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Showing papers in "Journal of Interdisciplinary History in 1984"









Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Tucker as discussed by the authors argues that the current political process has focused on the immediate present while ignoring crises with far-reaching implications that require tough solutions, such as population growth, resource depletion, and environmental degradation.
Abstract: Robert C. Tucker begins this invaluable book with an analytical look at politics, leadership, and the effect each has on the other. Aligning himself with Plato's view of politics as leadership, Tucker argues that politics is more usefully defined from this perspective than from the more familiar stance of the exercise of power. He maintains leaders must define collective problems, prescribe actions or policies, and finally seek support for their diagnoses and policy prescriptions. Tucker contends that political science must take account not only of leadership by those in state authority, but also of sociopolitical movements for change as vehicles of attempted leadership of political communities. Dividing such movements into those for reform and those for revolution, he illustrates this distinction with examples, including Martin Luther King Jr. as a reform leader and Lenin as a revolutionary one. Finally, Tucker raises a central question of his study: how can leadership save humankind from itself in the troubled world of today? In an insightful and moving discussion of what he calls the "crisis syndrome," Tucker analyzes problems such as population growth, resource depletion, and environmental degradation with respect to leadership. He argues that the current political process has focused on the immediate present while ignoring crises with far-reaching implications that require tough solutions. In the epilogue to this revised edition, Tucker draws on his expertise as a Russian specialist, extending the book's discussion of leadership by viewing Mikhail Gorbachev as a reform leader in Soviet Russia and Boris Yeltsin as a post-Soviet Russian leader. Tucker also readdresses the "crisis syndrome" by examining leaders' responses in the 1980s and early 1990s. Tucker's incisive reasoning, original insights, and commentary on the theory and practice of politics should make this revised edition of Politics as Leadership equally valuable and fascinating for experts in the field of political science and for concerned citizens.

156 citations





Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present tables, figures, and maps of Peru's pre-conquest population and discuss the ecological approach, population and archaeology, and demographic collapse.
Abstract: List of tables, figures and maps Preface Introduction: the problem in perspective Part I. Peru's Preconquest Population: 1. The ecological approach 2. Population and archaeology 3. Depopulation ratios 4. Estimates from social organization 5. Disease mortality models 6. Census projections 7. Conclusion Part II. Demographic Collapse: 8. First contact: north coast 9. Center of Spanish control: middle coast 10. Disease, earthquakes, and droughts: south coast 11. Intermediate area: northern highlands 12. Mining and population in the central sierra 13. The Indian heartland: southern highlands 14. An overview Abbreviations used in notes Notes Bibliography Index.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the origins, the agrarian context, and the conditions in the world market of the proto-industrial family economy are discussed, as well as the structures and function of population-development under the proto industrial system.
Abstract: 1. The origins, the agrarian context, and the conditions in the world market 2. The proto-industrial family economy 3. The structures and function of population-development under the proto-industrial system 4. Relations of production - productive forces - crises in proto-industrialization 5. Excursus: the political and institutional framework of proto-industrialization 6. Proto-industrialization between industrialization and deindustrialization.














Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Seasonal ratios were used for Philadelphia to identify three different stages in the decline of diarrheal mortality for infants and one year olds, differentiated both by the speed of the decline and the ages affected.
Abstract: One of the most striking features of early childhood mortality during the last half of the nineteenth century was a seasonal pattern dominated by summer diarrheal disease. Seasonal ratios were used for Philadelphia to identify three different stages in the decline of diarrheal mortality for infants and one year olds. These stages were differentiated both by the speed of the decline and the ages affected. The age differential in the timing of these declines in Philadelphia lends support to the proposal that basic underlying differences existed between mortality in the first second and later years of early childhood. Possible underlying factors that may account for the three stages of the decline are also discussed with particular reference to changes in nutritional status and food supply and to the adoption of public health measures and improvements in sanitation. The study is based on published mortality data from Philadelphia Board of Health reports for the period 1865-1920. (EXCERPT)

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the historical transformation of labor is discussed and an overview of the stages of this process is presented. But the authors focus on the segmentation of labor and do not consider the homogenization of labor.
Abstract: Preface 1. The historical transformation of labor: an overview 2. Long swings and stages of capitalism 3. Initial proletarianization: 1820s to 1890s 4. the homogenization of labor: 1870s to World War II 5. The segmentation of labor: 1920s to the present 6. A recapitulation Notes Bibliography Index.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The first book to appear in the illustrious Oxford History of the United States, this critically acclaimed volume-a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize-offers an unsurpassed history of the Revolutionary War and the birth of the American republic as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The first book to appear in the illustrious Oxford History of the United States, this critically acclaimed volume-a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize-offers an unsurpassed history of the Revolutionary War and the birth of the American republic. Beginning with the French and Indian War and continuing to the election of George Washington as first president, Robert Middlekauff offers a panoramic history of the conflict between England and America, highlighting the drama and anguish of the colonial struggle for independence. Combining the political and the personal, he provides a compelling account of the key events that precipitated the war, from the Stamp Act to the Tea Act, tracing the gradual gathering of American resistance that culminated in the Boston Tea Party and "the shot heard 'round the world." The heart of the book features a vivid description of the eight-year-long war, with gripping accounts of battles and campaigns, ranging from Bunker Hill and Washington's crossing of the Delaware to the brilliant victory at Hannah's Cowpens and the final triumph at Yorktown, paying particular attention to what made men fight in these bloody encounters. The book concludes with an insightful look at the making of the Constitution in the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 and the struggle over ratification. Through it all, Middlekauff gives the reader a vivid sense of how the colonists saw these events and the importance they gave to them. Common soldiers and great generals, Sons of Liberty and African slaves, town committee-men and representatives in congress-all receive their due. And there are particularly insightful portraits of such figures as Sam and John Adams, James Otis, Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, and many others. This new edition has been revised and expanded, with fresh coverage of topics such as mob reactions to British measures before the War, military medicine, women's role in the Revolution, American Indians, the different kinds of war fought by the Americans and the British, and the ratification of the Constitution. The book also has a new epilogue and an updated bibliography. The cause for which the colonists fought, liberty and independence, was glorious indeed. Here is an equally glorious narrative of an event that changed the world, capturing the profound and passionate struggle to found a free nation.