Journal of Morphology
About: Journal of Morphology is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Golgi apparatus & Population. It has an ISSN identifier of 0362-2525. Over the lifetime, 7301 publication(s) have been published receiving 212834 citation(s). The journal is also known as: Journal of morphology & J. morphol. (1887).
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Jan 1951-Journal of Morphology
TL;DR: The preparation of a series of normal stages of the chick embryo does not need justification at a time when chick ernbryos are not only widely used in descriptive and experimental embryology but are proving to be increasingly valuable in medical research, as in work on viruses and cancer.
Abstract: FORTY-FIVE FIGURES The preparation of a series of normal stages of the chick embryo does not need justification at a time when chick ernbryos are not only widely used in descriptive and experimental embryology but are proving to be increasingly valuable in medical research, as in work on viruses and cancer. The present series was planned in connection with the preparation of a new edition of Lillie’s DeueZopmerzt of the Chick by the junior author. It is being published separately to make it accessible immediately to a large group of workers. Ever since Aristotle “discovered” the chick embryo as the ideal, object for embryological studies, the embryos have been described in terms of the length of time of incubation, and this arbitrary method is still in general use, except for the first three days of incubation during which more detailed characteristics such as the numbers of somites are applied. The shortcomings of a classification based on chronological age are obvious to every worker in this field, for enormous variations may occur in embryos even though all eggs in a setting are plmaced in the incubator at the same time. Many factors are responsible for the lack of correlation between chronological and structural age. Among these are : genetic differences in the rate of development of different breccls (eg., the embryo of the White Leghorn breed develops more 49
01 Feb 1972-Journal of Morphology
TL;DR: Six stages of oocyte development in the anuran Xenopus laevis can be divided into six stages based on the anatomy of the developing oocyte, and these stages have been correlated with physiological and biochemical data related to oogenesis.
Abstract: Oogenesis in the anuran Xenopus laevis can be divided into six stages based on the anatomy of the developing oocyte. Stage I consists of small (50 to 100 μ) colorless oocytes whose cytoplasm is transparent. Their large nuclei and mitochondrial masses are clearly visible in the intact oocyte. Stage II oocytes range up to 450 μ in diameter, and appear white and opaque. Stage I and II are both previtellogenic. Pigment synthesis and yolk accumulation (vitellogenesis) begins during Stage III. Vitellogenesis continues through Stage IV (600 to 1000 μ), the oocytes grow rapidly, and the animal and vegetal hemispheres become differentiated. By Stage V (1000 to 1200 μ) the oocytes have nearly reached their maximum size and yolk accumulation gradually ceases. Stage VI oocytes are characterized by the appearance of an essentially unpigmented equatorial band. They range in size from 1200 to 1300 μ, are postivtellogenic and ready for ovulation. These stages of oocyte development have been correlated with physiological and biochemical data related to oogenesis in Xenopus.
01 Sep 1973-Journal of Morphology
TL;DR: A cinematographic analysis of the unrestrained walking, trotting, galloping, jumping and landing movements of 11 adult cats was undertaken to provide previously unavailable information concerning the demands imposed on the nervous system for the control of low and high speed movements.
Abstract: A cinematographic analysis of the unrestrained walking, trotting, galloping, jumping and landing movements of 11 adult cats was undertaken to provide previously unavailable information concerning the demands imposed on the nervous system for the control of low and high speed movements and the demands imposed by such natural movements on muscle performance and proprioceptive response. With due regard for the swing (F and E1) and stance (E2 and E3) phases of the step cycle of an individual limb, single frame analysis of the film permitted measurement of instantaneous angles of the lower spine, hip, knee, ankle and metatarsophalangeal joints. Appropriate lever arm measurements were also made on 50 freshly dispatched cats and 25 cadavers such that the Law of Cosines could be used to calculate instantaneous lengths of select hind limb muscles that would apply to the natural movements of adult cats of small (1.5–2.5 Kg), intermediate (2.6–3.5 Kg) and large (3.6–4.5 Kg) size. Muscle displacements were analyzed relative to maximum and minimus in situ lengths and the lengths associated with quiet standing. Use was also made of a previous electromyographic analysis of hind limb muscles during unrestrained locomotion (Engberg and Lundberg, '69). The sequential relations between the four phases of the step cycle are maintained as forward speed increases from walking ( 16 mph). There are significant differences in the time consumed by each phase, however, with a greater reduction in the E3 phase, little reduction in the E2 and E1 phases and virtually no reduction in the F phase. When each phase is expressed as a relative percentage of the duration of the total step cycle, the greatest reduction is again in E3 with little change in the E2 phase. In contrast F and E1 phases increase in the percent of time they occur in each cycle, with the greatest increase in the F phase. For all speeds, analysis of the phase relations between movements of various sections of the hind limb revealed a remarkable unity of knee and ankle joint movement. The hip joint is largely out of phase with the knee and ankle during E1 and E2, all three joints being in phase in F and E3. The digits are essentially out of phase with the other joints except in the stance phase of the gallop. Rates and extents of muscle displacement during natural movements are greater than might be anticipated when expressed in absolute mm's and mm/sec but not when considered in relation to maximum and minimum in situ length and the length associated with quiet standing (Ls). During stepping a progressive increase in forward speed results in: (a) a greater usage of muscles at lengths between Ls and maximum in situ length; (b) for knee and ankle extensors, pronounced increase in the lengthening contraction associated with the E2 (yield) phase of step; and, (c) for both flexor and extensor muscles, an increased active phase of lengthening or near isometric contraction immediately prior to periods of active shortening. In contrast to these changes in active muscle status, the change from walking to galloping has little effect on the extent and rate of passive muscle displacements, particularly the F phase stretch of extensors. For the soleus muscle, calculations were made of the relation between changes in overall muscle length during natural movements and the length of the average muscle fiber and the tendon of insertion. These measurements revealed that the increases in fiber length when passive and decreases in length during active shortening are less than would be anticipated from the extensive liteature on extirpated fibers. In contrast, the increase in fiber length when active is greater than would be expected from the admittedly sparse literature on this subject. The results of this study are discussed largely in relation to two points of neurophysiological interest: the physiological range of muscle stretch as it pertains to the responsiveness of muscle spindles and tendon organs; and those mechanical aspects of lengthening contractions that give insight into the neural control of stepping. For exciting both spindles and tendon organs passive muscle stretch and shortening contractions are shown to be relatively ineffective and lengthening and isometric contractions particularly effective movements. It is suggested that, just as recent literature has emphasized the co-activation of efferent alpha and gamma motoneurons as a muscle becomes active, so too is there a synchronous activation of afferents, particularly the Ia and group II endings of muscle spindles and Ib endings of tendon organs. Finally the thesis is advanced that, while it has been convenient to separate E2 from E3 in the description of the stance phase of the step cycle, extensor muscles are actually undergoing a single mechanical event: an active stretch-shorten cycle for knee and ankle extensors and an active isometric-shorten cycle for hip extensors. This hypothesis has significant implications for the neural control program that regulates the stepping sequence in that it emphasizes the extent to which appropriate changes must be preprogrammed in the mechanical properties of muscles for the smooth execution of stepping.
01 Aug 1982-Journal of Morphology
TL;DR: Rations of wet weight to predicted maximal tetanic tension for each muscle and group were calculated to compare the relative priority of muscle force versus muscle length‐velocity for a given mass of muscle, suggesting that velocity and/or displacement is a priority for the hamstrings, whereas force is apriority for the quadriceps and lower leg muscles.
Abstract: Force, velocity, and displacement properties of a muscle are determined in large part by its architectural design. The relative effect of muscle architecture on these physiological variables was studied by determining muscle weight, fiber length, average sarcomere length, and approximate angle of pinnation of 24 cat hind limb muscles. Muscle lengths ranged from 28.3 to 144 mm, whereas fiber lengths ranged from 8.4 to 105.5 mm. Generally, fiber to muscle length ratios were similar throughout a muscle. Estimated angles of pinnation of muscle fibers varied from 0 to 21 degrees with most having an angle of less than 10 degrees. The cross-sectional area of the knee extensors was similar to the knee flexors (16.43 vs. 16.83 cm2) whereas the cross-sectional area of the ankle extensors was more than six times greater than the ankle flexors (18.59 vs. 2.83 cm2). There was a 6.7-fold difference in the maximal force between muscles, when normalized to a constant weight, that could be attributed to architectural features. Ratios of wet weight to predicted maximal tetanic tension for each muscle and muscle group were calculated to compare the relative priority of muscle force versus muscle length-velocity for a given mass of muscle. These ratios varied from 0.4 to 4.84. The ratios suggest that velocity and/or displacement is a priority for the hamstrings, whereas force is a priority for the quadriceps and lower leg muscles. As much as a 12.6-fold difference in maximal velocity between muscles can be attributed to differences in fiber lengths. This can be compared to approximately a 2.5-fold difference in maximal velocity reported to occur as a result of biochemical (intrinsic) differences.
01 Nov 1993-Journal of Morphology
TL;DR: This staging series lays the foundation for future studies on the cellular processes occurring during oocyte development in zebrafish and should be useful for experimentation that requires an understanding of stage‐specific events.
Abstract: Oocyte development has been divided into five stages in the zebrafish Brachydanio rerio, based on morphological criteria and on physiological and biochemical events. In stage I (primary growth stage), oocytes reside in nests with other oocytes (Stage IA) and then within a definitive follicle (Stage IB), where they greatly increase in size. In stage II (cortical alveolus stage), oocytes are distinguished by the appearance of variably sized cortical alveoli and the vitelline envelope becomes prominent. In stage III (vitellogenesis), yolk proteins appear in oocytes and yolk bodies with crystalline yolk accrue during this major growth stage. Ooctes develop the capacity to respond in vitro to the steroid 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) by undergoing oocyte maturation. In stage IV (oocyte maturation), oocytes increase slightly in size, become translucent, and their yolk becomes non-crystalline as they undergo final meiotic maturation in vivo (and in response to DHP in vitro). In stage V (mature egg), eggs (approx. 0.75 mm) are ovulated into the ovarian lumen and are capable of fertilization. This staging series lays the foundation for future studies on the cellular processes occurring during oocyte development in zebrafish and should be useful for experimentation that requires an understanding of stage-specific events. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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