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JournalISSN: 0022-2461

Journal of Materials Science 

About: Journal of Materials Science is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Microstructure & Ultimate tensile strength. It has an ISSN identifier of 0022-2461. Over the lifetime, 39444 publication(s) have been published receiving 952579 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A brief history and review of geopolymer technology is presented with the aim of introducing the technology and the vast categories of materials that may be synthesized by alkali-activation of aluminosilicates. The fundamental chemical and structural characteristics of geopolymers derived from metakaolin, fly ash and slag are explored in terms of the effects of raw material selection on the properties of geopolymer composites. It is shown that the raw materials and processing conditions are critical in determining the setting behavior, workability and chemical and physical properties of geopolymeric products. The structural and chemical characteristics that are common to all geopolymeric materials are presented, as well as those that are determined by the specific interactions occurring in different systems, providing the ability for tailored design of geopolymers to specific applications in terms of both technical and commercial requirements.

2,584 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Titanium dioxide, TiO2, is an important photocatalytic material that exists as two main polymorphs, anatase and rutile. The presence of either or both of these phases impacts on the photocatalytic performance of the material. The present work reviews the anatase to rutile phase transformation. The synthesis and properties of anatase and rutile are examined, followed by a discussion of the thermodynamics of the phase transformation and the factors affecting its observation. A comprehensive analysis of the reported effects of dopants on the anatase to rutile phase transformation and the mechanisms by which these effects are brought about is presented in this review, yielding a plot of the cationic radius versus the valence characterised by a distinct boundary between inhibitors and promoters of the phase transformation. Further, the likely effects of dopant elements, including those for which experimental data are unavailable, on the phase transformation are deduced and presented on the basis of this analysis.

2,081 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper provides an overview of recent progress made in the area of cellulose nanofibre-based nanocomposites. An introduction into the methods used to isolate cellulose nanofibres (nanowhiskers, nanofibrils) is given, with details of their structure. Following this, the article is split into sections dealing with processing and characterisation of cellulose nanocomposites and new developments in the area, with particular emphasis on applications. The types of cellulose nanofibres covered are those extracted from plants by acid hydrolysis (nanowhiskers), mechanical treatment and those that occur naturally (tunicate nanowhiskers) or under culturing conditions (bacterial cellulose nanofibrils). Research highlighted in the article are the use of cellulose nanowhiskers for shape memory nanocomposites, analysis of the interfacial properties of cellulose nanowhisker and nanofibril-based composites using Raman spectroscopy, switchable interfaces that mimic sea cucumbers, polymerisation from the surface of cellulose nanowhiskers by atom transfer radical polymerisation and ring opening polymerisation, and methods to analyse the dispersion of nanowhiskers. The applications and new advances covered in this review are the use of cellulose nanofibres to reinforce adhesives, to make optically transparent paper for electronic displays, to create DNA-hybrid materials, to generate hierarchical composites and for use in foams, aerogels and starch nanocomposites and the use of all-cellulose nanocomposites for enhanced coupling between matrix and fibre. A comprehensive coverage of the literature is given and some suggestions on where the field is likely to advance in the future are discussed.

1,999 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Zuhair A. Munir1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The use of electric current to activate the consolidation and reaction-sintering of materials is reviewed with special emphasis of the spark plasma sintering method. The method has been used extensively over the past decade with results showing clear benefits over conventional methods. The review critically examines the important features of this method and their individual roles in the observed enhancement of the consolidation process and the properties of the resulting materials.

1,701 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Alexei A. Bokov1, Zuo-Guang Ye1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Relaxor ferroelectrics were discovered almost 50 years ago among the complex oxides with perovskite structure. In recent years this field of research has experienced a revival of interest. In this paper we review the progress achieved. We consider the crystal structure including quenched compositional disorder and polar nanoregions (PNR), the phase transitions including compositional order-disorder transition, transition to nonergodic (probably spherical cluster glass) state and to ferroelectric phase. We discuss the lattice dynamics and the peculiar (especially dielectric) relaxation in relaxors. Modern theoretical models for the mechanisms of PNR formation and freezing into nonergodic glassy state are also presented.

1,577 citations

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