Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
About: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Occupational safety and health & Population. It has an ISSN identifier of 1076-2752. Over the lifetime, 9442 publication(s) have been published receiving 217424 citation(s). The journal is also known as: J Occup Environ Med.
Topics: Occupational safety and health, Population, Poison control, Occupational medicine, Health care
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Evidence about the total cost of health, absence, short-term disability, and productivity losses was synthesized for 10 health conditions and the overall economic burden of illness was highest for hypertension, heart disease, and depression and other mental illnesses.
Abstract: Evidence about the total cost of health, absence, short-term disability, and productivity losses was synthesized for 10 health conditions. Cost estimates from a large medical/absence database were combined with findings from several published productivity surveys. Ranges of condition prevalence and associated absenteeism and presenteeism (on-the-job-productivity) losses were used to estimate condition-related costs. Based on average impairment and prevalence estimates, the overall economic burden of illness was highest for hypertension ($392 per eligible employee per year), heart disease ($368), depression and other mental illnesses ($348), and arthritis ($327). Presenteeism costs were higher than medical costs in most cases, and represented 18% to 60% of all costs for the 10 conditions. Caution is advised when interpreting any particular source of data, and the need for standardization in future research is noted.
TL;DR: The HPQ is described as a self-report instrument designed to estimate the workplace costs of health problems in terms of reduced job performance, sickness absence, and work-related accidents-injuries.
Abstract: This report describes the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ), a self-report instrument designed to estimate the workplace costs of health problems in terms of reduced job performance, sickness absence, and work-related accidents-injuries. Calibration data are presented on the relationship between individual-level HPQ reports and archival measures of work performance and absenteeism obtained from employer archives in four groups: airline reservation agents (n = 441), customer service representatives (n = 505), automobile company executives (n = 554), and railroad engineers (n = 850). Good concordance is found between the HPQ and the archival measures in all four occupations. The paper closes with a brief discussion of the calibration methodology used to monetize HPQ reports and of future directions in substantive research based on the HPQ.
TL;DR: The LRC-CPPT findings show that reducing total cholesterol by lowering LDL-C levels can diminish the incidence of CHD morbidity and mortality in men at high risk for CHD because of raised cholesterol levels.
Abstract: The Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trial (LRC-CPPT), a multicenter, randomized, double-blind study, tested the efficacy of cholesterol lowering in reducing risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in 3,806 asymptomatic middle-aged men with primary hypercholesterolemia (type II hyperlipoproteinemia). The treatment group received the bile acid sequestrant cholestyramine resin and the control group received a placebo for an average of 7.4 years. Both groups followed a moderate cholesterol-lowering diet. The cholestyramine group experienced average plasma total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reductions of 13.4% and 20.3%, respectively, which were 8.5% and 12.6% greater reductions than those obtained in the placebo group. The cholestyramine group experienced a 19% reduction in risk (p less than .05) of the primary end point--definite CHD death and/or definite nonfatal myocardial infarction--reflecting a 24% reduction in definite CHD death and a 19% reduction in nonfatal myocardial infarction. The cumulative seven-year incidence of the primary end point was 7% in the cholestyramine group v 8.6% in the placebo group. In addition, the incidence rates for new positive exercise tests, angina, and coronary bypass surgery were reduced by 25%, 20%, and 21%, respectively, in the cholestyramine group. The risk of death from all causes was only slightly and not significantly reduced in the cholestyramine group. The magnitude of this decrease (7%) was less than for CHD end points because of a greater number of violent and accidental deaths in the cholestyramine group. The LRC-CPPT findings show that reducing total cholesterol by lowering LDL-C levels can diminish the incidence of CHD morbidity and mortality in men at high risk for CHD because of raised LDL-C levels. This clinical trial provides strong evidence for a causal role for these lipids in the pathogenesis of CHD.
TL;DR: A multi-employer database that links medical, prescription drug, absence, and short term disability data at the patient level was analyzed to uncover the most costly physical and mental health conditions affecting American businesses.
Abstract: A multi-employer database that links medical, prescription drug, absence, and short term disability data at the patient level was analyzed to uncover the most costly physical and mental health conditions affecting American businesses. A unique methodology was developed involving the creation of patient episodes of care that incorporated employee productivity measures of absence and disability. Data for 374,799 employees from six large employers were analyzed. Absence and disability losses constituted 29% of the total health and productivity related expenditures for physical health conditions, and 47% for all of the mental health conditions examined. The top-10 most costly physical health conditions were: angina pectoris; essential hypertension; diabetes mellitus; mechanical low back pain; acute myocardial infarction; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; back disorders not specified as low back; trauma to spine and spinal cord; sinusitis; and diseases of the ear, nose and throat or mastoid process. The most costly mental health disorders were: bipolar disorder, chronic maintenance; depression; depressive episode in bipolar disease; neurotic, personality and non-psychotic disorders; alcoholism;, anxiety disorders; schizophrenia, acute phase; bipolar disorders, severe mania; nonspecific neurotic, personality and non-psychotic disorders; and psychoses. Implications for employers and health plans in examining the health and productivity consequences of common health conditions are discussed.
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