Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Springer Science+Business Media
About: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia is an academic journal published by Springer Science+Business Media. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Breast cancer & Mammary gland. It has an ISSN identifier of 1083-3021. Over the lifetime, 861 publications have been published receiving 55006 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: This review focuses on the parallels between epithelial plasticity/EMT in the mammary gland and other organs during development, and on a selection of developmental EMT regulators that are misexpressed specifically during breast cancer.
Abstract: From the earliest stages of embryonic development, cells of epithelial and mesenchymal origin contribute to the structure and function of developing organs. However, these phenotypes are not always permanent, and instead, under the appropriate conditions, epithelial and mesenchymal cells convert between these two phenotypes. These processes, termed Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), or the reverse Mesenchymal-Epithelial Transition (MET), are required for complex body patterning and morphogenesis. In addition, epithelial plasticity and the acquisition of invasive properties without the full commitment to a mesenchymal phenotype are critical in development, particularly during branching morphogenesis in the mammary gland. Recent work in cancer has identified an analogous plasticity of cellular phenotypes whereby epithelial cancer cells acquire mesenchymal features that permit escape from the primary tumor. Because local invasion is thought to be a necessary first step in metastatic dissemination, EMT and epithelial plasticity are hypothesized to contribute to tumor progression. Similarities between developmental and oncogenic EMT have led to the identification of common contributing pathways, suggesting that the reactivation of developmental pathways in breast and other cancers contributes to tumor progression. For example, developmental EMT regulators including Snail/Slug, Twist, Six1, and Cripto, along with developmental signaling pathways including TGF-β and Wnt/β-catenin, are misexpressed in breast cancer and correlate with poor clinical outcomes. This review focuses on the parallels between epithelial plasticity/EMT in the mammary gland and other organs during development, and on a selection of developmental EMT regulators that are misexpressed specifically during breast cancer.
TL;DR: Because a full-term pregnancy in early life is associated with a reduction in breast carcinogenesis, an understanding of the mechanisms by which these hormones bring about secretory differentiation may offer clues to the prevention of breast cancer.
Abstract: The endocrine system coordinates development of the mammary gland with reproductive development and the demand of the offspring for milk. Three categories of hormones are involved. The levels of the reproductive hormones, estrogen, progesterone, placental lactogen, prolactin, and oxytocin, change during reproductive development or function and act directly on the mammary gland to bring about developmental changes or coordinate milk delivery to the offspring. Metabolic hormones, whose main role is to regulate metabolic responses to nutrient intake or stress, often have direct effects on the mammary gland as well. The important hormones in this regard are growth hormone, corticosteroids, thyroid hormone, and insulin. A third category of hormones has recently been recognized, mammary hormones. It currently includes growth hormone, prolactin, PTHrP, and leptin. Because a full-term pregnancy in early life is associated with a reduction in breast carcinogenesis, an understanding of the mechanisms by which these hormones bring about secretory differentiation may offer clues to the prevention of breast cancer.
TL;DR: Recent discoveries that suggest that MUC1 may be a multifunctional protein, located on the surfaces of cells as a sensor of the environment, poised to signal to the interior when things go awry are highlighted.
Abstract: MUC1 is a large, heavily glycosylated mucin expressed on the apical surfaces of most simple, secretory epithelia including the mammary gland, gastrointestinal, respiratory, urinary and reproductive tracts. Although MUC1 was thought to be an epithelial-specific protein, it is now known to be expressed on a variety of hematopoietic cells as well. Mucins function in protection and lubrication of epithelial surfaces. Transmembrane mucins, which contain cytoplasmic tail domains, appear to have additional functions through their abilities to interact with many proteins involved in signal transduction and cell adhesion. The goal of this review is to highlight recent discoveries that suggest that MUC1 may be a multifunctional protein, located on the surfaces of cells as a sensor of the environment, poised to signal to the interior when things go awry.
TL;DR: Somatotropin is almost certainly a predominant homeorhetic influence during lactation because its exogenous administration causes specific changes in glucose metabolism (and many other functions) of various nonmammary tissues which faithfully mimic normal adaptations to early lactation.
Abstract: Increased glucose requirements of the gravid uterus during late pregnancy and even greater requirements of the lactating mammary glands necessitate major adjustments in glucose production and utilization in maternal liver, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and other tissues In ruminants, which at all times rely principally on hepatic gluconeogenesis for their glucose supply, hepatic glucose synthesis during late pregnancy and early lactation is increased to accommodate uterine or mammary demands even when the supply of dietary substrate is inadequate At the same time, glucose utilization by adipose tissue and muscle is reduced In pregnant animals, these responses are exaggerated by moderate undernutrition and are mediated by reduced tissue sensitivity and responsiveness to insulin, associated with decreased tissue expression of the insulin-responsive facilitative glucose transporter, GLUT4 Peripheral tissue responses to insulin remain severely attenuated during early lactation but recover as the animal progresses through mid lactation Specific homeorhetic effectors of decreased insulin-mediated glucose metabolism during late pregnancy have yet to be conclusively identified In contrast, somatotropin is almost certainly a predominant homeorhetic influence during lactation because its exogenous administration causes specific changes in glucose metabolism (and many other functions) of various nonmammary tissues which faithfully mimic normal adaptations to early lactation
TL;DR: It will be critical to identify the key molecular elements regulating tensional-homeostasis of the mammary gland and thereafter to characterize their associated mechanotransduction pathways.
Abstract: The tissue microenvironment regulates mammary gland development and tissue homeostasis through soluble, insoluble and cellular cues that operate within the three dimensional architecture of the gland. Disruption of these critical cues and loss of tissue architecture characterize breast tumors. The developing and lactating mammary gland are also subject to a plethora of tensional forces that shape the morphology of the gland and orchestrate its functionally differentiated state. Moreover, malignant transformation of the breast is associated with dramatic changes in gland tension that include elevated compression forces, high tensional resistance stresses and increased extracellular matrix stiffness. Chronically increased mammary gland tension may influence tumor growth, perturb tissue morphogenesis, facilitate tumor invasion, and alter tumor survival and treatment responsiveness. Because mammary tissue differentiation is compromised by high mechanical force and transformed cells exhibit altered mechanoresponsiveness, malignant transformation of the breast may be functionally linked to perturbed tensional-homeostasis. Accordingly, it will be important to define the role of tensional force in mammary gland development and tumorigenesis. Additionally, it will be critical to identify the key molecular elements regulating tensional-homeostasis of the mammary gland and thereafter to characterize their associated mechanotransduction pathways.