissue type. There was no difference in the bioactivity due to the plant part used in the extract; however, samples collected from higher altitudes showed higher antimicrobial capacity than those from lower altitudes.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The gastroprotective activity of ethanol extract of Tridax procumbens leaves was evaluated in rats and restored superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase level in rat stomach, and large fibroblast cells in histology that support the protective effects.
Abstract: The gastroprotective activity of ethanol extract of Tridax procumbens leaves was evaluated in rats. Luteolin, a flavonoid, was isolated from ethanol extract of T. procumbens by column chromatography. Gastric ulcers were induced by ethanol and indomethacin in rats, and the ulcer index, percent inhibition, gastric content, and total acidity on the gastric lesions were determined. The phytochemical study revealed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides, proteins, and tannins in the ethanol extract. The total flavonoid content was found to be 142.6 ± 6.38 mg·(100 gm)−1 of ethanol extract. The ethanol extract with 400 mg·kg−1 produced dose-dependent inhibition on the ulcer lesion index (9.76 ± 0.06), changes in the gastric volume (4.38 ± 0.89), and pH (4.8 ± 0.88) in ethanol-induced ulcer. The ethanol extract at 400 mg·kg−1 also restored superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase level in rat stomach, and large fibroblast cells in histology that support the protective effects.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Essential oil constituents of six plants were analyzed by gas Chromatography–flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry ( GC-MS) and the leaf oil of Xylopia pierrei contained β-elemene, bicyclogermacrene, and germacrene.
Abstract: Essential oil constituents of six plants were analyzed by gas chromatography–flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Melodorum vietnamense var. calcareum leaf oil contained β-caryophyllene (16.4%), sabinene (12.7%), and bicyclogermacrene (10.0%); Melodorum indochinense leaf oil contained bicyclogermacrene (17.2%), sabinene (14.6%), and bicycloelemene (10.8%); Meiogyne monogyna leaf and stem oils were characterized by bicyclogermacrene (38.1% and 49.3%, respectively), β-caryophyllene (15.0% and 16.8%, respectively), and linalool (8.0% and 6.6%, respectively); Meiogyne hainanensis leaves oil contained δ-cadinene (36.6%) and linalool (16.9%), while the stem oil was rich in δ-cadinene (49.3%) and spathulenol (16.3%); Xylopia vielana leaf oil contained β-elemene (19.7%), bicyclogermacrene (15.0%), germacrene D (14.9%), and camphene (11.3%); and the leaf oil of Xylopia pierrei contained β-elemene (23.4%), bicycloelemene (13.9%), β-caryophyllene (11.2%), bicyclogerma...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Histological studies revealed the induction of callus from the cambial cells of the explant and the presence of numerous, actively dividing, darkly stained meristematic centers in the organogenic callus.
Abstract: The callus derived from nodal explant of Cyclea peltata on Murashige Skoog medium supplemented with α-naphthalene acetic acid + benzyl amino purine (5.4 μM + 0.44 μM) was used for indirect shoot proliferation. The stem derived calli of 50–60 d old were inoculated to half strength and full strength Murashige Skoog media with different growth regulators at varying concentrations. The callus, upon subculture to the medium supplemented with either naphthalene acetic acid or indole acetic acid alone or in combination with cytokinins, led to the development of shiny, small, globular cells. Histological studies revealed the induction of callus from the cambial cells of the explant and the presence of numerous, actively dividing, darkly stained meristematic centers in the organogenic callus.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Effects of standardized Wrightia tinctoria seeds extract and Stereospermum suaveolens root extract on erythrocyte membrane stabilization, mast cell protection, nitric oxide, and pro-inflammatory cytokines production were evaluated by in vitro methods.
Abstract: Effects of standardized Wrightia tinctoria seeds extract (WTSE) and Stereospermum suaveolens root extract (SSRE) on erythrocyte membrane stabilization, mast cell protection, nitric oxide, and pro-inflammatory cytokines production were evaluated by in vitro methods. WTSE and SSRE were standardized against chlorogenic acid and lapachol, respectively, using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Standardized WTSE and SSRE inhibited erythrocyte membrane lysis, mast cell degranulation, and LPS-stimulated nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-β, IL-6 and TNF-α) production by RAW 264.7 macrophage cells in a dose-dependent manner.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Only plant height and fresh calyx yield made the highest amount of direct and indirect contribution to seed yield/plot, and β-carotene serve as better selection criteria to improve red sorrel crop.
Abstract: Nature and amount of genetic variability, associations, and path coefficients were studied in the six traits of 45 genotypes of red sorrel All the traits showed high heritability except medium for branches/plant (7394), calyx yield (6754 %), and low for seed yield (ie, 4185%), the highest being for days to flowers 50% (9812 %) and lowest for seed yield/plot (4185%) Seed yield/plot was significantly and positively correlated with plant height but negatively correlated with days to flower 50% Fresh calyx yield is positively correlated with days to flower 50% followed by plant height, and branches/plant exhibited same trends at both genotypic and phenotypic level However, only plant height and fresh calyx yield made the highest amount of direct and indirect contribution to seed yield/plot Therefore, plant height and β-carotene serve as better selection criteria to improve red sorrel crop

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results suggest that n-hexane fraction has more potent non-toxic antidiabetic efficacy than other fractions and biosensors were significantly recovered towards the control after treatment of n- hexane fraction.
Abstract: Present study focused the antidiabetic activity of n-hexane fraction of hydro-methanolic (2:3) extract of Swietenia mahagoni seed in steptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rat. Significant increased in the levels of fasting blood glucose, glyclated hemoglobin and diminution in hepatic hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and elevation in glucose-6-phosphatase activities in diabetic animals. Said biosensors were significantly recovered towards the control after treatment of n-hexane fraction than other fractions. Renotoxic (serum urea, uric acid and creatinine) and hematoxic (red blood cell count, platelet index and erythrocyte sedimentation rate) biosensors were significantly recovered towards control after n-hexane fraction treatment to diabetic group. Results suggest that n-hexane fraction has more potent non-toxic antidiabetic efficacy.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy on medicinal plants extracts used for the cure of diabetes in Eastern Himalayan region viz. Darjeeling and Sikkim are presented.
Abstract: The fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy on the medicinal plants’ extracts used for the cure of diabetes in Eastern Himalayan region viz. Darjeeling and Sikkim are presented. The extracts from the seeds of Totola (Oroxylum indicum Vent.) and fruits of Harra (Terminalia chebula Retz.) and Barra (Terminalia belerica Roxb.) are studied using thin layer chromatography and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results are compared with those of commercially prepared polyherbal formulations from Totola, Harra and Barra viz. Dashmool Kwath, Haritaki Churna and Triphala Churna.