Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Center for Academic Publications Japan
About: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology is an academic journal published by Center for Academic Publications Japan. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Vitamin & Ascorbic acid. It has an ISSN identifier of 0301-4800. It is also open access. Over the lifetime, 3844 publications have been published receiving 59531 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The inhibitory activity of six groups of flav onoids against yeast and rat small intestinal α-glucosidases and porcine pancreatic α-amylase was compared, and chemical structures of flavonoids responsible for the inhibitoryactivity were evaluated.
Abstract: The inhibitory activity of six groups of flavonoids against yeast and rat small intestinal alpha-glucosidases and porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase was compared, and chemical structures of flavonoids responsible for the inhibitory activity were evaluated. Yeast alpha-glucosidase was potently inhibited by the anthocyanidin, isoflavone and flavonol groups with the IC50 values less than 15 microM. The following structures enhanced the inhibitory activity: the unsaturated C ring, 3-OH, 4-CO, the linkage of the B ring at the 3 position, and the hydroxyl substitution on the B ring. Rat small intestinal alpha-glucosidase was weakly inhibited by many flavonoids, and slightly by the anthocyanidin and isoflavone groups. 3-OH and the hydroxyl substitution on the B ring increased the inhibitory activity. In porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase, luteolin, myricetin and quercetin were potent inhibitors with the IC50 values less than 500 microM. The 2,3-double bond, 5-OH, the linkage of the B ring at the 3 position, and the hydroxyl substitution on the B ring enhanced the inhibitory activity, while 3-OH reduced it.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that tea catechins exert a hypocholesterolemic effect in cholesterol-fed rats and increases fecal excretion of total lipids and cholesterol.
Abstract: Effects of tea catechins (tannins) on lipid metabolism were studied in male weanling rats fed a 25% casein diet containing 15% lard and 1% cholesterol for 28 days. Crude tea catechins prepared from green tea powder were supplemented at a 1% and 2% of the lard-cholesterol diet. The addition of 2% tea catechins slightly depressed growth but at the 1% level was without effect. Tea catechins decreased plasma total cholesterol, cholesterol ester, total cholesterol--HDL-cholesterol (VIDL-+LDL-cholesterol) and atherogenic index (VLDL-+LDL-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol). Hematocrit and plasma glucose were not altered by the addition of tea catechins. The liver weight, liver total lipids and cholesterol concentrations in rats fed the lard-cholesterol diet increased more than in the control rats, but the addition of tea catechins to the lard-cholesterol diet decreased those parameters. Tea catechin supplementation increased fecal excretion of total lipids and cholesterol. The results demonstrate that tea catechins exert a hypocholesterolemic effect in cholesterol-fed rats.
TL;DR: The results suggest that DHQ ranks individual adequately for marine origin n-3 PUFA, alpha- and beta-carotene intakes.
Abstract: Although several self-administered dietary assessment questionnaires have been developed for Japanese subjects, they have seldom been validated with objective measures. We validated a recently developed self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ) with fatty acids in serum phospholipid fractions, alpha- and beta-carotenes and alpha-tocopherol in serum as a gold standard using 86 university workers (42 men and 44 women, age-range=24-67 y). The age-adjusted Pearson partial correlation coefficients between the intakes of marine origin n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (crude values, energy-adjusted values by residual method, energy density, and fat density) and the serum phospholipid concentrations (percentage of total fatty acids) were 0.49, 0.51, 0.52, 0.48, and 0.58, 0.69. 0.66, 0.69 in men and women respectively. The correlation coefficients between intakes (microg/d) and the corresponding serum concentrations (micromol/L) were 0.43 and 0.40 in men and 0.42 and 0.60 in women for alpha- and beta-carotene respectively. It was -0.23 in men and -0.22 in women for alpha-tocopherol. The intakes of major foods (g/d) of marine origin n-3 PUFA, alpha- and beta-carotenes showed a relatively high level of correlation with the corresponding serum concentrations, whereas the level was generally lower than those observed in the analysis with the nutrient intakes. The results suggest that DHQ ranks individual adequately for marine origin n-3 PUFA, alpha- and beta-carotene intakes.
TL;DR: Japanese are unique among the peoples of developed countries in having a high intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (C 20:5) from fresh fish and this may in part contribute to their low incidence of cardiovascular diseases.
Abstract: Japanese are unique among the peoples of developed countries in having a high intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (C 20:5) from fresh fish and this may in part contribute to their low incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Mass spectroscopic analyses of eicosapolyenoic acids (C20:3, C20:4 and C20:5) were carried out on the serum of aged persons living on Kohama island in Okinawa and known to have the lowest incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Japan. All but 4 of the 77 persons examined (73.94 +/- 7.81 years old) led active fishing-farming lives. The total amount of eicosapolyenoic acids in the serum of persons on Kohama island (46.77 +/- 7.46 mg/100 ml) was higher (p less than 0.001) than that in people on mainland Japan, owing to the higher intake of fresh fish (147.7 g/day). A positive correlation (p less than 0.01) was found between serum C 20:5 concentration (6.82 +/- 2.54 mg/100 ml) and high density lipoprotein concentration (55.38 +/- 13.83 mg/100 ml). In addition, there were positive correlations (p less than 0.01) between serum C 20:3 concentration (6.58 +/- 1.61 mg/100 ml) and total cholesterol (188.60 +/- 32.30 mg/100 ml), and triglyceride and skinfold thickness. The blood pressure level (p less than 0.01), incidence of abnormal ECG (p less than 0.05), and salt intake (6.2-8.3 g/day) estimated from urinalysis, were all lower than the average figures for Japanese of similar ages. No persons examined showed Q-wave on ECG. The percentage of smokers and drinkers were similar for Kohama island and mainland Japan.
TL;DR: Results suggest that 1) radical trapping effects of flavonoids differ according to their structure, and 2) flavonoid act as hydrogen donors toalpha-toc radical; furthermore, by interaction with alpha-toc, they have a greater potential to delay the oxidation of LDL.
Abstract: Flavonoids, a group of polyphenolic compounds, exist naturally and serve as antioxidants in vegetables, fruits, and so on. The inhibition of low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation may be an effective way to prevent or delay the progression of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we analyzed the radical scavenging capacity of 10 flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin [EC], epigallocatechin [EGC], epicatechin gallate [ECg], epigallocatechin gallate [EGCg], myricetin, quercetin, apigenin, kaempferol, and luteolin) toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl [DPPH]. After 20 min of incubation, EGCg was the most effective DPPH radical scavenger, luteolin being the least active of this flavonoid group. The mutual antioxidant effect of flavonoids with alpha-tocopherol (alpha-toc) on LDL oxidizability was investigated by using the lipophilic azo radical initiator 2,2'-azobis(4-methoxy-2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) [AMVN-CH3O]. An inhibitory effect of flavonoids on LDL oxidation was observed in the order of luteolin>ECg>EC>quercetin>catechin>EGCg>EGC>myricetin>kaempferol> apigenin. The shortened lag time induced by higher doses of alpha-toc (6 mg/100 mL) was restored by flavonoids. These results suggest that 1) radical trapping effects of flavonoids differ according to their structure, and 2) flavonoids act as hydrogen donors to alpha-toc radical; furthermore, by interaction with alpha-toc, they have a greater potential to delay the oxidation of LDL.