scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question

Showing papers in "Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs in 2014"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors presents the Crusades from the perspective of those against whom they were waged, the Muslim peoples of the Levant, and counterbalances the numerous books that tell the story of the crusading period from the European point of view, enabling readers to achieve a broader and more complete perspective on the period.
Abstract: God's BattalionsThe Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim WorldWarriors of GodThe Race for ParadiseShadow of the SwordsCrusadeMuslims and CrusadersCrusading PeaceThe Crusades, Christianity, and IslamMuslim Sources of the Crusader PeriodThe CrusadesThe Social Origins of IslamControversial Histories – Current Views on the CrusadesEncountering Islam on the First CrusadeThe Intensification and Reorientation of Sunni Jihad Ideology in the Crusader PeriodInfidelsIslam's War Against the CrusadersThe Crusades Through Arab EyesHoly WarThe CrusadesThe Origin of the Idea of CrusadeIslam Through Western EyesIbn 'Asakir of DamascusForgetting Osama Bin Munqidh Remembering Osama Bin LadenIslam and the CrusadesSyria in Crusader TimesThe CrusadesThe Book of ContemplationPopular Muslim Reactions to the Franks in the Levant, 1097–1291Medieval Muslim Historians and the Franks in the LevantThe Crusades: Islamic PerspectivesThe Crusader StatesA Muslim Principality in Crusader TimesThe Shade of SwordsThe Muslim MindSeven Myths of the CrusadesThe CrusadesThe History of al-Tabari Vol. 26A Brief History of the CrusadesArab Historians of the Crusades (Routledge Revivals) Muslims and Crusaders supplements and counterbalances the numerous books that tell the story of the crusading period from the European point of view, enabling readers to achieve a broader and more complete perspective on the period. It presents the Crusades from the perspective of those against whom they were waged, the Muslim peoples of the Levant. The

31 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although the contributions of the Arabs to the science and knowledge of the western world is known, this recognition is usually given in the wrong light as "caretaker" of classical learning, less a....
Abstract: Although the contributions of the Arabs to the science and knowledge of the western world is known, this recognition is usually given in the wrong light as “caretaker” of classical learning, less a...

27 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Schoeler's two decade long avid exploration into the oral and written modes as mutually compatible media of transmission of knowledge (and perhaps counter-knowledge) in the early Islamic Per... as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Gregor Schoeler's two decade long avid exploration into the oral and written modes as mutually compatible media of transmission of knowledge (and perhaps counter-knowledge) in the early Islamic Per...

23 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors characterize this securitizing perspective and consider, on the one hand, the inherent equalization of increasing Muslim identity awareness with disloyalty, and on the other, the depiction of Muslims in Europe as a homogenous block, which facilitates constructing them as the Other.
Abstract: The September 11, 2001 attacks in the USA have liberated an encompassing rhetoric globally, which designates all that is “Muslim” or perceived to be such, as a threat. The securitizing perspective, intertwined with debates over Muslims' integration and increasingly visible religiosity has led to growing suspicions regarding Muslims' loyalties in Europe. This analysis seeks to characterize this securitizing perspective and considers, on the one hand, the inherent equalization of increasing Muslim identity awareness with disloyalty, and on the other, the depiction of Muslims in Europe as a homogenous block, which facilitates constructing them as the “Other”. As an illustration, this paper focuses more particularly on France and Great Britain.

18 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors trace the manifestation of the sectarian dimensions of the conflict and suggest that the only escape from the sectarian minefield is the entrenchment of a strong Syrian national identity within the framework of equal citizenship, pluralistic democracy and the protection of minority rights.
Abstract: The religious and the political intertwine in all sectarian conflicts and the violent conflagration in Syria is no exception. However, sectarianism as an explanatory paradigm is extremely limited; it provides a monolithic reading of a complex phenomenon with a well-established historical pedigree. This paper traces the manifestation of the sectarian dimensions of the conflict, following the development of the heterodox Alawi community from a marginalized sect to its ascendance as Syria's ruling class. It focuses on how sectarian identity has constantly been exploited by hegemonic powers such as the Sunni Ottomans, the French Colonisers and, most recently, the Asad regime. The paper suggests that the only escape from the sectarian minefield is the entrenchment of a strong Syrian national identity within the framework of equal citizenship, pluralistic democracy and the protection of minority rights. This could potentially limit the interference of outside parties, but such an outcome is over-optimis...

18 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examines the reasons why the European Court of Human Rights remains ineffective in protecting the freedom of religion, especially as this issue applies to Muslims, and discusses these reasons under four broad categories: religion-specific, non-Christian religion specific, and Islam-specific.
Abstract: This paper examines the reasons why the European Court of Human Rights remains ineffective in protecting the freedom of religion, especially as this issue applies to Muslims I discuss these reasons under four broad categories: religion-specific, non-Christian religion-specific, and Islam-specific First, there are problems that adversely affect everyone's freedom of religion Despite expansive rights for the freedom of religion and belief that are provided in the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, the Court has devised some methods that largely limit the scope of these rights Second, these problems are much more salient in the Court's dealings with non-Christian religious traditions Third, I claim that among these non-Christian relations, the Court's handling of cases involving Muslims is particularly problematic because of fears both about Islam and Muslim visibility and demands Fourth, the Court's desire to promote the principle of secularism has allowed it to igno

17 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors argue that since 9/11 the orientalist discourse has been further adapted where both politicians and academics introduce provisos into their discourse, creating a dichotomy between "good" and "bad" Muslims.
Abstract: This paper argues that since 9/11 the orientalist discourse has been further adapted where both politicians and academics introduce provisos into their discourse, creating a dichotomy between “good” and “bad” Muslims. While this new discursive adjustment has created obstacles for many Muslims, they created opportunities for others. Drawing on empirical data, this paper demonstrates how the Gulen movement (GM), a Turkish-originated Islamic activist movement takes advantage of what it perceives as a discursive opportunity to expand its operations in the Western context. Since 9/11 Islamic activist movements have often been portrayed as irrational, homogenous and naturally prone to adopt violent action repertoires. Taking the GM as a case study, this paper demonstrates how an Islamic movement engages with the West strategically and rationally, adopting a non-violent action repertoire, embracing modernity and operating predominantly within the cultural arena. Rather than adopting violence as a means t...

14 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Since the beginnings of Islam, awqāf or religious endowments have been the medium through which various public services (i.e. schools, hospitals, and mosques) have been provided to communities. Historically, endowments were both insulated from state authority and an emanation of imperial and/or state power. Modern day Muslim scholars have taken a renewed interest in waqf, particularly as Muslim societies look to revive those indigenous institutions which promote cultural sustainability. This paper examines perceptions of the role of waqf in Muslim society as evidenced in current online fatāwā and writings by Muslim scholars. These sources are drawn from English-medium, Muslim web organizations and sites which have particular appeal among Muslims living in the West. This literature propagates a historical narrative of waqf which highlights the institution's moral significance, civic identity, and economic efficiency, and plays down its pre-nineteenth-century links to state power and its potential i...

14 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors argue that the reservations justified on the basis of protecting the rights of the Muslim minority community to practice its personal law has unwittingly impeded the potential of reviewing and addressing significant gaps and limitations in the ways in which the laws are conceived and administered.
Abstract: This paper examines Singapore's partial reservations to Articles 2 and 16 of the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). It contends that the reservations justified on the basis of protecting the rights of the Muslim minority community to practice its personal law has unwittingly impeded the potential of reviewing and addressing significant gaps and limitations in the ways in which the laws are conceived and administered. More pertinently, the policy reinforces the dominance of traditionalism in the thinking of dominant stakeholders of the law. Taking the standpoint that the values of equality and non-discrimination on the basis of gender espoused by CEDAW are compatible with the objectives of Muslim law, this paper maintains that ratifying the relevant Articles of CEDAW will strengthen the process of the development of the Muslim personal law and address essentialist presumptions of the law. This perspective departs from the dominant discourse on the ...

12 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Islam and Muslims in Sri Lanka have a history of more than a millennium. as mentioned in this paper presents a historical narration of these vicissitude retold from a socio-economic and political perspective.
Abstract: Islam and Muslims in Sri Lanka have a history of more than a millennium. During this long period their economic and religious experience had been one of fluctuating fortunes beginning with harmony and prosperity under Buddhist monarchs to repression and misery under Western colonialists. Economic freedom under native rulers, mercantilist restrictions under the Portuguese and Dutch and open economy under the British brought alternative episodes of economic affluence and depression to Muslims. After independence, however, under a democratic polity the community adopted a pragmatic approach to a new situation, which allowed Muslims and Islam to enjoy once again decades of peaceful coexistence and relative prosperity, until political and economic circumstances of the country changed dramatically to create an environment of anti-Muslim and anti-Islam phobia. What follows is a historical narration of these vicissitude retold from a religio-economic and political perspective.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present findings of an ethnographic research along with the results of a household survey of Muslims in Milwaukee in the context of Milwaukee's urban landscape, showing the influence of not only segregation and the typical patterns of ethnic immigration but also clustering and dispersal.
Abstract: Studying the racially and ethnically diverse Muslim minority population in any US city must take into account the racialized landscape prevailing in the city. Milwaukee is a highly racially segregated city, where residential patterns have been shaped by decades of immigration by various ethnic and racial groups, and by restrictions on residential housing, as well as industrialization, deindustrialization and suburbanization. This paper presents findings of an ethnographic research along with the results of a household survey of Muslims in Milwaukee in the context of Milwaukee's urban landscape. Muslims in Milwaukee are racially, ethnically and linguistically diverse. Their patterns of residence and of worship suggest the influence of not only segregation and the typical patterns of ethnic immigration but also clustering and dispersal. Patterns of residences also show the influence of not only Muslim leadership and organization but also of the racialized landscape of the city. Our survey provides a...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article examined the role of urban planning policies in determining the location, architectural form, and use of mosques, and their impact on the local community through a case study of the Masjid Al Farooq in South-East Queensland.
Abstract: The rapid growth of Australia's Muslim population over the past three decades has presented a challenge to local governments to find ways of accommodating their needs, particularly providing spaces to build mosques. Yet in many parts of Australia, mosque applications have been opposed by local communities and consequently such applications are usually declined by local councils. Many Muslims believe that Islamophobhia and racism are behind such refusals. This paper examines the role of urban planning policies in determining the location, architectural form, and the use of mosques, and their impact on the local community, through a case study of the Masjid Al Farooq in South-East Queensland. It seeks to understand whether urban planning policy as well as urban planners can become a tool of integrating the community and, if so, how. This case study reveals that there is no provision in urban planning policies specifically for places of worship. Such applications are treated the same as all others e...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a series of dialogues and consultations held with Afghan-Australians of different ethnicities in Melbourne in 2012 and 2013, the authors contextualized and critically examined the tensions and shared concerns of the Afghan-Australian community in light of the impending withdrawal.
Abstract: With the withdrawal of NATO-led troops from Afghanistan pending in 2014, Afghanistan and its sizeable diaspora are facing an ambiguous new beginning. As in Afghanistan itself, the 35,000-strong Afghan community in Australia is negotiating what has been labelled the “2014 Syndrome”—a chronic state of anxiety about Afghanistan's future. Drawing on data from a series of dialogues and consultations held with Afghan-Australians of different ethnicities in Melbourne in 2012 and 2013, this article contextualizes and critically examines the tensions and shared concerns of the Afghan-Australian community in light of the impending withdrawal. Our study shows that the 2014 Syndrome has exacerbated existing tensions over “Afghan” identity in Australia, which has become intertwined with tensions over the status of Hazara asylum seekers and refugees arriving in Australia. Given the widely held belief amongst Afghan-Australians that the 2014 withdrawal will prompt increased flows of asylum seekers from Afghanist...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper showed that the Western media participated in the construction of a history of the Buddha statues and the region that excluded the Hazaras because of a narrative that was created that compared a cosmopolitan, tolerant West with the Silk Road era of the statues, and contrasted this with the intolerance and parochialism of the Taliban.
Abstract: In March 2001, the Taliban government of Afghanistan destroyed two ancient Buddha statues carved into a cliff face in Bamyan, Afghanistan. The event received wide coverage in the international media. The local ethnic minority group that inhabits Bamyan, the Hazaras, received little or no attention in the reporting of this event. This article seeks to demonstrate that the Western media participated in the construction of a history of the statues and the region that excluded the Hazaras because of a narrative that was created that compared a cosmopolitan, tolerant West with the Silk Road era of the statues, and contrasted this with the intolerance and parochialism of the Taliban. The inclusion of the Hazaras would have upset this dichotomy, and as a result this minority group was excluded, despite evidence that they have their own beliefs about and relationship to the Buddha statues.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors conducted interviews with 23 first-generation and second-generation Somalis in Australia, the UK and the USA to understand their identity and their sense of belonging to their ethnicity and host country in the wake of pertinent moments of local, national and international anxiety.
Abstract: The civil war in Somalia forced many Somalis to migrate to other countries where they had to adapt to new cultures and learn new languages. At the same time, they retained the identity and culture that were important to them throughout the process of migration. These first-generation Somali immigrants may feel strong allegiance to their country of origin along with a “sense of belonging” to their clan/kinship. They may also hope that one day they will be able to return “home”. But do second-generation Somalis feel the same way? This paper is based on 23 interviews with Somali immigrants in Australia, the UK and the USA. Out of the 23 participants, two were first-generation and the rest were second-generation. I seek to understand the participants' identity and their sense of belonging to their ethnicity and host country in the wake of pertinent moments of local, national and international anxiety.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, Samory Rashid sheds critical light on the history and struggles of Black Muslims in the USA, focusing on the role of women and women in the Black Muslim community.
Abstract: In his new book Black Muslims in the US: History, Politics, and Struggle of a Community, Samory Rashid sheds critical light on the history and struggles of Black Muslims in the USA. Rashid primaril...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the experiences of Muslims in Hong Kong who make up a multi-ethnic community situated in a densely populated urban metropolis in China are examined and compared with recent developments in Mecca, including urban development and communications infrastructure to serve the pilgrims.
Abstract: The pilgrimage to Mecca is an often-overlooked topic in the study of Muslim minorities. This work looks at the experiences of Muslims in Hong Kong who make up a multi-ethnic community situated in a densely populated urban metropolis in China. As a small community, these Muslims are free from the constraints of the hajj quota system that most countries are subjected to. The organisation and experiences of these pilgrims is contrasted with recent developments in Mecca, including urban development and communications infrastructure to serve the pilgrims. The twenty-first century hajj, as “pilgrimage 2.0”, characterises some of the contemporary challenges that modern hajj poses. These insights are contrasted with Lefebvre's concept of rhythmanalysis to highlight themes of permanence and change. In addressing the similarities of both Mecca and Hong Kong as “global cities”, the experiences of Hong Kong Muslims are made distinct.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article reviewed the history of immigration and demographics of British Muslims and analyzed the relevant characteristics that influence their political representation in the country, including immigration patterns, demographic characteristics of Muslim groups and coalition versus group competition trends, political mobilization patterns, the politics of race, and the dynamics of party-minority relations.
Abstract: This paper reviews the history of immigration and demographics of British Muslims and analyzes the relevant characteristics that influence their political representation in the country. Such factors include immigration patterns, demographic characteristics of Muslim groups and coalition versus group competition trends, political mobilization patterns, the politics of race, and the dynamics of party–minority relations. The paper also provides original data on elected Muslims in British local and national government and examines the electoral power, political identity, social behavior, civic and political participation, and representation of Muslims in the larger British community.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The influence of dispensational pre-millennialism as a theology has had over evangelical attitudes toward Islam since the September 11, 2001 terror attacks in New York and Washington as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: This article addresses the question of the level of influence dispensational pre-millennialism as a theology has had over evangelical attitudes toward Islam since the September 11, 2001 terror attacks in New York and Washington. The theological concepts that comprise dispensational pre-millennialism experienced a significant increase in interest in the aftermath of 9/11 as the realities of terrorism sank into the collective American consciousness. Shortly after the 9/11 attacks, a new wave of evangelical literature appeared that sought to frame Islam in an increasingly marginalized setting justified by the claim that radical Islam is representative of the whole of Islam. Dispensational pre-millennialism offers the evangelical Christian an escape from a post-modern, inclusive society that is increasingly at odds with the evangelical exclusivist view of religious truth. As a result religious pluralism, a traditional, core tenet of the American democracy, has come under fire from dispensational pre-m...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The history and spread of the South Indian Tamil Muslim diaspora and its contribution to the economic, political, social and cultural development of countries and societies in which those Muslim mi...
Abstract: The history and spread of the South Indian Tamil Muslim diaspora and its contribution to the economic, political, social and cultural development of countries and societies in which those Muslim mi...


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors discusses the views and social character of the group of British Muslims, centred around the Woking Mosque in the period immediately following the First World War and argues that this group had four distinctive characteristics: it formed its own cultural community, rather than joining a pre-existing ethnic community.
Abstract: This paper discusses the views and social character of the group of British Muslims, centred round the Woking Mosque in the period immediately following the First World War. It argues that this group had four distinctive characteristics. First, it formed its own cultural community, rather than joining a pre-existing ethnic community. Second, it espoused an orthodox but modernistic Islam, influenced by—while not sharing the distinctive doctrines of—the Lahore Ahmadiyya. Third, it faced a leadership problem. Other than Khwaja Kamal-ud-Din (who played a key role in the group's early days, and who was a leading member of the Lahore Ahmadiyya, but had been given a specific brief not to spread their distinctive doctrines), the group was in many ways thrown upon its own resources. Here, Marmaduke Pickthall—subsequently the author of The Meaning of the Glorious Quran—played a major role. But while he had good colloquial and subsequently classical Arabic, his knowledge of Islam was largely self-taught. A f...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the early 20th century, the Shaykhis of al-Ahsa developed closer ties with the al-Uskuʾi, a family of maraji of the Tabrizi School of Shaykhiyya as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Ahmad al-Ahsaʾi (1753–1826), the spiritual father of the mystical strand of Twelver Shiism, known as the Shaykhiyya, became an important religious figure in Iraq and Iran. But the Shaykhiyya also spread in his birthplace in Eastern Arabia and among migrants from al-Ahsa in Kuwait and Basra. The quietist and apolitical teachings of al-Ahsaʾi suited the Shia in Eastern Arabia, who periodically suffered from political insecurity and religious persecution. Several scholars from al-Ahsa studied with al-Ahsaʾi and with his successor as leader of the Shaykhiyya, Kazim al-Rashti. Thereafter, they returned to al-Ahsa or moved to Kuwait and Basra and set up hawzas to spread Shaykhi teachings. In the early twentieth century, the Shaykhis of al-Ahsa developed closer ties with the al-Uskuʾi, a family of marajiʿ of the Tabrizi School of the Shaykhiyya. The al-Uskuʾi also resided in al-Ahsa and Kuwait throughout the twentieth century. The Shaykhis of Basra, on the other hand, became followers of the rival Kerman...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a detailed case study of Hajji Ilgar Ibragimoglu and the Cuma Ehli in Baku, Azerbaijan, discusses the social base and modus operandi of Baku's new Islamic social activists, and sets this against the social and ideological changes and shifts that have occurred since the country and its society were confronted with and integrated into the current phase of globalization.
Abstract: Substantial research and reporting have been conducted on the position and dynamics of religion in the historically and culturally Muslim parts of the old USSR. Yet the question whether the reported increase in religious identification and practice in some sectors of society has led to the emergence of a faith-based social sector remains relatively under-examined. Through a detailed case study of Hajji Ilgar Ibragimoglu and the Cuma Ehli in Baku, Azerbaijan, this article discusses the social base and modus operandi of Baku's new Islamic social activists, and sets this against the social and ideological changes and shifts that have occurred since the country and its society were confronted with and integrated into the current phase of globalization.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A multiplicity of good studies and credible research have been published on the Caliphate in the Medieval period as discussed by the authors. Yet only few of these works have addressed the specific details of the intrigues, po...
Abstract: A multiplicity of good studies and credible research have been published on the Caliphate in the Medieval period. Yet only few of such works have addressed the specific details of the intrigues, po...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The emergence of Neo-Ottomanism links Bosnia to Turkey's past and future; this phenomenon is paving the way for a Bosnia that is increasingly being defined by its slight Muslim-majority population and culture as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Bosnia has been defined by its perpetual state of transition—politically, culturally, and socially—since it seceded from Yugoslavia in 1992. The country's Balkan geography renders it both East and West, and its cultural affinities straddle the two poles as well. Hence, the country is in perpetual liminality, tugged by the influences of both Western and Eastern nations and organizations. This has particularly been true for the Bosniak population, a group that has received support from various Muslim-majority nations and organizations. Prominent among those influences is Turkey, which resonates with Bosniaks because their history and identity are intertwined with the Turkish Ottoman past. The emergence of Neo-Ottomanism links Bosnia to Turkey's past and future; this phenomenon is paving the way for a Bosnia that is increasingly being defined by its slight Muslim-majority population and culture. In “The Turkish Connection: Neo-Ottoman Influence in Post-Dayton Bosnia,” I situate contemporary Bosnian c...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Oubrou's work is synthesized in this article in three concepts: (1) geotheology, (2) shari'ah of the minority, and (3) European Islam as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: This article introduces the work of the French imam-theologian Tareq Oubrou as a prominent voice of the emerging “European Islamic thought”. It argues that the imam uses Islamic classical jurisprudential devices (such as fatwas), contemporary hermeneutics and critical thought, and personal communion with the divine (spirituality) to renew the understanding of God, Man, and the Qura'n in the European context. In so doing, he (1) “relativizes” shari'ah law by emphasizing the questions of ethics and meaning, (2) “minoritizes” Islam as a religion in a pluralist liberal milieu, and (3) “localizes” its norms, “nationalizes” religious authority, and “institutionalizes” its manifestations. His work is synthesized in this article in three concepts: (1) “geotheology,” (2) “shari'ah of the minority” which are Oubrou's own terms/concepts, and (3) “European Islam”.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a community-level analysis scrutinizing local marriage market conditions on ethnic intermarriage rate in different geographical locations was provided, showing that the great variation in Hui-Han inter-marriage rate has been highly related to three aspects of local ethnically related structures, which are ethnic demographic compositions, ethnic stratification, and interethnic contact structure.
Abstract: This study discusses the marital assimilation of the ethnic Hui, the biggest Muslim minority group in China, with the Han majority in contemporary Chinese cities, using the 1% sample data of the 1990 Chinese Census. Unlike previous research which focus on demographical, social, and cultural characteristics of ethnic minority individuals on their marital choices, this study provides a community-level analysis scrutinizing local marriage market conditions on ethnic intermarriage rate in different geographical locations. Evidently, the Hui–Han intermarriage rate in different city units varies greatly, as high as over 80% while as low as less than 30%. Furthermore, the great variation in Hui–Han intermarriage rate has been found to be highly related to three aspects of local ethnically related structures, which are ethnic demographic compositions, ethnic stratification, and interethnic contact structure. This study adds to the understanding of the integration process of Muslim minorities in a host soc...