Journal of Patient Safety and Infection Control
About: Journal of Patient Safety and Infection Control is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Health care & Hygiene. Over the lifetime, 86 publication(s) have been published receiving 121 citation(s).
Topics: Health care, Hygiene, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Intensive care, Infection control
TL;DR: There is a need for an adaptable, executable National Guideline for low- and middle-income countries which includes India, on the basis of recent global guidelines for the prevention of SSI.
Abstract: While the global estimates of surgical site infection (SSI) have varied from 0.5% to 15%, studies in India have consistently shown higher rates ranging from 23% to 38%. The incidence of SSI may be influenced by factors such as pre-operative care, the theatre environment, post-operative care and the type of surgery. Many other factors influence surgical wound healing and determine the potential for, and the incidence of, infection. Therefore, the prevention of these infections is complex and requires the integration of a range of preventive measures before, during and after surgery. No standardised guidelines backed by evidence are currently established in India for the prevention of SSI. Hence, there is a need for an adaptable, executable National Guideline for low- and middle-income countries which includes India. An effort to draw out most doable and must doable action points to prevent SSI was undertaken by the panelists involved in this paper on the basis of recent global guidelines for the prevention of SSI.
TL;DR: It is promising to conclude that both methods can be used for universal scrutinising of air biocontamination by comparing active and passive air sampling by demonstrating comparability of results obtained by the two different sampling techniques at two sampling moments.
Abstract: Context: The microbial quality of air in the operation theatres (OTs) is a parameter which appreciably controls the healthcare-associated infections. However, there is currently no international consensus on the most suitable method to be used for air sampling or any set policy on how to achieve the total viable count (TVC) values although the optimum goals have been set. Aims: This study aims to evaluate the microbial air quality in different OTs of our tertiary care hospital at rest and inoperational by comparing active and passive air sampling. Settings and Design: The Department of Microbiology and all the OT rooms of UCMS and GTB Hospital, Delhi. There are 18 OT rooms. This was a cross-sectional, comparative study. Subjects and Methods: Five at rest samples (before the start of operation) and five inoperational samples (during operation) were collected from each of the 18 OTs by both active (using air sampler) and passive (gravity settle plate technique as per the 1/1/1 scheme) methods using five percent sheep blood agar in 9 cm petri plates. The number of personnel present inoperational was recorded, and the number of colony forming units on the petri dish was counted after incubation and compared. Statistical Analysis Used: As the data followed a non-normal distribution, non-parametric tests were applied. Wilcoxon signed rank test, Spearman's correlation coefficient, Simple linear regression and Independent sample t-test. Results: The total bioburden in the OTs exceeded the maximum acceptable limit value during both moments of sampling. There was a significant positive correlation in the TVC values obtained by active and passive sampling methods in the two moments. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates a comparability of results obtained by the two different sampling techniques at two sampling moments. However, authentication of this result necessitates additional studies. In the interim, it is promising to conclude that both methods can be used for universal scrutinising of air biocontamination.
TL;DR: The study revealed that hand hygiene compliance can be effectively increased among HCWs by regular reminders and surveys and training programs on hand hygiene should be systematically planned, regularly conducted, and evaluated for staff nurses so as to keep them motivated.
Abstract: Background Control of nosocomial infections is a major health concern in a hospital setting and hand hygiene is considered as the most important tool in nosocomial infection control. Methods This prospective study about the practice of hand washing by 106 HCWs (Health Care Workers) working in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) before and after patient contact in a tertiary care hospital was conducted to find out the hand washing compliance rate in ICU of GB Pant Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research and the factors associated with noncompliance and to find out the impact of a task-orientated hand hygiene education and intervention program. Results 462 opportunities of hand hygiene were observed in the ICUs over 30 h. Adherence was found to be 52%. A positive intention to comply with hand hygiene was found among 94% of the respondents. Most respondents (78.2%) believed that they could improve compliance with hand hygiene on their own. Intervention included education on hand hygiene indications and technique, hand hygiene performance feedback, and discussion of the previous assessment of HCWs’ beliefs toward hand hygiene. After intensive promotion of hand hygiene, observation sessions were performed on 98 nursing staff, which provided 425 opportunities of hand hygiene, and hand hygiene adherence was increased to 63% as an impact of measures taken. Conclusions The study revealed that hand hygiene compliance can be effectively increased among HCWs by regular reminders and surveys. Training programs on hand hygiene should be systematically planned, regularly conducted, and evaluated for staff nurses so as to keep them motivated.
TL;DR: The microbial epidemiology and the antimicrobial resistance profile of the wounds of the patients presenting to the OPD would help in the formulation of antibiotic policy for OPDs and also help in checking inadvertent antibiotic usage.
Abstract: Background Wound is a disruption of normal anatomic structure and function of the skin, and any infection in this constitutes wound infection. Wound infection delays wound healing, and it causes wound breakdown, leading to increased hospital stay, morbidity and mortality. Most of the published data available focus on surgical site infections. In the developing countries, however, wound infection is an important cause of hospital mortality and morbidity. No data are available on the microbial profile of the wounds presenting at our hospital. Objective This study was thus designed to describe the microbial epidemiology and the antimicrobial resistance profile of the wounds of the patients presenting to the OPD. Methodology and results Retrospective review of records of all wound samples sent over 3 years from OPD was done. OPD sent 827 wound samples of 571 patients. Most common organism isolated was Staphylococcus aureus [132 (35%)], followed by Escherichia coli [54 (14%)] and Pseudomonas aeruginosa [49 (13%)]. Of the 145 S. aureus strains, 43 (30%) strains were Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and none were resistant to vancomycin/linezolid/teicoplanin. Gram-negative organisms were resistant to most antibiotics tested. Conclusion Wound healing is halted in the presence of prolonged inflammation such as due to infection. Presence of bacteria delays wound healing, but the presence of low number of microbes is required for wound healing. Absence of appropriate signs to guide treatment becomes a reason for prolonged indiscriminate use of antibiotics which leads to rapid emergence of resistant organisms. Data generated by our study would help in the formulation of antibiotic policy for OPDs and also help in checking inadvertent antibiotic usage.
TL;DR: There is a need for improving hand hygiene related knowledge and practices of nursing students in order to prevent infections in nurses especially novices.
Abstract: Context Hospital acquired infections being significant hazards in all health care settings are considered an important indicator of quality of health care. Nurses especially novices, the largest workforce in health care, are at highest risk of acquiring and transmitting diseases. Hand hygiene is one of the simplest measures to prevent infections. Aims This study is to assess the knowledge of Hand hygiene and self reported hand hygiene practices during the clinical experience at the hospital. Settings and design This exploratory study was carried out among 200 nursing students of different courses of study selected using disproportionate stratified sampling technique. Methods and material Knowledge questionnaire and self reported practice checklist were utilized to collect data. Results Knowledge was ‘good’ about hand washing (75.5%). On an average higher number of students reported to have washed their hands after the specific procedures (90.97%) as compared to before performing it (72.58%). Conclusions There is a need for improving hand hygiene related knowledge and practices of nursing students.
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