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Showing papers in "Journal of Indo-European Studies in 2014"



Journal Article
TL;DR: De Hoz et al. as mentioned in this paper proposed that the Southwestern (hereafter SW) script was used as a funerary stelae that stood on the ground, at least some times, and that occasionally were reused as building material in later tombs.
Abstract: The corpus of the Southwestern (hereafter SW) script consists of around 90 so-called “stones” or “stelae”, of which ten are nowadays lost (De Hoz 2010: 354-355). In the main, the inscriptions come from modern-day southern Portugal, particularly the regions of Baixo Alentejo and Algarve (see de Hoz 2010: 608, Guerra 2013: 28 or Koch 2013b: 542). A small number have been found in Spain, four in western Andalusia and four in the Upper Guadiana area. 1 A few graffiti on pottery have also been identified as examples of the script, but see below on their problematic classification. The stone slabs on which the inscriptions were executed are of variable size and shape. The lack in many cases of well-recorded archaeological contexts makes the chronology and function of the inscribed slabs thorny issues. Briefly put, there is agreement that the stones were used as funerary stelae that stood on the ground, at least some times, and that occasionally were reused as building material in later tombs. This summarizes practically all the light that can be shed on the semantic contents of the inscriptions from context. Regarding chronology, it is accepted that the inscriptions date to the Iron Age I and, with due caution, they are tentatively placed between the 8 th and the 6 th centuries BCE (discussion with references in ∗ I am indebted to I.-X. Adiego (Univ. Barcelona), who made useful remarks, and to B. Davis (Univ. Melbourne), who took pains to help me improve the style of this commentary. Needless to say, I am solely responsible for all shortcomings and views here presented. 1

5 citations




Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the analysis of corded ware and accompanying artifacts reveals the nature of its appearance during three cultural-chronological horizons, namely, the Bubanj-Salcuta-Krivodol cultural complex, the Cotofeni culture and the Late Eneolithic/Early Bronze Age.
Abstract: The analysis of corded ware and accompanying artifacts reveals the nature of its appearance the Central and Southern Balkan Eneolithic during three cultural-chronological horizons. The first horizon correspomds to the Early Eneolithic, namely the Bubanj-Salcuta-Krivodol cultural complex (BSK), while the second corresponds to the Cotofeni culture. The Third horizon, showing chronogical continuity with the second, and set within the Late Eneolithic/Early Bronze Age, has a site distribution that encompasses the territory of nearly the entire Balkan Peninsula, where corded ware is found together with other steppe elements which are present in large numbers, such are burials under mounds and the appearance of the domestic horse.

2 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: The etymology of the early Nordic epigraphic term alu has been much debated among runologists as mentioned in this paper, and it is most often linked to meanings such as "protect" or "ale", which is most obviously to be compared with Germanic *al-to nourish.
Abstract: The etymology of the early Nordic epigraphic term alu has been much debated among runologists. Often linked to meanings such as 'protect' or 'ale', it is most obviously to be compared with Germanic *al- 'to nourish'. A wider investigation of the 'nourish' etymology, however, suggests that a connection with Etruscan al- 'to give' better explains the employment of alu in its attested older runic contexts. Early Nordic alu is found on amulets, bog depositions and funerary finds, and seems to evidence a contrastive polysemy typical of religious terminology such as Latin sacer 'holy, accursed'.

2 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the methodological and theoretical pros and cons of John Koch's new theory concerning the linguistic reality of South-Western Hispania in the first centuries of the 1 millennium BC.
Abstract: In this short review, I discuss the methodological and theoretical pros and cons of John Koch’s new theory concerning the linguistic reality of South–Western Hispania in the first centuries of the 1 millennium BC The oldest language attested in an area that today covers most of southern Portugal and small parts of Spanish Extremadura has traditionally been labelled Tartessian, in spite of the fact that its relationship with the so called Tartessian empire (whose archaeological remains have been uncovered in Andalusia, to the east of this region), is far from clear. The linguistic ascription of these texts is still subject to debate, and a number of problems render the interpretation of the seemingly funerary inscriptions a very difficult task: They show scriptio continua, and consequently one should be very cautious about word segmentation, which is usually taken to be mostly arbitrary, given the lack of clearly interpretable sequences (but Koch has some sound combinatory arguments against scepticism). Additionally, its writing, arguably based on the Phoenician alphabet, has not been convincingly deciphered for every symbol, shows a high amount of redundancy and does not

1 citations






Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, a major change in Jamshid's fate in Post-Sasanian sources is reported, which is, undoubtedly, rooted in the Arab invasion of Iran, the fall of the Sasanian dynasty and the fate of Yazdgird, the last Sasanian king.
Abstract: The Iranian languages are divided into old, middle and new periods and the same classification can be applied to Persian texts. Such texts can be divided into three groups. The first group is purely mythological texts such as the Avesta. The second group contains historical-mythological texts such as Sasanian texts. The third group consists of historical texts. The myth of Jam is one of the most renowned Iranian myths in the Avesta as well as Sasanian and Islamic (especially Post-Sasanian) texts. There is a major change in Jamshid's fate in Post-Sasanian sources. This change is, undoubtedly, rooted in the Arab invasion of Iran, the fall of the Sasanian dynasty and the fate of Yazdgird, the last Sasanian king. It seems that the oppression of the Arabs is a main reason that the Iranians identified Zahhak the rival of Jam, as an Arab. Jamshid is killed in China and his offspring lives there for a long time and is respected. This Jamshid is reminiscent of Piruz (maybe the same Yazdgird), or a Sasasian refugee prince, who lived and died in China.