Showing papers in "Journal of Morphology in 1980"
TL;DR: Three categories of dietary adaptation are recognized according to the distinctive structural and biochemical features of animal matter, fruit, and leaves respectively, and the predominance of only one in the diets of most species.
Abstract: Three categories of dietary adaptation are recognized--faunivory, frugivory, and folivory--according to the distinctive structural and biochemical features of animal matter, fruit, and leaves respectively, and the predominance of only one in the diets of most species. Mammals subsisting mainly on animal matter have a simple stomach and colon and a long small intestine, whereas folivorous species have a complex stomach and/or an enlarged caecum and colon; mammals eating mostly fruit have an intermediate morphology, according to the nature of the fruit and their tendency to supplement this diet with either animal matter or leaves. The frugivorous group are mostly primates: 50 of the 78 mammalian species, and 117 of the 180 individuals included in this analysis are primates. Coefficients of gut differentiation, the ratio of stomach and large intestine to small intestine (by area, weight, and volume), are low in faunivores and high in folivores; the continuous spread of coefficients reflects the different degrees of adaptation to these two dietary extremes. Interspecific comparisons are developed by allowing for allometric factors. In faunivores, in which fermentation is minimal, the volume of stomach and large intestine is related to actual body size, whereas these chambers are more voluminous in larger frugivores and mid-gut fermenting folivores; fore-gut fermenters show a marked decrease in capacity with increasing body size. Surface areas for absorption are related to metabolic body size, directly so in frugivores; area for absorption is relatively less in larger faunivores and more in large folivores, especially those with large stomachs. Indices of gut specialization are derived from these regressions by nonlinear transformation, with references to the main functional features of capacity for fermentation and surface area for absorption. These are directly comparable with the dietary index, derived from quantitative feeding data displayed on a three-dimensional graph, with all species within a crescentic path from 100% faunivory through 55--80% frugivory to 100% folivory, perhaps illustrating, at least for primates, the evolutionary path from primitive insectivorous forms through three major ecological grades.
TL;DR: The comparative functional anatomy of feeding in Polypterus senegalus, Lepisosteus oculatus, and Amia calva, three primitive actinopterygian fishes, was studied by high‐speed cinematography synchronized with electromyographic recordings of cranial muscle activity.
Abstract: The comparative functional anatomy of feeding in Polypterus senegalus, Lepisosteus oculatus, and Amia calva, three primitive actinopterygian fishes, was studied by high-speed cinematography (200 frames per second) synchronized with electromyographic recordings of cranial muscle activity. Several characters of the feeding mechanism have been identified as primitive for actinopterygian fishes: (1) Mandibular depression is mediated by the sternohyoideus muscle via the hyoid apparatus and mandibulohyoid ligament. (2) The obliquus inferioris and sternohyoideus muscles exhibit synchronous activity at the onset of the expansive phase of jaw movement. (3) Activity in the adductor operculi occurs in a double burst pattern—an initial burst at the onset of the expansive phase, followed by a burst after the jaws have closed. (4) A median septum divides the sternohyoideus muscle into right and left halves which are asymmetrically active during chewing and manipulation of prey. (5) Peak hyoid depression occurs only after peak gape has been reached and the hyoid apparatus remains depressed after the jaws have closed. (6) The neurocranium is elevated by the epaxial muscles during the expansive phase. (7) The adductor mandibulae complex is divided into three major sections—an anterior (suborbital) division, a medial division, and a posterolateral division. In Polypterus, the initial strike lasts from 60 to 125 msec, and no temporal overlap in muscle activity occurs between muscles active at the onset of the expansive phase (sternohyoideus, obliquus superioris, epaxial muscles) and the jaw adductors of the compressive phase. In Lepisosteus, the strike is extremely rapid, often occuring in as little as 20 msec. All cranial muscles become active within 10 msec of each other, and there is extensive overlap in muscle activity periods. Two biomechanically independent mechanisms mediate mandibular depression in Amia, and this duality in mouth-opening couplings is a shared feature of the halecostome fishes. Mandibular depression by hyoid retraction, and intermandibular musculature, consisting of an intermandibularis posterior and interhyoideus, are hypothesized to be primitive for the Teleostomi.
TL;DR: Cats reduce food on one side at a time, and their chewing cycles show both horizontal and anteroposterior deflections, which indicates that food objects are shifted from side to side by lateral jerks of the head and movements of the tongue.
Abstract: Mastication has been studied by cinematography with synchronized electromyography (computer quantified and analyzed), while unanesthetized, freely feeding cats (Felis catus) were reducing equivalent-sized chunks of raw and cookded beef and cooked chicken. Cats reduce food on one side at a time, and their chewing cycles show horizontal and anteroposterior deflections. Food objects are shifted from side to side by lateral jerks of the head and movements of the tongue. During the opening phase, the lower jaw is rotated relatively straight downward, and the digastric muscles are active in bilateral symmetry. Near the end of opening, the head jerks upward, both zygomaticomandibulares start to fire, and opening acceleration of the mandible decreases. Closing starts with horizontal displacement of the mandibular canines toward the working side, accompanied by asymmetrical activities from the working side deep temporalis and the balancing side medial pterygoid, as well as a downward jerk of the head. As closing proceeds the mandibular canines remain near the working side and the working side zygomaticomandibularis and deep masseter are very active. Near the end of closing, the mandibular canine on the working side moves toward the midline, and adductors, digastrics, and lateral pterygoids of both sides are active. The adductors of the working side are generally more active than those of the balancing side. During a reduction sequence, the number and shape of the masticatory cycles, as well as movements of the head, during a reduction sequence are affected significantly by food type. As reduction proceeds, the duration of bite and the muscular activity (as characterized by number and amplitude of spikes) change significantly among muscles of the working and balancing sides. The adductors of the working side are generally most active when cats chew raw beef, less for cooked beef, and least for cooked chicken. In general, the adductor activity reflect food consistency, whereas that of the digastrics and lateral pterygoids reflects more the vertical and lateral displacements of the mandible. Statistical analysis documents that the methods of electrode insertion and test give repeatable results for particular sites in different animals. Thus, it should be possible to compare these results with those produced while other mammals are masticating.
TL;DR: Evidence is presented which suggests that the fibrous material of the subcupular meshwork is incorporated into the otolith as an organic matrix constituent.
Abstract: The sagitta otolithic membrane of Fundulus heteroclitus consists of two different zones. A structured zone (gelatinous layer), which usually exhibits a reticulated or honeycomb-like architecture, is composed of tightly arranged fibrous material and covers only the sensory region of the macula. The gelatinous layer extends from the otolith surface to the tips of the sensory hairs, and probably functions primarily as a mechanoreceptor. The arrangement of this zone is closely associated with specific overlying structural features of the otolith surface and may also influence the pattern of mineral deposition to some degree. A nonstructured zone (subcupular meshwork) consists of fibers in very loose networks and covers both sensory and nonsensory regions of the macula. Over the sensory region, some of this fibrous material extends from the epithelial surface, through pores in the gelatinous layer, to the surface of the overlying otolith. In the nonsensory region, fibers of the subcupular meshwork are relatively more numerous and extend around the peripheral margin of the otolith. Evidence is presented which suggests that the fibrous material of the subcupular meshwork is incorporated into the otolith as an organic matrix constituent. New aspects on the ultrastructure of the otolith are presented and discussed.
TL;DR: The morphology and ultrastructure of the blood cells of the freshwater snails Lymnaea stagnalis, Biomphalaria glabrata, and Bulinus truncatus were studied and special attention was paid to the role of theBlood cells in phagocytosis of foreign particles.
Abstract: The morphology and ultrastructure of the blood cells of the freshwater snails Lymnaea stagnalis, Biomphalaria glabrata, and Bulinus truncatus were studied. By performing in vitro experiments and enzyme histochemical studies, special attention was paid to the role of the blood cells in phagocytosis of foreign particles. No fundamental differences were found in the ultrastructure, lysosomal enzyme contents, and phagocytic capacities of the blood cells of these species. It is concluded that only one type of blood cell, the amoebocyte, exists in the freshwater snails. Amoebocytes constitute a morphologically and functionally heterogeneous population of cells, ranging from round (electron-dense) cells with the morphological characteristics of young cells to highly phagocytic spreading cells with a prominent lysosomal system. In addition to acid phosphatase, nonspecific esterase and peroxidase were found within the lysosomes. The presence of enzyme activity in the RER and the Golgi bodies indicates that amoebocytes are able to synthesize lysosomal enzymes continuously.
TL;DR: The relationship of the hemipenis to the cloaca in copula and sperm storage and transport in the female oviduct were studied in Anolis carolinensis using light and scanning electron microscopy.
Abstract: The relationship of the hemipenis to the cloaca in copula and sperm storage and transport in the female oviduct were studied in Anolis carolinensis using light and scanning electron microscopy. During copulation, the hemipenis does not penetrate beyond the cloaca, but the two apical openings of the bifurcate sulcus spermaticus appose the openings of the oviducts from the cloaca. Sperm enter the sperm storage tubules between 2 and 6 hr after insemination and small amounts of sperm reach the infundibulum 6 to 24 hr following mating. Sperm storage tubules are embedded in the wall of the utero-vaginal transition, and are formed by the folding and fusion of the oviducal epithelium. The importance of the hemipenile-cloacal relationship and the role of sperm storage in the life history of A. carolinensis are discussed.
TL;DR: Ultrastructural studies on blood leukocytes of the channel catfish show the presence of heterophils (neutrophils), small lymphocytes, monocytes, and thrombocytes, while monocytes are the least frequently encountered leukocyte.
Abstract: Ultrastructural studies on blood leukocytes of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, show the presence of heterophils (neutrophils), small lymphocytes, monocytes, and thrombocytes. Monocytes cannot always be distinguished from large lymphocytes. Cells resembling macrophages or transitional forms between monocytes and macrophages are occasionally seen. Blood eosinophils and basophils are not found. Thrombocytes and small lymphocytes are the most abundant leukocytes, while monocytes are the least frequently encountered leukocyte. Glycogen, present in all leukocytes, is most abundant in heterophils and least abundant in monocytes. Although monocytes are similar to heterophils in size and shape, a greater amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum, free ribosomes, and fewer granules are observed in monocytes. Heterophils possess oval or elongate granules, which often contain a crystalline or striated structure; small tubules which resemble smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and cristae which traverse the long axes of the mitochondria are frequently seen. Small lymphocytes are characterized by the presence of pseudopodia, many free ribosomes, numerous large mitochondria, dictyosomes (Golgi), and long profiles of rough endoplasmic reticulum. The dictyosomes are often associated with a large zone of exclusion. Bundles of microtubules are observed near the elongated ends of thrombocytes. Deep indentations of the plasmalemma, which give the appearance of vacuoles, are also seen in thrombocytes.
TL;DR: The firing pattern of the ilio‐sacral musculature is essentially similar during swimming and jumping, and suggests that differences in medium (water vs. air) are responsible for differences in propulsive thrust in the two types of locomotion.
Abstract: Electromyographic recording indicates that the sequence of muscle firing around the ilio-sacral joint is similar for three species of frogs during locomotion, despite differences in gross morphology at the articulation. The ilio-sacral musculature is most active during the take-off phase of a jump, and there is a correlation between the degree of muscle activity and height of jump. This muscle activity is involved in aligning the center of mass of the frog with the direction of the propulsive force of the jump. The firing pattern of the ilio-sacral musculature is essentially similar during swimming and jumping, and suggests that differences in medium (water vs. air) are responsible for differences in propulsive thrust in the two types of locomotion.
TL;DR: It is concluded that the lumbar spine contributes substantially to step length and limb speed during galloping and half‐bounding steps and the epaxial and abdominal musculature may also act as elastic bodies.
Abstract: To examine the functional roles played by the lumbar spine during overground stepping, seven adult cats were run in electromyographic (EMG) experiments. Recordings were made bilaterally from mm. iliocostalis, longissimus dorsi and multifidus at a single vertebral level (L3 ) and from m. rectus abdominis. Stepping movements were monitored synchronously either by videotape or by high speed cinematography. During alternate use of the hindlimbs (walking and trotting), both epaxial and abdominal muscles were active bilaterally and biphasically. During in-phase use of the hindlimbs (galloping and half-bounding), single bursts of activity were observed. Phasic bursts of activity in rectus abdominus were reciprocal to those of epaxial muscles. Second bursts of activity in either group were noted infrequently. Recordings from the same back muscle at several vertebral levels indicated little difference from these patterns. Movements of the lumbar spine during galloping and half-bounding steps, both angular and linear, are easily correlated with muscle activity patterns. Movements of the lumbar spine during walking and trotting show no particular pattern. Only small angular and linear movements are found. It is concluded that the lumbar spine contributes substantially to step length and limb speed during galloping and half-bounding steps and the epaxial and abdominal musculature may also act as elastic bodies. During walking and trotting steps, the epaxial muscles are proposed to act to stabilize the pelvic girdle to provide a firm base for limb muscles which arise on the pelvis and are synchronously active.
TL;DR: The Harderian gland of the mouse was examined by combining autoradiographic, biochemical, and electron microscopic techniques to show that the main components of this gland are glyceryl ether diesters and phospholipids.
Abstract: Biochemical and morphological properties of the Harderian gland of the mouse were examined by combining autoradiographic, biochemical, and electron microscopic techniques. Autoradiographs show that the radioactive carbon from [U-14C]glucose injected into the abdominal cavity is completely incorporated into the acid-insoluble substances within 30 minutes. The results of chemical analysis show that the main components of this gland are glyceryl ether diesters and phospholipids. Scanning electron microscopy shows numerous lipid droplets in the secretory cells and alveolar lumina. Myoepithelial cells lie between the secretory cell base and the basement membrane and have a basket-like distribution of processes as confirmed by hydrochloric acid and collagenase digestions. Myofilaments are demonstrated in the cytoplasm. Two types of secretory cells (A and B) comprise the alveolar epithelium and can be differentiated under the electron microscope. The cytoplasm of both contains numerous vacuoles. The vacuoles are almost empty in A cells, which are a more numerous constituent of the alveolar epithelium than B cells. However, the vacuoles of the B cells contain densely osmiophilic material. In both, cell types show a merocrine mode of secretion. Unmyelinated nerve cell endings occur in the interstices of the connective tissue, and contain clear or cored vesicles.
TL;DR: Serial sections ranging from very young embryos to hatched juveniles and whole embryos of Scyliorhinus show that dentition and dermal skeleton belong to two independent secondary developmental fields that differ both developmentally and structurally.
Abstract: Serial sections ranging from very young embryos to hatched juveniles and whole embryos of Scyliorhinus show that dentition and dermal skeleton belong to two independent secondary developmental fields that differ both developmentally and structurally. The development of the dentition starts very early, with a thickening of the ectoderm in the region of the mouth (stage 04), the invagination of the dental lamina (stage 18), and the formation of the germs of the first generation (stage 20). Tooth replacement movements start only near the end of embryogenesis (stage 35). Scale germs, on the other hand, first begin to form at stage 24. Scales erupt shortly before the animal hatches (stage 43). Only one scale generation is formed during embryogenesis. The forces which erupt the scales may come from fluid pressures in vacuoles of the fibrous layer of the dermis. Those which erupt the teeth probably also result from similar fluid pressures. The crown and upper part of the base of scales and teeth are formed by cells of the inner dental epithelium which are differentiated from the ectoderm. They are also formed by odontoblasts which are derived from the vascular layer of the dermis. However, the basal plates of scales and teeth containing the anchoring fibers are formed by osteoblasts, which are derived from the fibrous layer of the dermis.
TL;DR: The structure of gill epithelia in the sole, Solea solea, as revealed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy shows a leaky epithelium covering a large part of the gill.
Abstract: This paper deals with the structure of gill epithelia in the sole, Solea solea, as revealed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. In this marine teleost the chloride cell and its accessory cell form a cellular complex. Apically the plasma membranes of these cells are loosely juxtaposed, thus forming a leaky epithelium covering a large part of the gill.
TL;DR: Detailed analysis of muscle unit properties in three muscles of the posterior compartment of the lower leg using Burke's tetrapartite unit classification scheme indicates a substantial capacity for powerful rapid contractions of all three of these muscles despite their differences in “size,” action, and force generation.
Abstract: A broad survey of muscle unit properties in 14 muscles of the cat hind limb is presented which emphasizes some general features of unit properties in mammalian muscles. A more detailed analysis of muscle unit properties in three muscles of the posterior compartment of the lower leg is then presented using Burke's tetrapartite (FF, FI or F (Int.), FR, and S) unit classification scheme. Our data on the properties of motor units in cat tibialis posterior (TP) have been compared to those generated by Burke and colleagues on units in flexor digitorum longus (FDL) and medial gastrocnemius (MG). In all three muscles, twitch contraction time was distinctly slower for type S units and specific tension outputs were substantially greater for type FF units than for type S units. The innervation ratios of type FR units were slightly lower than for type S units but the specific tension of the FR units was closer to FF units than to type S units. The FF units controlled 70-74% of the cumulative force output of each muscles, indicating a substantial capacity for powerful rapid contractions of all three of these muscles despite their differences in "size," action, and force generation. Distinctive features of the three muscles included differences in the unit types' force producing capabilities and in the relative representation of "nonfatigable" type FR and S units in each muscle. In particular, TP is endowed with some unusually powerful type FF units and a high percentage (42%) of type S units. In contrast, FDL has units that develop relatively little force and an unusually high representation (56%) of type FR units. The possible relationships between these muscle features and their presumed role in posture and locomotion is discussed.
TL;DR: It is proposed that spermatogenic columns provide the structural basis for organization of the microenvironment of small groups of sperMatogenic cells (≈︁ 400 at a time) during proliferation and differentiation.
Abstract: Sixty-seven specimens of the common North Atlantic asteroid, Asterias vulgaris, were collected at seasonal intervals over a 2-year period and their testes observed with both light and electron microscopy. In the germinal epithelium, a predictable series of interactions between versatile somatic cells and germinal cells is repeated annually in relation to sequential events in spermatogenesis. For example, massive proliferation and differentiation of spermatogenic cells depend on the elaboration of thousands of spermatogenic columns, which are distinct cellular subdivisions of the germinal epithelium. Each fully developed column is composed of at least one somatic cell surrounded by ≈ 400 germinal cells. Such columns form only after intensive spermatogonial mitosis begins in the germinal epithelium. Single annual periods of spermatogenic proliferation and differentiation are initiated from 1 to 3 months out of phase in different individuals and overlap incompletely. Therefore, it is possible to observe testes that are entirely in the proliferative phase, entirely in the differentiative phase, or in both phases simultaneously. Detailed ultrastructural observations and preliminary autoradiographic data demonstrate that columns maintain their height for a variable period of time as germinal cells are generated near their bases, pass along their lengths, and differentiate near their tips; therefore, simultaneous proliferation and differentiation of more than one generation of germinal cells occur in the same column. Finally, formation of primary spermatocytes ceases basally, (terminating proliferation), and remaining columns degrade completely as germinal cells composing them differentiate or are phagocytized (terminating differentiation and spermatogenesis); resulting spermatozoa ultimately accumulate in the expandable lumen. It is proposed that spermatogenic columns provide the structural basis for organization of the microenvironment of small groups of spermatogenic cells (≈ 400 at a time) during proliferation and differentiation. Preliminary evidence from A. vulgaris and other species also suggests that somatic cells are temporally pluripotent and are variously involved in the formation, structure, and activities of columns, in extensive phagocytosis, and probably in contributing intrinsic (e.g., 1-methyl adenine and steroids) and mediating extrinsic (e.g., gamete shedding substance and nutrients) microenvironmental factors influential during spermatogenesis in asteroids. The prodigious spermatogenic capabilities of asteroids apparently depend on the generation of spermatogenic columns, on the progressive interaction of germinal and somatic cells before, during, and after columns form, and on the predictable effects of microenvironmental factors received and interpreted at the structural level of the spermatogenic column.
TL;DR: All lizard species of the subfamily Iguaninae except Amblyrynchus cristatus possess from one to eleven transverse valves in the proximal colon, and the number and type of valves is small, but increase with modal number of valves.
Abstract: All lizard species of the subfamily Iguaninae except Amblyrynchus cristatus possess from one to eleven transverse valves in the proximal colon. Valves are of two kinds: circular (sometimes with a sphincter valve) or semilunar. Circular valves (if present) always occur proximally to semilunar valves. Intraspecific variation in the number and type of valves is small, but increase with modal number of valves. No significant ontogenetic change in number of valves could be demonstrated. Colic valves in iguanine lizards apparently evolved as simple infoldings of the medical colic wall. Comparisons are made with colic modifications occurring in other lizard families. Herbivorous species of the Scincidae, Agamidae, and Iguanidae are the only lizards known to exhibit colic partitioning, suggesting that the evolution of these structures is intimately related to the evolution of herbivory in these lizards. The potential taxonomic and phylogenetic importance of lizard colon anatomy is discussed.
TL;DR: The vomeronasal cell column is the structural unit of the organ and may represent the dynamic unit for cell replacement as well and a sequential process of cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation, and maturation appears to occur in the epithelium despite the adult state of the animal.
Abstract: The vomeronasal epithelium of adult garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis and T. radix) was studied by light and electron microscopy. The sensory epithelium is extraordinarily thick, consisting of a supporting cell layer, a bipolar cell layer, and an undifferentiated cell layer. The supporting cell layer is situated along the luminal surface and includes supporting cells and the peripheral processes (dendrites) of bipolar neurons. The luminal surfaces of both supporting cells and bipolar neurons are covered with microvilli. Specializations of membrane junctions are always observed between adjacent cells in the subluminal region. Below the supporting cell layer, the epithelium is characterized by a columnar organization. Each column contains a population of bipolar neurons and undifferentiated cells. These cells are isolated from the underlying vascular and pigmented connective tissue by the presence of a thin sheath of satellite cells and a basal lamina. Heterogeneity of cell morphology occurs within each cell column. Generative and undifferentiated cells occupy the basal regions and mature neurons occupy the apical regions. Transitional changes in cell morphology occur within the depth of each cell column. These observations suggest that the vomeronasal cell column is the structural unit of the organ and may represent the dynamic unit for cell replacement as well. A sequential process of cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation, and maturation appears to occur in the epithelium despite the adult state of the animal.
01 May 1980-Journal of Morphology
TL;DR: The dermopteran basicranium combines a primitively constructed and oriented auditory bulla formed by ectotympanic, rostral entotyMPanic, and tubal cartilage with derived features of the middle ear transformer and internal carotid circulation.
Abstract: The dermopteran basicranium combines a primitively constructed and oriented auditory bulla formed by ectotympanic, rostral entotympanic, and tubal cartilage with derived features of the middle ear transformer and internal carotid circulation. Living dermopterans possess a primitive eutherian auditory region that has been structurally modified to perceive a lower frequency sound spectrum than probably was utilized by ancestral Mesozoic therians. Perception of the low to midfrequency range is enhanced in Dermoptera by reducing stiffness in the mechanical transformer while maintaining low mass of the component parts. Stiffness has been reduced by (1) development of an epitympanic sinus about four times the volume of the middle ear cavity proper, (2) detachment of the anterior process of the malleus from the ectotympanic, and (3) by delicate suspension of the ear ossicles within the middle ear. We apply to dermopterans a measure of hearing efficiency derived from recent functional studies of the mammalian middle ear that regards the middle ear mechanism as an impedance matching transformer. Calculation of the impedance transformer ratio for Dermoptera suggests that these mammals are relatively efficient in comparison to other eutherians in their ability to match the impedance of cochlear fluids to that of air at the eardrum. Dermopterans theoretically are capable of using over 90% of incident sound energy striking the eardrum at the resonant or natural frequency. Mechanical impedance of the middle ear transformer exerts a minimal influence on hearing efficiency due to low mass, little stiffness, and little frictional resistance. Analysis of measurements of the middle ear transformer published by Gerald Fleischer and integration of these data with current theory on the peripheral hearing mechanism in mammals allow us to propose a model that describes the structural and functional evolution of the mammalian middle ear transformer. Structural changes appear to be correlated with alteration in function from primitive small mammals with stiff middle ear transformers and high frequency dominated hearing to mammals with a wider range in body size with more mobile middle ear transformers and a greater range of frequency perception, often including improved sensitivity to lower frequencies. Mammals employ different anatomical strategies in attainment of increased hearing efficiency and sensitivity. Efficiency is improved by adjustment of lever and areal ratios of the middle ear transformer to achieve an optimum impedance match of external air and cochlear fluids. Sensitivity over a broad frequency spectrum is attained by minimizing mass, stiffness, and frictional resistance of the transformer. The morphology of the auditory region of both living and fossil mammals seems explicable in terms of selection pressure directed toward these ends.
TL;DR: The calcareous layer begins to detach from the shell membrane about half‐way through incubation, and changes in shell morphology attending this detachment indicate that snapping turtles may use the shell as a source of calcium during embryogenesis.
Abstract: Common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) lay nearly spherical, flexible-shelled eggs having an outer mineral layer composed of calcium carbonate in the aragonite form. The mineral layer is arranged into loosely organized groups of nodular shell units, with numerous spaces (or pores) between adjacent shell units. Shell units are structurally complex, consisting of an inner tip that is morphologically distinct from the main body of the shell unit. Contained within an intact shell unit at the interface of the tip and the main part of the shell unit is the central plaque, an apparent modification of the shell membrane that may serve to nucleate calcification of shell units during shell formation. The tips of shell units are firmly attached to a single, multilayered shell membrane throughout much of incubation. The calcareous layer begins to detach from the shell membrane about half-way through incubation, and changes in shell morphology attending this detachment indicate that snapping turtles may use the shell as a source of calcium during embryogenesis. The arrangement of the mineral layer into groups of shell units, the large number of spaces between shell units, and little or no interlocking of crystallites of adjacent shell units apparently are factors contributing to the ability of these eggs to swell as they absorb water.
TL;DR: The hypothesis for a dual source of yolk protein in the American lobster is supported, notably, pinocytotic incorporation of extra‐oocytic material and hypertrophy of oocyte surface microvilli.
Abstract: The present investigation describes the ultrastructural changes which occur at the surface and in the cytoplasm of developing oocytes of the lobster, Homarus americanus, during vitellogenesis. The immature oocytes showed no surface specializations of the oolemma and no pinocytotic activity was observed. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) tracer studies showed penetration of the tracer into the perivitelline space, but no uptake by the oocytes. The surfaces of oocytes examined during vitellogenesis, when yolk protein accumulation was maximal, exhibited numerous microvilli that projected into the perivitelline space, often appearing to be embedded in the follicular cell mass. In addition, the plasma membrane of vitellogenic oocytes contained many pinocytotic pits frequently situated at the bases of microvilli. The perivitelline space was engorged with electrondense material which appeared similar to that contained in pinocytotic structures of the oocytes. Vitellogenic oocytes incubated in HRP showed uptake of tracer reaction product by the coated pits and vesicles of the oolemma. Aggregation and subsequent fusion of these vesicles into large multivesicular bodies of ingested material were also observed in vitellogenic oocytes. Animals artificially induced to undergo vitellogenesis exhibited modulations of oocyte ultrastructure similar to those of normal vitellogenesis, notably, pinocytotic incorporation of extra-oocytic material and hypertrophy of oocyte surface microvilli. This study supports the hypothesis for a dual source of yolk protein in the American lobster.
01 Sep 1980-Journal of Morphology
TL;DR: Neuronal projections from neuroendocrine tracts (nervi corpori cordiaci I and II) in the brains of the locust, cricket, and cockroach were studied using reconstructions of silver‐intensified cobalt chloride preparations.
Abstract: Neuronal projections from neuroendocrine tracts (nervi corpori cordiaci I and II) in the brains of the locust (Schistocerca vaga), cricket (Acheta domesticus), and cockroach (Periplaneta americana) were studied using reconstructions of silver-intensified cobalt chloride preparations. Collaterals from the NCC I in these species branch extensively in the dorsal protocerebral neuropile, anterior to the stalk of the corpora pedunculata and ventral to its calyces. Other fibers project from the NCC I bilaterally into the medial protocerebral neuropile, anterior to the central body, and posterior to the beta lobes. NCC II collaterals arborize in the medial, dorsal, and lateral protocerebral neuropile, their region of projection partially overlapping with that of the NCC I. Several NCC II fibers terminate in the superior arch of the central body in Acheta but not in the other two species. Tritocerebral cells filled through the NCC I branch in the medial tritocerebral neuropile in all three species, but most extensively in Schistocerca. No NCC fibers were seen to penetrate any part of the corpora pedunculata, protocerebral bridge, olfactory glomeruli, ocellar tracts, or optic lobes. These neuronal projections from the NCC I and II lie anterior to regions of branching of second-order ocellar fibers and thus provide no anatomical basis for direct ocellar input to neurosecretory cells, contrary to previous reports for orthopteroid species (Brousse-Gaury, '71a, b). However, interneurons filled from the optic lobes were found to terminate in the same region of dorsal protocerebral neuropile as NCC I and II fibers in Acheta, thus providing a possible pathway for optic input to the cerebral neuroendocrine system.
TL;DR: The morphology of the bean‐shaped accessory glands (BAGs) of males of Tenebrio molitor is described and the cell distributions were confirmed by wax histology and ultramicroscopy.
Abstract: The morphology of the bean-shaped accessory glands (BAGs) of males of Tenebrio molitor is described. All cells in the secretory epithelium are long and narrow (300-400 mμ × 5 mμ). The seven types of secretory cells are distinguished from one another by the morphology of their secretory granules. Granule substructure varies from simple spheres with homogeneous electrondense contents to complex forms with thickened exterior walls or with crystalline and membranous contents. Individual cell types were mapped by staining whole glands with Oil Red O, and the cell distributions were confirmed by wax histology and ultramicroscopy. The secretions of all seven cell types form a secretory plug composed of seven layers. During mating, the secretory plug from each BAG is forced into the ejaculatory duct by contractions of a sheath of circular muscle. The mirror image plugs from symmetrical BAGs fuse and are transformed into the wall of the spermatophore.
01 Sep 1980-Journal of Morphology
TL;DR: Development of frequent, coordinated macromovements of chewing was associated with the refinement of joint structure and dental occlusion and with the growth of the craniofacial skeleton.
Abstract: The oral apparatus of neonatal and juvenile golden hamsters was investigated by clearing and staining of whole crania, videotaping of behavior, and electromyography of several jaw muscles. Chewing developed during the first postnatal week and matured in the second; however, suckling was still the primary mode of feeding. Micromovements of the jaws occurred early when the osseous skeleton and joints developed. Macromovements correlated well with EMG records and were limited to jaw opening at birth. Muscles of the oral floor generated large bursts of activity during jaw opening and tongue protrusion from 0 days postnatal (dpn), when simple and stereotyped gaping was induced, until 14 dpn, when movements were spontaneous and not stereotyped nor inducible. However, adductor muscle activity was brief, low in amplitude, and primarily involved with jaw stabilization until 4 dpn, when these muscles became active during closing the jaws; closing activity increased in frequency and amplitude until the end of the second week. Development of frequent, coordinated macromovements of chewing was associated with the refinement of joint structure and dental occlusion and with the growth of the craniofacial skeleton. Jaw movements and associated EMG's correlated better with available data on development of neural circuitry than with that for musculoskeletal development.
01 Jun 1980-Journal of Morphology
TL;DR: Spermatozoa from eight heteropterans, each representing a different family, have been examined by electron microscopy in order to determine whether there exist characters typical for this insect group, and two such characters were found.
Abstract: Spermatozoa from eight heteropterans, each representing a different family, have been examined by electron microscopy in order to determine whether there exist characters typical for this insect group Two such characters were found, namely bridges from the mitochondrial derivatives to the axonemal microtubules nos 1 and 5, and two or three, rather than one, crystalline bodies within the mitochondrial derivatives It is suggested that these characters are synapomorphic traits The heteropteran spermatozoa lack accessory bodies typical of spermatozoa from many related groups of insects The acrosome of the aquatic or semi-aquatic heteropterans (the infraorders Nepomorpha and Gerromorpha) has a peculiar inner structure consisting of tightly packed tubules On the common theme of the heteropteran sperm structure, there were many variations, and the spermatozoa of each species examined can be recognized
TL;DR: It is suggested that substances regulating differentiation mediate early development, and hormones later development, including inception of adult teeth, and are comparable to “field substances” influencing primordia that originate according to clone theory.
Abstract: Teeth of fetuses of a caecilian, Dermophis mexicanus (Amphibia: Gymnophiona), show ontogenetic variation in crown structure from small, multidenticulate, and non-pedicellate to larger, spoon-shaped, pedicellate teeth with a single apical spike. Number of denticles decreases as enamel-secreting cells mature. Numbers of teeth and of tooth rows increase ontogenetically. A fetal vomeropalatine set of teeth is present in D. mexicanus but absent in species previously examined. Teeth transitional to the adult shape and arrangement appear shortly before birth. The transition is correlated with birth, not fetal size. There is relatively little increase in numbers of teeth during the juvenile period. The pattern of development does not fully agree with either morphogenetic field theory or with clone theory, both as defined by Osborn ('78). Sequence of initiation is appropriate to either. Tooth shape changes agree with aspects of clone theory. Multiple rows of fetal teeth and the transition to adult follow field theory. Clone theory holds that patterns of development and shape are self-regulated, field theory that they are controlled extrinsically. I suggest that substances regulating differentiation mediate early development, and hormones later development, including inception of adult teeth, and are comparable to "field substances" influencing primordia that originate according to clone theory. Components of both theories are appropriate to analyzing tooth development phenomena.
TL;DR: Dissections of the masticatory musculature of the 12 genera and subgenera of North American microtines show an increase in the potential anterior vector component and the potential vertical vector component of these muscles relative to the molar tooth row, leading to the formulation of a propalinal “swing” hypothesis which is supported by vector analyses of the musculatures.
Abstract: Voles and lemmings are the most successful group of graminivorous rodents, but the adaptations allowing them to enter this niche are not fully known. Dissections of the masticatory musculature of the 12 genera and subgenera of North American microtines show an increase in the potential anterior vector component and in the potential vertical vector component of these muscles relative to the molar tooth row. The result is a separation of the compressive and propulsive functions of the masticatory muscles during the power stroke of mastication. This has led to the formulation of a propalinal “swing” hypothesis which is supported by vector analyses of the musculature.
TL;DR: Histology and cytology of dermal scales of the gymnophionans Ichthyophis kohtaoensis and Hypogeophis rostratus reveal their structure and the nature of their mineralization.
Abstract: Histology and cytology of dermal scales of the gymnophionans Ichthyophis kohtaoensis and Hypogeophis rostratus reveal their structure and the nature of their mineralization. Dermal scales are small flat disks set in pockets in the transverse ridges of the skin. Each pocket contains several scales of various sizes. A ring of "hypomineralization" of varying diameter may occur on scales of a particular dermal pocket but bears no relation to the diameter of these scales. Three different layers form the scales and are seen on sections perpendicular to the surface. The cells of the basal layer lie deepest. Each of the two or three more superficial fibrous layers is composed of bundles of fibres that are oriented in parallel. The orientation varies among layers. The striation of the fiber scales has a periodicity comparable to that of the surrounding dermal fibers. Squamulae form a discontinuous layer on the scale surface and are the only mineralized part of the scale. The minerals are deposited both on the collagen fibers passing from the fibrous layers into the squamulae, and in the interfibrillar spaces. Spherical concretions, either isolated or coalescent, reaching up to 1 μm, are found on the surface of the squamulae. The dermal scales of Gymnophiona present some analogies with those of evolved bony fishes. Their characteristics could make them an original model for the study of mineralization.
01 Jun 1980-Journal of Morphology
TL;DR: Analysis based on telemetered electromyography from the quadriceps femoris of Lemur fulvus, a Malagasy prosimian, during walking, galloping, leaping, and a variety of postural behaviors partially confirms and partially contradicts earlier hypothesized functions of this musculoskeletal complex.
Abstract: Analysis based on telemetered electromyography from the quadriceps femoris of Lemur fulvus, a Malagasy prosimian, during walking, galloping, leaping, and a variety of postural behaviors partially confirms and partially contradicts earlier hypothesized functions of this musculoskeletal complex. As predicted on the basis of morphological criteria (large physiological cross-section and long parallel fibers), the vastus lateralis is of special functional significance in leaping. This relatively large muscle consistently initiates the leap and frequently undergoes a very long period of force enhancement via active stretch. By contrast, the vastus intermedius fails to exhibit increased electrical activity and undergoes little or no active stretch during jumps. The myological details of vastus intermedius (short fibers, no fusion with other components), therefore, cannot be accounted for as adaptations to leaping. Rather, a primary postural role is indicated for the vastus intermedius, because in normal resting postures, with the knee quite flexed, it alone is continuously active. The existence of a fibrocartilaginous superior patella in the tendon of vastus intermedius, however, is most plausibly related to the complex tensile and compressive stresses generated in the tendon during the completely hyperflexed phase of leaping. The phasic patterning of the quadriceps femoris of Lemur fulvus does not point to any special role of the vastus lateralis or vastus intermedius during walking and galloping; it does indicate very different patterns of muscle recruitment in comparison to those in nonprimate mammals and some anthropoid primates. The forward cross walk (diagonal sequence, diagonal couplets) of primates versus the backward cross gait (lateral sequence) of most other mammals probably accounts for some of these differences. Lemur fulvus lacks the degree of elastic storage and release of kinetic energy in the quadriceps femoris that characterizes the gallop of dogs, cats, and Erythrocebus patas.
TL;DR: The testicular wall and the process of spermatogenesis in the crinoid, Florometra serratissima, has been studied at the fine structural level.
Abstract: The testicular wall and the process of spermatogenesis in the crinoid, Florometra serratissima, has been studied at the fine structural level. The testicular wall is composed of three layers: a perivisceral layer consisting of nerve processes, muscle fibers, and epithelial cells; a haemal sinus containing haemal fluid, collagen-like fibers, and haemocytes; and a germinal layer consisting of germinal and interstitial cells. The germinal layer is elaborated into numerous folds that project into the lumen of the testis and a branch of the haemal channel extends through the core of each fold. Evidence suggesting that nutrients are carried to the testis and germinal cells via the haemal system is presented. Spermatogonia are concentrated around the base of each fold and spermatocytes line the more distal regions. Spermatids occur at the luminal surface of the germinal layer and spermatozoa fill the testicular lumen. Interstitial cells phagocytize spermatozoa and may also transfer nutrients to spermatids. The nucleus of spermatogonia is large and contains one or two nucleoli. The cytoplasm contains numerous organelles, lipid granules, and a distal and proximal centriole, each with a satellite complex. A striated rootlet extends from the distal centriole. During first meiotic prophase, the distal centriole loses its striated rootlet and produces a flagellum, the proximal centriole loses its satellite complex, the nucleolus disappears, and proacrosomal vesicles are synthesized by the Golgi complex. During spermiogenesis, most of the mitochondria appear to fuse to form a single, large mitochondrion, the nuclear chromatin condenses, and superfluous cytoplasm is lost by autophagocytosis. The formation and definitive positioning of the acrosomal vesicle and periacrosomal material at the apex of the nucleus is described in detail.
TL;DR: The ability of the centrally located continuous fusome to orient the mototic spindles of succeeding mitoses could account for the earlier observations that all pre‐existing bridges remain in only one of the daughter cells at each successive cystocyte division in the female.
Abstract: Intercellular bridge development was compared in Ceropia by transmission electron microscopy in the germ cells of males and females. Bridge formation begins in the fourth instar, and the spindle remnants in newly formed bridges are replaced at this time by an amorphous material known as the fusome. In the four- and eight-celled cystocyte clusters of the female, the newly formed intercellular bridges migrate centripetally, forming a central complex of bridges surrounded by a rosette of germ cells. The fusomes become continuous and occupy all of the bridges in the complex. At each division each mitotic spindle orients itself with one pole toward the continuous fusome. In the female, mitosis stops at the eight-cell stage, and the cystocytes all enter first meiotic prophase. At the end of the fifth instar, when nurse cell differentiation commences in seven of the cells, the continuous fusome is replaced by a continuous mass of mitochondria and microtubules. In the male, bridge migration and rosette formation are abandoned during the later mitotic and meiotic divisions; during these stages the fusome is no longer continuous. The fusome of males disappears during spermatid differentiation and is not replaced by mitochondria and microtubules. The ability of the centrally located continuous fusome to orient the mototic spindles of succeeding mitoses could account for the earlier observations that all pre-existing bridges remain in only one of the daughter cells at each successive cystocyte division in the female.
01 Feb 1980-Journal of Morphology
TL;DR: Colonic organogenesis in rats was studied using light microscopic techniques for the demonstration of mucosubstances, glycogen, and connective tissue fibers.
Abstract: Colonic organogenesis in rats was studied using light microscopic techniques for the demonstration of mucosubstances, glycogen, and connective tissue fibers. Crypts began as intraepithelial spaces which were in continuity with the colonic lumen. The cells forming the floors of these invaded the nonsulfated acid glycosaminoglycan-rich mesenchyme as the basement membrane became discontinuous. As the diameter of the colon increased, the crypts lengthened and the lamina propria thickened until a layer of collagen and sulfated acid glycosaminoglycans formed at the bases of the crypts and the basement membrane was reestablished. The circular layer of the muscularis externa developed first, then the longitudinal layer, and finally the muscularis mucosae. Three types of mucous cells arose in these newly formed crypts. The initial epithelial cell type contained glycogen and gave rise to cells with apical coats of nonsulfated acid glycoproteins. This cell type was followed by the appearance of cells at the bases of the crypts containing nonsulfated acid glycoproteins. As the crypts lengthened, the goblet cells near the base contained nonsulfated and/or sulfated acid glycoproteins. Closer to and on the surface, the cells contained sulfated acid glycoproteins, a mixture of sulfated acid and neutral glycoproteins, or just neutral glycoproteins. Striated-border cells appeared intermingled with the mucous cells close to the bases of the crypts and continued onto the surface. A comparison was made between regeneration following placement of a surgical lesion in adult rats and events in organogenesis of the colon.