Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
About: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry is an academic journal published by Elsevier BV. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Medicine & Adipose tissue. It has an ISSN identifier of 0955-2863. Over the lifetime, 4477 publications have been published receiving 197720 citations. The journal is also known as: The Journal of nutritional biochemistry.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The diversity and multiple mechanisms of flavonoid action, together with the numerous methods of initiation, detection and measurement of oxidative processes in vitro and in vivo offer plausible explanations for existing discrepancies in structure-activity relationships.
Abstract: Flavonoids are a class of secondary plant phenolics with significant antioxidant and chelating properties. In the human diet, they are most concentrated in fruits, vegetables, wines, teas and cocoa. Their cardioprotective effects stem from the ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation, chelate redox-active metals, and attenuate other processes involving reactive oxygen species. Flavonoids occur in foods primarily as glycosides and polymers that are degraded to variable extents in the digestive tract. Although metabolism of these compounds remains elusive, enteric absorption occurs sufficiently to reduce plasma indices of oxidant status. The propensity of a flavonoid to inhibit free-radical mediated events is governed by its chemical structure. Since these compounds are based on the flavan nucleus, the number, positions, and types of substitutions influence radical scavenging and chelating activity. The diversity and multiple mechanisms of flavonoid action, together with the numerous methods of initiation, detection and measurement of oxidative processes in vitro and in vivo offer plausible explanations for existing discrepancies in structure-activity relationships. Despite some inconsistent lines of evidence, several structure-activity relationships are well established in vitro. Multiple hydroxyl groups confer upon the molecule substantial antioxidant, chelating and prooxidant activity. Methoxy groups introduce unfavorable steric effects and increase lipophilicity and membrane partitioning. A double bond and carbonyl function in the heterocycle or polymerization of the nuclear structure increases activity by affording a more stable flavonoid radical through conjugation and electron delocalization. Further investigation of the metabolism of these phytochemicals is justified to extend structure-activity relationships (SAR) to preventive and therapeutic nutritional strategies.
TL;DR: The structural requirements for the antioxidant and free radical scavenging functions of flavonoids include a hydroxyl group in carbon position three, a double bond between carbon positions two and three, carbonyl groups in carbon positions four, and polyhydroxylation of the A and B aromatic rings.
Abstract: Flavonoids are a group of polyphenolic compounds, diverse in chemical structure and characteristics, found ubiquitously in plants. Therefore, flavonoids are part of the human diet. Over 4,000 different flavonoids have been identified within the major flavonoid classes which include flavonols, flavones, flavanones, catechins, anthocyanidins, isoflavones, dihydroflavonols, and chalcones. Flavonoids are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals and are excreted either unchanged or as flavonoid metabolites in the urine and feces. Flavonoids are potent antioxidants, free radical scavengers, and metal chelators and inhibit lipid peroxidation. The structural requirements for the antioxidant and free radical scavenging functions of flavonoids include a hydroxyl group in carbon position three, a double bond between carbon positions two and three, a carbonyl group in carbon position four, and polyhydroxylation of the A and B aromatic rings. Epidemiological studies show an inverse correlation between dietary flavonoid intake and mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) which is explained in part by the inhibition of low density lipoprotein oxidation and reduced platelet aggregability. Dietary intake of flavonoids range between 23 mg/day estimated in The Netherlands and 170 mg/day estimated in the USA. Major dietary sources of flavonoids determined from studies and analyses conducted in The Netherlands include tea, onions, apples, and red wine. More research is needed for further elucidation of the mechanisms of flavonoid absorption, metabolism, biochemical action, and association with CHD.
TL;DR: Article de synthese sur le metabolisme de la methionine, acide amine essentiel, chez les mammiferes, de la regulation du metabolisme (mise en evidence and importance relative of chaque facteur).
Abstract: Article de synthese sur le metabolisme de la methionine, acide amine essentiel, chez les mammiferes. Etude du schema metabolique, de la regulation du metabolisme (mise en evidence et importance relative de chaque facteur). Etude de la transamination de la methionine, du role de la S-adenosyl-methionine, de l'oxydation de l'homocysteine et de la cystathionine. Etude du disfonctionnement du metabolisme et des consequences chez les hommes
TL;DR: This review focuses on the reciprocal interactions between the gut microbiota and polyphenols, the mechanisms of action and the consequences of these interactions on human health.
Abstract: The biological properties of dietary polyphenols are greatly dependent on their bioavailability that, in turn, is largely influenced by their degree of polymerization. The gut microbiota play a key role in modulating the production, bioavailability and, thus, the biological activities of phenolic metabolites, particularly after the intake of food containing high-molecular-weight polyphenols. In addition, evidence is emerging on the activity of dietary polyphenols on the modulation of the colonic microbial population composition or activity. However, although the great range of health-promoting activities of dietary polyphenols has been widely investigated, their effect on the modulation of the gut ecology and the two-way relationship "polyphenols ↔ microbiota" are still poorly understood. Only a few studies have examined the impact of dietary polyphenols on the human gut microbiota, and most were focused on single polyphenol molecules and selected bacterial populations. This review focuses on the reciprocal interactions between the gut microbiota and polyphenols, the mechanisms of action and the consequences of these interactions on human health.
TL;DR: The superior bioactivity of PJ compared to its purified polyphenols illustrated the multifactorial effects and chemical synergy of the action of multiple compounds compared to single purified active ingredients.
Abstract: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits are widely consumed as juice (PJ). The potent antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic activities of PJ are attributed to its polyphenols including punicalagin, the major fruit ellagitannin, and ellagic acid (EA). Punicalagin is the major antioxidant polyphenol ingredient in PJ. Punicalagin, EA, a standardized total pomegranate tannin (TPT) extract and PJ were evaluated for in vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidant activities. Punicalagin, EA and TPT were evaluated for antiproliferative activity at 12.5-100 microg/ml on human oral (KB, CAL27), colon (HT-29, HCT116, SW480, SW620) and prostate (RWPE-1, 22Rv1) tumor cells. Punicalagin, EA and TPT were evaluated at 100 microg/ml concentrations for apoptotic effects and at 10 microg/ml concentrations for antioxidant properties. However, to evaluate the synergistic and/or additive contributions from other PJ phytochemicals, PJ was tested at concentrations normalized to deliver equivalent amounts of punicalagin (w/w). Apoptotic effects were evaluated against the HT-29 and HCT116 colon cancer cell lines. Antioxidant effects were evaluated using inhibition of lipid peroxidation and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Pomegranate juice showed greatest antiproliferative activity against all cell lines by inhibiting proliferation from 30% to 100%. At 100 microg/ml, PJ, EA, punicalagin and TPT induced apoptosis in HT-29 colon cells. However, in the HCT116 colon cells, EA, punicalagin and TPT but not PJ induced apoptosis. The trend in antioxidant activity was PJ>TPT>punicalagin>EA. The superior bioactivity of PJ compared to its purified polyphenols illustrated the multifactorial effects and chemical synergy of the action of multiple compounds compared to single purified active ingredients.