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Showing papers in "Journal of Language Identity and Education in 2008"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors conducted a critical discourse analysis of Generation 1.5 students, a term used to refer to students born outside the United States who received part, or most, of their formal education in the U.S. and found that they see themselves not as partial but as visible minorities who experience racism in their daily lives.
Abstract: This is a critical discourse analysis of generation 1.5, a term used to refer to students born outside the United States who received part, or most, of their formal education in the United States. The analysis reveals that surrounding generation 1.5 are 3 interconnected discourses of partiality: a discourse of demographic partiality, a discourse of linguistic partiality, and a discourse of academic partiality. Claiming that these discourses are grounded in a monolingual/monocultural ideology, I offer counterdiscursive evidence that self-described generation 1.5 writers see themselves not as partial but as visible minorities who experience racism in their daily lives. To address racism, I offer strategies for promoting multilingualism and multiculturalism on U.S. college campuses.

86 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper explored how high school language learners and their teacher jointly constructed word meanings through multimodal representation and the sociopolitical reality of learners' lives as mediating factors in the context of simultaneous multiple learning activities.
Abstract: This study was an exploration of how high school language learners and their teacher jointly constructed word meanings through multimodal representation and the sociopolitical reality of learners' lives as mediating factors in the context of simultaneous multiple learning activities. Thirty-three high school Advanced ESL 3 students were taught using a political text, photographs, and a campaign video clip. Using a variety of learning activities—meaning guessing, campaign advertisement, and cartoon strips; group and whole-class activities—learners negotiated meanings of selected vocabulary items and phrases in the text. A close analysis of the students' scripts revealed that they used multimodal resources as a tool to convey their identity/subjectivity in meaning-making engagements. I recommend a meaning-making theoretical framework and classroom practices that link English language learners with the sociocontextual frame of learning, critique and challenge social power relations between migrant English le...

78 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper examined the experiences of five preservice Vietnamese American teachers and found that they perceived teaching as fundamentally a moral enterprise, and teachers as moral agents, able to command authority in the classroom and reverential respect from their students and parents.
Abstract: This article argues that Vietnamese Americans face unique challenges in becoming U.S. educators. To understand the experiences of five preservice Vietnamese American teachers, it examines the similarities and within-group differences in perspectives on teaching and in adaptation strategies of their practicum activities at a California university. The study shows that these individuals operated frequently from their Vietnamese cultural frame of understanding, and therefore had difficulty with socializing into U.S. teaching. In particular, they perceived teaching as fundamentally a moral enterprise, and teachers as moral agents, able—by virtue of their role—to command authority in the classroom and reverential respect from their students and parents. These assumptions about teachers' roles were often incongruent with those inherent in the teaching and learning contexts in which they worked.

67 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors explored the naturalistic language learning experiences of three Korean gay men whose marginalized sexual identities assist them with access while articulating other aspects of their identities (e.g., race, national...).
Abstract: This study works against heteronormativity, which is prevalent in the second language acquisition field, adding queer perspectives to the growing body of research that questions a narrower, 1-dimensional view of the language learner. There is a common belief that learning an additional language (L2) while surrounded by L2 speakers in a naturalistic setting is best. Theories of identity and language learning have destabilized this notion, pointing to the effects of ongoing identity construction on learning. While forming identities in the L2, a learner invests in certain groups of speakers (often imagined communities), leading them to seek out such speakers. Access to speakers in real naturalistic settings is not guaranteed, and social marginalization often prevents learning. This qualitative study explores the naturalistic language-learning experiences of 3 Korean gay men whose marginalized sexual identities assist them with access while articulating other aspects of their identities (e.g., race, national...

53 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an interpretative inquiry into 14 tertiary vocational students' educational experiences on the Chinese mainland with a focus on their strategy use in learning English was conducted, revealing the profound impact that the learning context had on the research participants' strategy use.
Abstract: This article reports on an interpretative inquiry into 14 tertiary vocational students' educational experiences on the Chinese mainland with a focus on their strategy use in learning English. Using sociocultural theory, the inquiry reveals the profound impact that the learning context had on the research participants' strategy use. The data reveal that the participants' exam-oriented learning strategies were at the core of their efforts to pursue desirable identities in a competitive academic environment. They also indicate that the participants' strategy use was closely associated with an internalized sociocultural discourse that conceived learning as the means to achieve social mobility. Pedagogic practices that often imposed markers on the participants and tense peer relationships that prevented the participants from adopting alternative strategies were found to be 2 important motivators for the participants' adoption of their exam-oriented learning strategies.

50 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper examined various aspects of ethnolinguistic identity among 24 MexiRican individuals in Chicago, Illinois and formally assessed their Spanish proficiency and dialect characteristics, finding that almost all of the participants possessed a concept of identity that incorporated aspects of both Hispanic backgrounds, and none had experienced pressure to deemphasize or to stress one or the other.
Abstract: Studies of Mexican and Puerto Rican communities living in the same United States cities suggest that a combination of historical factors and local conditions strongly influence to what extent these two groups interact and form a shared sense of pan-ethnic Latino unity. However, few studies have examined “MexiRican” individuals, those who have one Mexican and one Puerto Rican parent and who experience both cultures and dialects in their homes. This study examines various aspects of ethnolinguistic identity among 24 MexiRican individuals in Chicago, Illinois. It also formally assesses their Spanish proficiency and dialect characteristics. Almost all of the participants possessed a concept of identity that incorporated aspects of both Hispanic backgrounds, and none had experienced pressure to deemphasize or to stress one or the other. As found in other work on Spanish in the United States, Spanish proficiency declined with increasing generational presence. The primary factor related to the expression of Mexi...

34 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors argue that these ideologies were implicated in the production of a local, metapragmatic model that allowed the use of certain linguistic resources to be understood as indexing good language learner identity.
Abstract: This article builds on Norton and Toohey's (2001) critique of good language learner (GLL) research to illustrate how college students in an advanced Spanish conversation course drew on particular ideologies of language and foreign language learning to construct and negotiate their classroom identities. I argue that these ideologies were implicated in the production of a local, metapragmatic model (Wortham, 2006) that allowed the use of certain linguistic resources to be understood as indexing GLL identity. Moreover, through a detailed account of 2 interactional encounters, I demonstrate how individuals actually used these linguistic resources to negotiate their identities as GLLs relative to one another in practice. I conclude with a brief discussion of how this approach to understanding GLLs can inform both research on language learners and additional language learning.

32 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examined how early elementary Mexican-origin bilinguals' racial, ethnic, and linguistic identities are constructed and negotiated during a literacy event on Martin Luther King, Jr. Using critical race theory and critical discourse analysis, a racial and power dichotomy in the text was uncovered.
Abstract: Research has revealed an underlying link between identity construction and academic success for adolescents (Nasir & Saxe, 2003); however, research has not addressed how students' identities are formed and negotiated in the cultural practices of elementary school. This article examines how early elementary Mexican-origin bilinguals' racial, ethnic, and linguistic identities are constructed and negotiated during a literacy event on Martin Luther King, Jr. Using critical race theory (Ladson-Billings, 1999) and critical discourse analysis (Gee, 1999), a racial and power dichotomy in the text is uncovered. The moment-to-moment interactions around a text expose the students' understandings of race and the racial assumptions of the literacy practices. A critical discourse analysis of the moment-to-moment interactions shows the students' self-identify as “White.” The teacher and researcher collaboratively examine how racial dichotomies in early elementary literacy texts and institutional practices affect the ide...

23 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, three in-depth interviews with teenage migrants, two asylum seekers and one from Portugal, reveal experiences particular to young new arrivals attempting to find ways of being in a global city where they find themselves living in multicultural localities that are occasionally the sites of conflict as well as "togetherness in difference".
Abstract: This article draws on three in-depth interviews with teenage migrants, two asylum seekers and one from Portugal. The interviews reveal experiences particular to young new arrivals attempting to find ways of being in a global city where they find themselves living in multicultural localities that are occasionally the sites of conflict as well as “togetherness in difference” (Ang, 2002, p. 162). The lived experiences of the informants are contrasted with their positioning by their educational programmes and ESOL teachers. I question whether the education they are receiving and the kind of classrooms they are placed in best serve young refugees and other migrants as they attempt to finish their interrupted schooling and become members of local communities and the workforce.

22 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article found that immigrants perceive their native language positively, desire that their children use it alongside English, and perceive negative consequences related to speaking the native language, and use English more often than their own native language.
Abstract: This study examined immigrants' perceptions of their native language and factors that enhance or hinder its use and maintenance. Participants (N = 208) included immigrants to the United States. Results showed that immigrants perceive their native language positively, desire that their children use it alongside English, and perceive negative consequences related to speaking the native language. Immigrants use English more often than their native language. There were significant differences based on where children were born and visits to the native country. Reported factors enhancing the use of the native language are speaking the native language, exposure to native media, attending cultural events, interacting with other native speakers, and visits to the native country. Challenges are predominant use of English, fear of being perceived as different, friends and spouse who do not speak the same native language, limited visits to the native country, and lack of access to other native speakers.

20 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper explored language practices in Nigerian primary school classrooms against the backdrop of the policy of mother tongue education and found that there is a classroom bilingual practice that is rather unstructured in terms of curricular application and levels.
Abstract: In this article, I explore language practices in Nigerian primary school classrooms against the backdrop of the policy of mother tongue education. Findings from the study show that there is a classroom bilingual practice that is rather unstructured in terms of curricular application and levels. The study shows that rather than implementing the country's mother tongue education policy, teachers have resorted to evolving a varied “policy” of bilingual instruction. The article also shows that the inherited colonial language – English – is used as early as the first year of the child's primary school education while the mother tongue continues to be used throughout the fourth year, when the transition to English medium should have commenced. Furthermore, the “untidiness” seems compounded by a regular use of code switching (CS) by teachers. The article concludes that there is a need for a pragmatic approach to language-in-education in Nigeria whereby room should be provided for the co-official use of English a...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examine the manner in which identity impacts on literacy practices, with reference to two nine-year old girls and two fifteen year-old boys, who speak or have access to two or more languages.
Abstract: In this paper I examine the manner in which identity impacts on literacy practices, with reference to two nine-year old girls and two fifteen year-old boys, who speak or have access to two or more languages. The younger children were part of a year- long study of the British National Literacy Strategy (cf. Wallace 2005). The older two were interviewed in the context of a study of children’s responses to the cultural content of school texts. My aim is to establish how the children’s talk about and around literacy reveals what are salient identities for these young people. I identify four interwoven strands which emerge from the children’s talk, characterised as ‘I come from here’ identity, ‘Back Home identity, Language Identity and Religious identity. I argue that these interwoven identities represent for the children a potentially rich resource to engage critically with school texts. This is evident in moments of discourse in which particular identities are invoked to build bridges between the children’s diverse personal histories and the texts and practices validated by school. I conclude by drawing some implications for schooling and for the children’s futures.

Journal ArticleDOI
David Block1
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present interview data collected from a small sample of Spanish-speaking Latinos living in London and examine their experiences, including their uses of English and Spanish in their day-today lives.
Abstract: In recent years, the number of Spanish-speaking Latinos in Britain and London has grown considerably. Estimates from different sources put the population in London as high as 300,000. Unfortunately, this growing ethnolinguistic group is an underresearched minority, and information of any kind is hard to come by. In this article, my aim is to remedy this situation. First, I establish that there are by now a substantial number of Spanish-speaking Latinos in London. I then move to explore the extent to which one can say that there is a Spanish-speaking Latino community in the city. I present interview data collected from a small sample of Spanish-speaking Latinos living in London and examine their experiences, including their uses of English and Spanish in their day-to-day lives.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In 2006, hundreds of thousands of Latino immigrants in the United States used a strike to demonstrate their essential contribution to the U.S. economy and to the lifestyle of the middle classes, and defined themselves as the invisible menial workforce that ensures that middle-class children are taken care of, that take-away meals for two-income families remain affordable, and that the U S. meat industry provides enough cheap turkey to satisfy the protein craving of the nation and its neighbours.
Abstract: I am writing this commentary shortly after the May Day of 2006, which hundreds of thousands of Latino immigrants in the United States used to protest against their predicament.1 As a largely “illegal,” hence invisible and unrecognized minority, they find themselves in extremely vulnerable positions in the labour, housing, and political markets, where ruthless exploitation is combined with very low public esteem (indeed, very often open hostility and criminalization) from their host society, and where structural poverty blends with negative stereotypes and political powerlessness in the production of the typical lowerclass immigrant. Globalisation is, as we know, a layered phenomenon and not every globalised subject is equal: some are called “cosmopolitans” and others “vagabonds” (as Zygmund Bauman observed), and while some “visit” countries, others “sneak into” them. It was interesting to see that the U.S. Latino immigrants organised their collective actions not primarily around nationality, linguistic, or ethnic diacritics, but rather around their social, economic, and political position in the United States. Their collective action—a strike—was aimed at demonstrating their essential contribution to the U.S. economy and to the lifestyle of the U.S. middle classes. The collective identity thus articulated was a relational class identity: they defined themselves as the invisible menial workforce that ensures that middle-class children are taken care of, that take-away meals for two-income families remain affordable, and that the U.S. meat industry provides enough cheap turkey to satisfy the protein craving of the nation and its neighbours. They defined themselves, in other words, in relation to capitalist structures and

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors explored how a group of female university students, mostly British Asian and in their late teens and early twenties, perform femininities in talk about heritage languages, and argued that analysis of this talk reveals ways in which the participants enact "culturally intelligible" gendered subject positions.
Abstract: In this paper I explore how a group of female university students, mostly British Asian and in their late teens and early twenties, perform femininities in talk about heritage languages. I argue that analysis of this talk reveals ways in which the participants enact ‘culturally intelligible’ gendered subject positions. This frequently involves negotiating the norms of ‘heteronormativity’, constituting femininity in terms of marriage, motherhood and maintenance of heritage culture and language, and ‘girl power’, constituting femininity in terms of youth, sassiness, glamour and individualism. For these young women, I ask whether higher education can become a site in which they have the opportunities to explore these identifications and examine other ways of imagining the self and what their stories suggest about ‘doing being’ a young British Asian woman in London.

Journal ArticleDOI
David Block1
TL;DR: The most comprehensive textbook on globalization to date as discussed by the authors discusses global and local tensions, and they examine globalization under no fewer than eight different headings: global politics and the nation state; organized violence and military globalization; global trade and markets; global finance; multinational corporations and production networks; globalization and migration; cultural globalization; and globalization.
Abstract: Over the past 3 decades, there has been a boom in the number of publications about globalization, and authors such as Anthony Giddens and Ulrich Beck have become well known beyond their home academic discipline of sociology. Although Giddens, Beck, and many other authors have different views on the nature and impact of globalization, they all seem to agree that it involves “the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa” (Giddens, 1990, p. 64) and that it is a multilevelled phenomenon. Thus, in what is perhaps the most comprehensive textbook on globalization to be published to date, Held, McGrew, Goldblatt and Perraton (1999) discuss global and local tensions, and they examine globalization under no fewer than eight different headings: global politics and the nation state; organized violence and military globalization; global trade and markets; global finance; multinational corporations and production networks; globalization and migration; cultural globalization; and globalization. However, Held et al. note that one cannot examine any one of these aspects of globalization in isolation, as they are all interrelated. For example, it is impossible to study cultural globalization without taking into account global trade and markets. Of interest here is how globalizing forces and flows coalesce in particular geographical locations, specifically large cities. In the past 20 years, there have

Journal Article
TL;DR: This article investigated culture-based instructional designs in its purest form through The Brownies' Book (TBB) a children's periodical produced in 1920-1921 and found evidence of how culture manifested in this historical artifact.
Abstract: This article investigates culture based instructional designs in its purest form through The Brownies’ Book (TBB) a children’s periodical produced in 1920-1921. Methodologies of examination include historical analysis and critical discourse analysis grounded in a Foucaultian framework. The findings extrapolated from the design of TBB and the philosophies of its designers reveal a treasure of cultural remnants. Cultural remnants are the racial, ethnic, cultural, linguistic, political, social, historical, educational and economic artifacts embedded in discourses. The cultural remnants provide evidence of how culture manifested in this historical artifact. Insights are offered for creating contemporary instructional products that integrate culture. Six Key words: African Americans Discourse Culture Instructional Design Critical Discourse Analysis Curriculum