Journal of Neurophysiology
American Physiological Society
About: Journal of Neurophysiology is an academic journal published by American Physiological Society. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Excitatory postsynaptic potential & Inhibitory postsynaptic potential. It has an ISSN identifier of 0022-3077. Over the lifetime, 21846 publications have been published receiving 1702769 citations. The journal is also known as: Journal of neurophysiology online & JN.
Topics: Excitatory postsynaptic potential, Inhibitory postsynaptic potential, Receptive field, Neurotransmission, Population
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, the organization of networks in the human cerebrum was explored using resting-state functional connectivity MRI data from 1,000 subjects and a clustering approach was employed to identify and replicate networks of functionally coupled regions across the cerebral cortex.
Abstract: Information processing in the cerebral cortex involves interactions among distributed areas. Anatomical connectivity suggests that certain areas form local hierarchical relations such as within the visual system. Other connectivity patterns, particularly among association areas, suggest the presence of large-scale circuits without clear hierarchical relations. In this study the organization of networks in the human cerebrum was explored using resting-state functional connectivity MRI. Data from 1,000 subjects were registered using surface-based alignment. A clustering approach was employed to identify and replicate networks of functionally coupled regions across the cerebral cortex. The results revealed local networks confined to sensory and motor cortices as well as distributed networks of association regions. Within the sensory and motor cortices, functional connectivity followed topographic representations across adjacent areas. In association cortex, the connectivity patterns often showed abrupt transitions between network boundaries. Focused analyses were performed to better understand properties of network connectivity. A canonical sensory-motor pathway involving primary visual area, putative middle temporal area complex (MT+), lateral intraparietal area, and frontal eye field was analyzed to explore how interactions might arise within and between networks. Results showed that adjacent regions of the MT+ complex demonstrate differential connectivity consistent with a hierarchical pathway that spans networks. The functional connectivity of parietal and prefrontal association cortices was next explored. Distinct connectivity profiles of neighboring regions suggest they participate in distributed networks that, while showing evidence for interactions, are embedded within largely parallel, interdigitated circuits. We conclude by discussing the organization of these large-scale cerebral networks in relation to monkey anatomy and their potential evolutionary expansion in humans to support cognition.
TL;DR: Dopamine systems may have two functions, the phasic transmission of reward information and the tonic enabling of postsynaptic neurons.
Abstract: Schultz, Wolfram. Predictive reward signal of dopamine neurons. J. Neurophysiol. 80: 1–27, 1998. The effects of lesions, receptor blocking, electrical self-stimulation, and drugs of abuse suggest t...
TL;DR: To UNDERSTAND VISION in physiological terms represents a formidable problem for the biologist, and one approach is to stimulate the retina with patterns of light while recording from single cells or fibers at various points along the visual pathway.
Abstract: To UNDERSTAND VISION in physiological terms represents a formidable problem for the biologist. I t am0 unts to learning how the nervous system handles incoming messages so that form, color, movement, and depth can be perceived and interpreted. One approach, perhaps the most direct, is to stimulate the retina with patterns of light while recording from single cells or fibers at various points along the visual pa thway. For each cell the optimum stimulus can be determined, and one can note the charac teristics common to cells at the next. each level in the visual pathway, and compare a given level with
TL;DR: An oculomotor delayed-response task was used to examine the spatial memory functions of neurons in primate prefrontal cortex and found that inhibitory responses were usually strongest for, or centered about, cue directions roughly opposite those optimal for excitatory responses.
Abstract: 1. An oculomotor delayed-response task was used to examine the spatial memory functions of neurons in primate prefrontal cortex. Monkeys were trained to fixate a central spot during a brief presentation (0.5 s) of a peripheral cue and throughout a subsequent delay period (1-6 s), and then, upon the extinction of the fixation target, to make a saccadic eye movement to where the cue had been presented. Cues were usually presented in one of eight different locations separated by 45 degrees. This task thus requires monkeys to direct their gaze to the location of a remembered visual cue, controls the retinal coordinates of the visual cues, controls the monkey's oculomotor behavior during the delay period, and also allows precise measurement of the timing and direction of the relevant behavioral responses. 2. Recordings were obtained from 288 neurons in the prefrontal cortex within and surrounding the principal sulcus (PS) while monkeys performed this task. An additional 31 neurons in the frontal eye fields (FEF) region within and near the anterior bank of the arcuate sulcus were also studied. 3. Of the 288 PS neurons, 170 exhibited task-related activity during at least one phase of this task and, of these, 87 showed significant excitation or inhibition of activity during the delay period relative to activity during the intertrial interval. 4. Delay period activity was classified as directional for 79% of these 87 neurons in that significant responses only occurred following cues located over a certain range of visual field directions and were weak or absent for other cue directions. The remaining 21% were omnidirectional, i.e., showed comparable delay period activity for all visual field locations tested. Directional preferences, or lack thereof, were maintained across different delay intervals (1-6 s). 5. For 50 of the 87 PS neurons, activity during the delay period was significantly elevated above the neuron's spontaneous rate for at least one cue location; for the remaining 37 neurons only inhibitory delay period activity was seen. Nearly all (92%) neurons with excitatory delay period activity were directional and few (8%) were omnidirectional. Most (62%) neurons with purely inhibitory delay period activity were directional, but a substantial minority (38%) was omnidirectional. 6. Fifteen of the neurons with excitatory directional delay period activity also had significant inhibitory delay period activity for other cue directions. These inhibitory responses were usually strongest for, or centered about, cue directions roughly opposite those optimal for excitatory responses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
TL;DR: The Limulus preparation shows many features which are similar to other simple sense organs, for instance, stretch receptors, however, instead of photochemical events, stretch-deformation acts as the adequate stimulus on sensory terminals and is translated into a characteristic discharge pattern.
Abstract: THE DISCHARGES carried in the optic nerve fibers contain all the information which the central nervous system receives from the retina. A correct interpretation of discharge patterns therefore constitutes an important step in the analysis of visual events. Further, investigations of nervous activity arising in the eye reveal many aspects of the functional organization of the neural elements within the retina itself. Following studies of discharges in the optic nerve of the eel’s eye by Adrian and Matthews (2,3), Hartline and his colleagues described the discharge pattern in the eye of the Limulus in a series of important and lucid papers (for a summary see 20). In the Limulus the relationship between the stimulus to the primary receptor cell and the nerve discharges proved relatively simple, apparently because the connection between sense cell and nerve fiber was a direct one. Thus, when stimulation is confined to one receptor the discharge in a single Limulus nerve fiber will provide a good indication of excitatory events which take place as a result of photochemical processes. Discharges last for the duration of illumination and their frequency is a measure of stimulus strength. Lately, however, it was shown by Hartline et al. (22) that inhibitory interactions may be revealed when several receptors are excited. On the whole, the Limulus preparation shows many features which are similar to other simple sense organs, for instance, stretch receptors. In the latter, however, instead of photochemical events, stretch-deformation acts as the adequate stimulus on sensory terminals and is translated into a characteristic discharge pattern. The discharge from the cold-blooded vertebrate retina (mainly frogs) proved much more complex. Hartline found three main types when recording from single optic nerve fibers: (i) “on” discharges, similar to those in the Limulus, firing for the duration of the light stimulus, (ii) “off” discharges appearing when a light stimulus was withdrawn, and (iii) ‘con-off” discharges, a combination of the former two, with activity confined mainly to onset and cessation of illumination. The mammalian discharge patterns were studied in a number of species by Granit and his co-workers in the course of their extensive work on the physiology of the visual system (summaries in 13, 15). On the whole, they did not observe any fundamental differences between frog and mammalian discharge types (see later).