Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
About: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an academic journal published by Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Computer science & Environmental science. It has an ISSN identifier of 2077-1312. It is also open access. Over the lifetime, 6435 publications have been published receiving 35434 citations.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors report the latest advances in this area, addressing the applications of advanced composites in ships and ship components, offshore oil and gas composites, marine renewable energy and underwater repairing.
Abstract: Components and structures working in the marine environment are exposed to high stresses attributable to the action of wind, waves, and tides. Moreover, they have to face hostile and severe environmental conditions during their lifetime, being placed in the splash zone if not even submerged in saltwater. The application of polymer composites in marine systems has been the focus of intensive studies in the last decades, highlighting potential benefits given by the replacement of several components, such as ship hulls, propeller blades, wind, and tidal turbine blades, to cite but a few. The present paper reports the latest advances in this area, addressing the applications of advanced composites in ships and ship components, offshore oil and gas composites, marine renewable energy and underwater repairing.
TL;DR: The author has created a number of comparison tables throughout the review, which include comparison of wired data transmission technology, comparison of common ROV communication protocols and comparisons of various inertial navigation systems.
Abstract: This paper presents a review of inspection-class Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs). The review divides the classification of inspection-class ROVs; categorising the vehicles in order of size and capability. A state of the art technology review is undertaken, discussing various common subsystems of the ROV. Standard and novel ROV shapes and designs are reviewed, with emphasis on buoyancy, frame materials and hydrodynamics. Several power considerations and designs are discussed, accounting for battery fed and mains fed systems. ROV telemetry is split into a discussion on the various transmission hardware systems and the communication protocols that are most widely used in industry and research today. A range of thruster technologies is then introduced with consideration taken of the various thruster architectures available. Finally, the navigation and positioning sensors employed for ROV navigation and control are reviewed. The author has also created a number of comparison tables throughout the review; tables include comparison of wired data transmission technology, comparison of common ROV communication protocols and comparisons of various inertial navigation systems. By the end of the review the reader will have clearer understanding on the fundamentals of inspection-class ROV technologies and can use this as an introduction to further paper investigation.
TL;DR: In this paper, the potential uses and obstacles for exploitation of pelagic Sargassum are reviewed, and low-cost methods of preservation such as solar drying and ensiling may address the problem of discontinuity.
Abstract: In recent years there have been massive inundations of pelagic Sargassum, known as golden tides, on the beaches of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and West Africa, causing considerable damage to the local economy and environment. Commercial exploration of this biomass for food, fuel, and pharmaceutical products could fund clean-up and offset the economic impact of these golden tides. This paper reviews the potential uses and obstacles for exploitation of pelagic Sargassum. Although Sargassum has considerable potential as a source of biochemicals, feed, food, fertiliser, and fuel, variable and undefined composition together with the possible presence of marine pollutants may make golden tides unsuitable for food, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals and limit their use in feed and fertilisers. Discontinuous and unreliable supply of Sargassum also presents considerable challenges. Low-cost methods of preservation such as solar drying and ensiling may address the problem of discontinuity. The use of processes that can handle a variety of biological and waste feedstocks in addition to Sargassum is a solution to unreliable supply, and anaerobic digestion for the production of biogas is one such process. More research is needed to characterise golden tides and identify and develop commercial products and processes.
TL;DR: This review provides an introduction to sex determination and differentiation in fish, including the genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors that can influence fish sex ratios and discusses the major approaches used to control sex in fish.
Abstract: At present, aquaculture is the fastest growing sector of animal food production and holds great potential as a sustainable solution for world food security. The ability to control sex is one of the most important factors for the commercialisation and efficient propagation of fish species, due to influences on reproduction, growth and product quality. Accordingly, there is a large body of research that targets sexual development in commercially important species in an attempt to understand and control fish sex and reproductive function. In this review, we provide an introduction to sex determination and differentiation in fish, including the genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors that can influence fish sex ratios. We also summarise the major approaches used to control sex in fish and discuss their application in commercially important species. Specifically, we discuss the use of exogenous steroid hormones, chromosome ploidy, environmental manipulations, sex- linked genetic markers, selection for altered sex ratios, and transgenics and comment on the challenges associated with controlling sex in a commercial environment.
TL;DR: In this paper, the nutritional values of seaweeds and the seaweed effects in seaweed-based animal feed/supplements are described. But, the authors do not discuss the effect of seaweed on animal health.
Abstract: Seaweed (known as marine algae) has a tradition of being part of the animal feed in the coastal areas, from ancient times. Seaweeds, are mixed with animal feed, because when consumed alone can have negative impact on animals. Thus, seaweeds are very rich in useful metabolites (pigments, carotenoids, phlorotannins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, agar, alginate and carrageenan) and minerals (iodine, zinc, sodium, calcium, manganese, iron, selenium), being considered as a natural source of additives that can substitute the antibiotic usage in various animals. In this review, we describe the nutritional values of seaweeds and the seaweed effects in the seaweed-based animal feed/supplements.