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Showing papers in "Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry in 2017"


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used GC-MS to identify high and low molecular weight compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms.
Abstract: Pistia stratiotes L. commonly known as water cabbage, water lettuce, Nile cabbage, or shellflower. Its leaves are traditionally used against ringworm infection of scalp, boils and syphilitic eruptions. Traditionally, oil extracts is used for treatment of tuberculosis, asthma and dysentery. Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) is an invasive weed that causes serious issues for rivers, lakes, and other reservoirs around the world, although it can be an excellent source for bioactive compounds such as phytosterols and some steroids found in many plants. The aim to study the phytochemical screening from Pistia stratiotes L. and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms and analysis of components present in it by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The plant were sequentially extracted in different solvents viz., ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, hexane, aqueous, and 1%HCl. The ethanolic crude extract of weed, Pistia stratiotes L. and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms showed different types of high and low molecular weight compounds by GC-MS analysis. n-Hexadecanoic acid (7.18%), E-11-Hexadecenoic acid, ethyl ester (1.04%), Hexadecanoic acid, ethyl ester (13.29%), L- Glutamine (0.38%), Linolelaidic acid, methyl ester (2.41%), 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester,(Z,Z,Z) (2.7%), Palmitic acid (12.09%), Phytol (2.12%), 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, ethyl ester(3.79%), Linolenic acid, ethyl ester (26.26%), Stearic acid, ethyl ester (0.98%), α-Glyceryl linolenate (1.35%), Diisooctyl phthalate (53.84%), Stigmasterol (11.39%), 1-Monolinoleoylglycerol trimethylsilyl ether(1.52%).Most of the isolated and identified compounds by GC-MS in the crude extracts exhibit following bioactivities. Anticancer, Anti-inflammatory, Antimicrobial, Diuretic, Hepatoprotective, Anti-arthritic, Antiasthma, Antioxidant, Hypocholesterolemic, Nematicide, Pesticide, Lubricant, Anti-androgenic, Flavor, Hemolytic, 5-Alpha reductase inhibitor, Insectifuge, Antihistaminic, Anti-eczemic, Anti-acne, Anti-coronary, Antifouling effects so that they can be recommended as a plant of phytopharmaceutical importance. Therefore ethanol extract of Pistia stratiotes and E. crassipes proves as a potential source of bioactive compounds of pharmacological importance.

87 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: A review on the analytical methodologies, which includes the extraction methods and the analysis of bioactive compounds present in the plant extracts through the various techniques involving the applications of chromatographic techniques such as HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography), TLC (Thin Layer Chromatography) and OPLC (Optimum Performance Laminar Chromatography).
Abstract: Plants are recognized in the pharmaceutical industry due to their broad spectrum of structural diversity and their wide range of pharmacological activities. The biological active compounds that are present in plants referred as phytochemicals. These phytochemicals derived from different parts of plants such as leaves, barks, seed, seed coat, flowers, roots and pulps and thereby used as sources of direct medicinal agents. Phytochemistry describes the large number of secondary metabolic compounds present in the plants. The plants are the reservoirs of naturally occurring chemical compounds and of structurally diverse bioactive molecules. The extraction of bioactive compounds from the plants and their quantitative and qualitative estimation is important for exploration of new biomolecules to be used by pharmaceutical and agrochemical industry directly or can be used as a lead molecule to synthesize more potent molecules. This review mostly highlighted on the analytical methodologies, which includes the extraction methods and the analysis of bioactive compounds present in the plant extracts through the various techniques involving the applications of chromatographic techniques such as HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography), TLC (Thin Layer Chromatography), HPTLC (High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography), OPLC (Optimum Performance Laminar Chromatography), GC (Gas Chromatography), PC (Paper Chromatography), CC (Column Chromatography) and it’s detection through Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), and Mass Spectrometry (MS).

75 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: The review provides an insight into the diversity of plant secondary metabolites, their classification, biosynthesis, biological properties and their multidimensional prospective in plant life.
Abstract: Plants wield and arsenal of structurally diverse chemical compounds called secondary metabolites, which equip them strategies to deter enemies, fend off pathogens, supersede competitors and surpass environmental constraints. These chemicals are produced under specific abiotic stresses and pathogenic attacks, therefore impart survival tactics to plants. A large number of such compounds and their biosynthetic pathways have been discovered so far from plant kingdom. Owing to their diverse biological and physio-chemical properties secondary metabolites are of great interest to man and impart uses as drugs, oils, waxes, perfumes, flavoring agents, dyes and many other commercially important materials. Secondary metabolites led to the emergence of a new research discipline of plant metabolomics, committed to detection and identification of biosynthetic pathways of these compounds, their structural elucidation and applications. The review provides an insight into the diversity of plant secondary metabolites, their classification, biosynthesis, biological properties and their multidimensional prospective in plant life.

67 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: Shelf life of unprocessed or processed food is extended by reducing the microbial growth rate or viability and use of natural or controlled microflora, mainly lactic acid bacteria and/or their antibacterial products to enhance products safety or storage life is called biopreservation.
Abstract: Many nontraditional preservation techniques are being developed to satisfy consumer demand of nutritious food. Generally, foods are thermally treated with temperatures varying from 60 to 100 oC for few seconds or a minute to destroy vegetative microorganisms. The energy transferred to the food during thermal treatment can affect the organoleptic and nutritional attributes. Ensuring food safety and at the same time meeting such demands for retention of nutrition and quality attributes has resulted in increased interest in alternative preservation techniques for inactivating microorganisms and enzymes in foods. Flavour, odor, color, texture, and nutritional value of a food are its important quality attributes. Use of natural preservatives derived from plants, animals, or microflora is being increasing studied to fulfill consumer demands. Use of natural or controlled microflora, mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and/or their antibacterial products such as lactic acid, bacteriocins, and others to enhance products safety or storage life is called biopreservation. Typical examples of antimicrobials are casein, whey (milk), lysozyme (egg white, figs), saponins and flavonoids (herbs and spices), bacteriocins (LAB), and chitosan (shrimp shells). Shelf life of unprocessed or processed food is extended by reducing the microbial growth rate or viability. Some of spices and herbs are also known to contribute antimicrobials.

65 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: This review aims to provide newer insights and will certainly lead to a new era of flavonoid based pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of many infectious and degenerative diseases.
Abstract: Many of the currently available drugs have been derived from natural sources Apart from their physiological roles in the plants, flavonoids are important components of the human diet, even though they are not considered as nutrients Flavonoids are a major class of plant secondary metabolites that serves a multitude of functions including pigments and antioxidant activity Naringenin is a naturally occurring flavanone (flavonoid) known to have a bioactive effect on human health and is mainly found in fruits (grapefruit and oranges) and vegetables Naringenin possesses various biological activities such as antidiabetic, antiatherogenic, antidepressant, immunomodulatory, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, DNA protective, hypolipidaemic, antioxidant, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) activator, and memory improving A number of molecular mechanisms underlying its beneficial activities have been elucidated Further this review aims to provide newer insights and will certainly lead to a new era of flavonoid based pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of many infectious and degenerative diseases

64 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: Sade et al. as discussed by the authors found that phytic acid can act as antioxidant, exhibits anti-cancer properties, and may have a positive impact on cholesterol and blood sugar.
Abstract: Phytic acid is a substance found in many types of plant foods, such as grains, legumes (including peanuts and soybeans), nuts, and seeds. It is the storage form of phosphorus, an important mineral used in the production of energy as well as the formation of structural elements like cell membranes (Jacela et al., 2010). These foods, are getting a bad reputation due to phytic acid content (Navert, et al,,1985) and its ability to bind to essential minerals such as iron, zinc, calcium, and magnesium in the digestive tract and inhibit their absorption by the body (Weaver &Kannan, 2002). Recent studies indicate despite being somewhat demonized for its ability to reduce mineral absorption, phytic acid actually has some potentially beneficial properties. On the plus side, phytic acid can act as antioxidant, exhibits anti-cancer properties, and may have a positive impact on cholesterol and blood sugar (Omni et al., 2004). Preparation methods can reduce the phytic acid content in food, as well as adjusting meal times and food choices (Sade., 2009), can help to have better mineral absorption.

64 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: A review of the most salient recent reports on ethnobotany, pharmacology, phytochemistry and biological activities of Zingiber officinale can be found in this paper.
Abstract: Spice and medicinal plants gained an important role in agronomy production, pharmacy and exportation because of their increased use as a raw material for the pharmaceutical industry and in the everyday life. Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, species of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae) has a long history of medicinal use for more than 2000 years as one of the most versatile medicinal plants having a wide spectrum of biological activity and a common condiment for various foods and beverages. The medicinal properties of ginger are due to the presence of gingerol and paradol, shogaols, etc. Currently, there is a renewed interest in ginger, and several scientific investigations aimed at isolation, identification of active constituents, scientific verification of its pharmacological actions for treatment of several diseases and conditions. This article aims at reviewing the most salient recent reports on ethnobotany, pharmacology, phytochemistry and biological activities of Z. officinale.

58 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: Amylase from apple exhibited high efficiency for the removal of chocolate stains in combination with commercial detergent (Tide) and the wash performance analysis of Chocolate stains on cotton fabric showed an increase in reflectance with detergent and enzyme as compared to detergent only.
Abstract: Amylases are widely distributed in microbial, plant and animal kingdoms. They degrade starch and related polymers to yield products characteristic of individual amylolytic enzymes. Alpha amylase has been derived from several fungi, yeasts, bacteria and actinomycetes, however, enzymes from fungal and bacterial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. The pH dependence of amylase activity was assayed in a pH range of 4-11, using the standard reaction mixture. The optimum temperature for maximal Amylase activity was found to be 30-35 0C, after which the enzyme activity dropped. The addition of metals like Ca2+ and Mn2+ and Mg2+ increased the enzyme activity while a significant inhibitory effect on the protease activity was observed with Hg2+. Amylase from apple exhibited high efficiency for the removal of chocolate stains in combination with commercial detergent (Tide). The wash performance analysis of chocolate stains on cotton fabric showed an increase in reflectance with detergent and enzyme as compared to detergent only.

56 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: Anethum graveolens L commonly known as dill belonging to the family Umbelliferae, is one of the most useful essential oil bearing spices as well as medicinal herb Dill is cultivated throughout the world as a medicinal plant Dill seeds are used as a flavouring agent Essential oil can be extracted from various parts of plant and chiefly consisted of dill carvone, limonene, dill apiol and α-phellendrene The essential oil and extracts of Dill plant possess promising antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, insecticidal, anti-
Abstract: Anethum graveolens L commonly known as dill belonging to the family Umbelliferae, is one of the most useful essential oil bearing spices as well as medicinal herb Dill is cultivated throughout the world as a medicinal plant Dill seeds are used as a flavouring agent Essential oil can be extracted from various parts of plant and chiefly consisted of dill carvone, limonene, dill apiol and α-phellendrene The essential oil and extracts of dill plant possess promising antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, insecticidal, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antispasmodic, hypolipidemic activities etc

41 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: This review focuses on the major functions of plant growth regulators in fruit production, which include auxin and gibberellins, which are widely used to control the fruit drop and to improve the quality of fruit.
Abstract: The plant hormones are extremely important agent in the integration of developmental activities. Environmental factors often exert inductive effects by evoking changes in hormones in metabolism and distribution within the plant. Apart from it, they also regulate expression of intrinsic genetic potential of plants. Control of genetic expression has been demonstrated for the phytohormones at both transcriptional and translational levels. Also, hormones receptors and binding proteins have been identified on membrane surface that are specific for some hormones.The use of growth regulators has become an important component of agro-technical procedures for most of the cultivated plants and especially for fruit plants. So far in fruit crops, excessive fruit drop can be controlled by the exogenous application of plant growth regulators. The auxin and gibberellins are widely used to control the fruit drop and to improve the quality of fruit. Ontogenic development from fruit set to fruit ripening and final reach to customer, several agents are responsible for elimination of some fruits from fruit set to final maturity. In this review, we focus on the major functions of plant growth regulators in fruit production.

38 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: The present paper reviews the Introduction, Geographical distribution, History, Cultivation, Uses, Strange facts, Side effects, Synonyms, Botanical description, Taxonomical classification, Nutritional value, Phytochemical constituents, and Pharmacological activities along with the current trends in research on Turmeric.
Abstract: Turmeric, botanically known as Curcuma longa, Linn, grows in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world. The turmeric possesses high nutritional value. Extensive research within the last half a century has proven that most of these activities, associated with turmeric are due to curcumin. The medicinal properties of Turmeric include anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-coagulant, anti-diabetic, anti-microbial, anti-ulcer, wound healing and anti-fertility activities. It is effectively used in diabetes, various malignant disease, Alzheimer’s disease and other chronic disease. The present paper reviews the Introduction, Geographical distribution, History, Cultivation, Uses, Strange facts, Side effects, Synonyms, Botanical description, Taxonomical classification, Nutritional value, Phytochemical constituents, and Pharmacological activities along with the current trends in research on Turmeric.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the current status and trend of nutrients in Dal Lake were investigated and the results showed that highest concentration of N-NO3 (1.128 mg/L) at Shalimar Ghat in summer and lowest (0.078mg/l) was at Dugg Park in autumn.
Abstract: Lake water receives substantial concentration of nutrients (Nitrogen and Phosphorus) due to growing anthropogenic pressure. Current status and trend of nutrients in Dal Lake were investigated in this study. The results showed that highest concentration of N-NO3 (1.128 mg/L) at Shalimar Ghat in summer and lowest (0.078mg/L) was at Dugg Park in autumn. The overall season wise N-NO3 concentration during the entire investigation was determined 0.558 mg/L in summer and 0.180 mg/L in autumn respectively. The highest 0.075 mg/L phosphates (PO4-3) were found at Shalimar Ghat in summer and lowest 0.011 mg/L at Dugg Park in autumn. The overall season wise PO4-3 was found maximum (0.047 mg/L) in summer and minimum (0.030 mg/L) in autumn. The concentration of N-NO3 and PO4-3 with respect to sites and seasons were observed statistically significant at (p≤ 0.05) confidence limit. In general, the nutrient concentration was found highest at Shalimar Ghat followed by Ashai Bagh Bridge and least at Dugg Park. Currently lake is in mesotrophic condition; however the growing concentration of these nutrients into the lake due to anthropogenic activities could favour eutrophic condition.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the role of three genes (i.e., LSi1, LSi2 and LSi6) in the transport of silicon from root cells to the apoplast.
Abstract: Silicon (Si) is the important nutrient for sustainable production of rice. Rice is a typical silicon accumulating plant and it benefits from silicon nutrition. In the soil, silicon is present as monosilicic acid and polysilicic acid as well as complexes with organic and inorganic compounds such as aluminium oxides and hydroxides. Silicon is absorbed by plant roots as monosilicic acid. Silicon transportation in rice is governed by three genes i.e. LSi1, LSi2 and LSi6. Among these, LSi1 and LSi2 are responsible for transport of silicon from root cells to the apoplast, whereas LSi6 is involved in transfer of Si from the large vascular bundles to the panicles. When the concentration of monosilicic acid exceeds, it gets polymerized to form silica gel (SiO2.nH2O). Silicon is deposited beneath the cuticle as cuticle-silicon double layer in the form of silicic acid. Amorphous silica particles that precipitate in plant cells are called Phytoliths or Plant opal. Phytoliths can be assembled without any energy by polymerization of silicic acid, when its concentration exceeds 2 mM. Phytoliths are found in specific cells called silica cells located on vascular bundles and/or are present as silica bodies in bulliform cells, fusoid cells or prickle hairs in rice. The silica accumulation of plant is higher during the reproductive period.

Journal Article
TL;DR: The diverse medicinal and therapeutic potentials of Catharanthus roseus have been revealed that this magical herb may be utilized to its full potential and future research orientation may be directed towards it.
Abstract: The genus Catharanthus consists of eight species of which seven are native to Madagascar and one, C. pusillus, to India. Catharanthus roseus, Madagascar periwinkle is one of the few pharmacological plants that have a long history of therapeutic voyage from Mesopotamian folklore of 2600 BCE till today playing a considerable role as herbal and traditional medicine of various diseases. As previously published reviews on Madagascar periwinkle mostly concentrate on the pharmaceutical and chemical compounds of the herb, lack of information about the other features of the species is extremely tangible. This organised review provided insights into agro technological, biological, ecological, and medicinal aspects (particularly anticancer compounds) of Madagascar periwinkle along with possible pathways and mode of action. The diverse medicinal and therapeutic potentials of Catharanthus roseus have been revealed that this magical herb may be utilized to its full potential and future research orientation may be directed towards it.

Journal Article
TL;DR: High genetic advance were observed for number of spikelets per panicle and plant height, indicating predominance of additive gene effects and possibilities of effective selection for the improvement of these characters.
Abstract: The present investigation consists of 23 rice genotypes and the experiment was conducted during Kharif-2016 in Randomized Block Design with three replications. The data were recorded for 13 quantitative characters to study genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance, correlation coefficient analysis and path analysis. On the basis of mean performance, high seed yield per plant were exhibited by the genotypes LSD-1, TP29654, and TP29737. Analysis of variance among 23 genotypes showed significant difference for all characters studied. Highest genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) & phenotypic coefficient variation (PCV) was observed for seed yield per plant followed by flag leaf length, number of spikelets per panicle, biological yield per plant and panicles per plant indicating that these characters could be used as selection for crop improvement. High estimates of heritability were observed for plant height, flag leaf length, biological yield per plant, spikelets per panicle, panicles per plant. High genetic advance were observed for number of spikelets per panicle and plant height, indicating predominance of additive gene effects and possibilities of effective selection for the improvement of these characters.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors conducted a field experiment at Department of Horticulture, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad, India during Rabi season (Nov-April) 2016-17.
Abstract: The field experiment was carried out at Department of Horticulture, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad, India during Rabi season (Nov-April) 2016-17. The experiment was laid out in 4×4 factorial randomized block design with 16 treatments in three replications. It is concluded that the best yield attributes in namely, plant height (cm) (91.24 cm), number of leaves/plant (12.47), petiole length/plant (cm) (13.38cm), and leaf area (cm2) (75.73cm2), root diameter (cm) (3.53cm), root length (cm) (19.75cm), root yield/treatment (kg) (72.33kg) and root yield/hectare (t/ha) (29.41 tones/ha) in T8 (Z2F1: ZnO NPs @100ppm + FeO NPs @50ppm), and also concluded that the best cost benefit ratio 2.02, was obtained T8 (Z2F1: ZnO NPs @ 100ppm + FeO NPs @ 50ppm).

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, a review of chemical composition and biological activities of Laurus nobilis is presented, which will be useful to the researcher for further study and can be used for further research.
Abstract: Laurus nobilis L. commonly known as bay belonging to the family Lauraceae is one of the most useful essential oil and is an industrial plant used in foods, drugs and cosmetics. Bay is cultivated throughout the world mainly in tropical and sub-tropical Asia, Australia, Pacific region and South Asia. Bay essential oil can be extracted from various parts of plant and chiefly consisted of 1, 8 Cineole, sabinene, α-pinene and p-Cymene. Due to presence of various chemical constituents in bay, various biological and pharmacological properties have been reported such as antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, insecticidal and nematicidal activities. This review highlighted chemical composition and biological activities of Laurus nobilis which will be useful to the researcher for further study.

Journal Article
TL;DR: Mangifera contains about 49 species, of which 8 are of doubtful status and 41 are valid species as mentioned in this paper, and is the most important species of the genus Mangifera, which produces the most delicious fruit called the mango.
Abstract: Mango is native to India and is one of the most important fruit crops world-wide. Its botanical name is Mangifera indica L. and is the most important species of the genus Mangifera, which produces the most delicious fruit called the mango. The genus Mangifera contains about 49 species, of which 8 are of doubtful status and 41 are valid species. Morphologically the genus could be separated under two sections based on the character of the flower disc: the first, with 34 species, has flowers with well developed swollen disc, and the second, with 7 species, has obsolete or pedicellate disc. The cultivation of mango in India is as old as 4,000 to 6000 years. Hsuan-tsang appears to be the first person to bring the mango to the notice of people outside India. Historical records and palaeo- botanical evidences provide ample proof about its origin in the Indo-Burma-Malay region. It moved to China by the 7th Century; to East Africa around the 10th Century AD; to the Philippines in the beginning of the 15th Century. It spread from South and Southeast Asia over the tropical and subtropical areas of the world from the end of the 15th Century onward. It reached Africa during the 16th Century; Brazil in the 1700s; Mexico early in the 19th Century; Jamaica in 1782; Hawaii in 1809 and America during the second half of the 19th Century. Afterward it began popping up all over the world. Today, many of the popular varieties of mango grown around the world are derived from the mango produced in Florida (USA). Geographic spread of mango was essentially completed in the last half of the 19th Century with its introduction to such far flung places as Florida, Hawaii, Fiji, Queensland and Natal. The Portuguese are said to introduce vegetative propagation methods in India for the first time to clone superior mono-embryonic trees in the 15th Century. The most important mango cultivars of India (Alphonso, Dashehari, Langra etc.), are selections made at the time of Akbar (1542–1605 AD) and have been propagated by vegetative method for several hundred years. Though, a tropical fruit, it is now cultivated under subtropical conditions in 89 countries of the world. The major mango growing countries are India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Florida and Hawaii of USA, Australia, Brazil, Thailand, the Philippines, Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Fiji Islands, Egypt, Israel, South Africa, Sudan, Somalia, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Niger, Nigeria, Zaire, Madagascar, Mauritius, Venezuela, Mexico, West Indies Islands, Cambodia, etc.

Journal Article
TL;DR: Rice flour was added in different proportions (60 - 90%) to dehydrated carrot powder (10-40%). The formulation was extruded at different moisture content (11 -17%), screw speed (200 - 400rpm) and die temperature (120-400°C) as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Rice flour was added in different proportions (60 - 90%) to dehydrated carrot powder (10-40%). The formulation was extruded at different moisture content (11 -17%), screw speed (200 - 400rpm) and die temperature (120-400°C). The WAI and WSI characteristics were determined as responses. Significant regression models were established with the coefficient of determination, R2 greater than 0.79. The results indicated that moisture content has significant negative influence (P < 0.08) on water solubility index and composition and moisture for water absorption index.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on seed germination and seed vigour in chilli, an experiment was conducted at the Seed Testing Laboratory (STL) of Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Deemed to be university, Allahabad in CRD (Completely Randomized Block Design) having three replications.
Abstract: In order to determine the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on seed germination and seed vigour in chilli, an experiment was conducted at the Seed Testing Laboratory (STL) of Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Deemed to be university, Allahabad in CRD (Completely Randomized Block Design) having three replications. In present investigation, different concentration (0.0, 0.25,0.50 and 0.75g) of ZnO Nps were prepared in distilled water and used for the treatment in chilli seeds to study the effect on seed germination, root length, shoot length and seedling growth. The results showed that the effect of ZnO nanopaticle was significant on germination percentage, root length, shoot length and seedling length. Seed germination increased in higher concentrations, however showed decrease in values at lower concentrations. The root, shoot and seedling length was also maximum in higher concentration and in lower concentrations it showed decreased values.

Journal Article
TL;DR: Estimation is made on the present state of research on the genus Rhodococcus and its perspectives on the production of metabolites such as antibacterial, antifungal, anti-trypanosomal, anticancer, siderophores, pigments, enzymes and enzyme inhibitors.
Abstract: Actinobacteria were well-known as bioactive compounds producers. This phylum comprises the most widely distributed group of microorganisms in nature. The actinomycete genus Rhodococcus has one of the largest known bacterial genomes, so it forms an enormous reservoir of secondary metabolites and enzymes. In this review, estimation is made on the present state of research on the genus Rhodococcus and its perspectives. The highlights include the production of metabolites such as antibacterial, antifungal, anti-trypanosomal, anticancer, siderophores, pigments, enzymes and enzyme inhibitors, these diverse bioactivities are mediated by several classes of compounds including polyketides, fatty acids, alkaloids, peptides, flavonoids, aminoglycosides and terpenes by Actinomycetes Rhodococcus genus and their application in industry.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, a field experiment was conducted at Agronomy farm, College of Agriculture, Bikaner during Rabi, 2009-10, where twelve treatments consisting of four levels of phosphorus (20, 40, 60 and 60 kg ha-1) and three levels of zinc (control, 3.0 and 6.0 kg ha -1).
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at Agronomy farm, College of Agriculture, Bikaner during Rabi, 2009-10. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design with three replications, assigning twelve treatments consisting of four levels of phosphorus (control, 20, 40 and 60 kg ha-1) and three levels of zinc (control, 3.0 and 6.0 kg ha-1). The results indicated that N content and uptake in grain increased significantly with increasing levels of phosphorus upto 60 kg ha-1 but N content and uptake in straw increased significantly upto 40 kg P2O5 ha-1. P content and uptake by grain and straw was significantly increased by applying increasing level of phosphorus upto 60 and 40 kg P2O5 ha-1, respectively. Zn content and uptake in grain and straw decreased significantly with increasing levels of phosphorus. Increasing level of phosphorus application increased significantly the available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in soil after harvest of the crop. Significant decrease in available zinc in soil was observed with increasing level of phosphorus upto 60 kg P2O5 ha-1. N and Zn content and uptake by seed and straw increased significantly with increasing levels of zinc upto 6.0 kg ha-1. But P content in grain and straw was decreased significantly with increasing level of zinc.

Journal Article
TL;DR: The study mainly focused on the secret behind the papaya seed against cancer, which shows that it will treat many cancer cell line and papaya physiochemical having anticancer activities.
Abstract: The study mainly focused on the secret behind the papaya seed against cancer. Papaya (Carica papaya Linn.) is well known for its exceptional nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. The whole plant including its fruit, leaves, seed, root, bark, juice and latex obtain from papaya plant used as nutritionally, medicinally and for various other purposes. A papaya in vitro study shows that it will treat many cancer cell line and papaya physiochemical having anticancer activities. Papaya is rich in enzyme papain which is effective against cancer. Papain breaks down the fibrin cancer cell wall and protein into amino acid form. Other than papain it also contain lycopene which highly reactive towards oxygen and free radical. Isothiocyanate contained in papaya seed, work well for colon, breast, lung, leukemia and prostrate cancer. These enzymes capable of inhibiting both formation and development of cancer cell.

Journal Article
TL;DR: There was no significant difference in aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) between treatment groups, however, significant decrease in alanine-amino-transferase (ALT) was seen in 250 mg and 1000mg ampicillin treatment groups.
Abstract: A 12-week study was carried out to comparatively investigate effects of ampicillin and powdered ginger, applied as bath treatment on growth performance, haematology and serum enzymes of Clarias gariepinus. Phytochemical constituents of ginger were investigated. A total of 210 Clarias gariepinus juveniles (26.01±0.05 g and 15.31±0.10 cm) were assigned to seven treatments with three replicates each. Treatment groups had different concentrations of ampicillin and powdered ginger (250, 750 and 1000 mg/35 litres respectively) added to the culture water. Control group had neither of the substances. Fish were fed twice daily with commercial feed at 5% body weight for 12 weeks. Result for growth revealed that there was significant difference (p˂0.05). Result for haematology studies revealed that there was significant difference (p˂0.05) between ampicillin and ginger treatments. There was no significant difference (p˃0.05) in aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) between treatment groups. However, significant decrease in alanine-amino-transferase (ALT) was seen in 250 mg and 1000mg ampicillin treatment groups. Ginger can conveniently be used in place of ampicillin.

Journal Article
TL;DR: An inclusive analysis of chemistry and pharmacological uses of S. lappa and its constituents, lending support to the several of its traditional uses and suggesting it will be worthwhile to develop them as a medicine.
Abstract: Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke is a well-known and important medicinal plant widely used in several medicinal systems for the treatment of various diseases, viz. inflammatory diseases, ulcer, asthma and stomach problems. Sesquiterpenoid lactones were reported as the major phytoconstituents of this species. Various pharmacological experimental studies using in vitro and in vivo models demonstrated the ability of S. lappa to exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, anticancer and hepatoprotective activities, lending support to the several of its traditional uses. Dehydrocostus lactone, Costunolide and Cynaropicrin, isolated from this plant, were identified as the bioactive molecules. Due to the remarkable biological activity of S. lappa and its constituents it will be worthwhile to develop them as a medicine. The present review is an inclusive analysis of chemistry and pharmacological uses of S. lappa.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, a randomized block design with three replications at the Sagdividi Farm, Department of Seed Science and Technology, Junagadh Agricultural University,Junagadh during summer 2016 was carried out to study the character association and contribution, respectively.
Abstract: Twenty-eight germplasm lines of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) were evaluated in a randomized block design with three replications at the Sagdividi Farm, Department of Seed Science and Technology, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during summer 2016. Correlation and path coefficient analysis were carried out to study the character association and contribution, respectively; the genotypes were evaluated for the following seventeen characters: stem diameter (cm), Number of nodes at first flowering, Number of leaves per plant, Length of leaf blade (cm), Width of leaf blade (cm), Flower length (cm), Flower diameter (cm), Pedicel length (cm), Days to 50% flowering, Fruit length (cm), Fruit diameter (cm), Number of fruits per plant, Number of branches, Plant height (cm), Number of seeds per fruit, 100-seed weight (g) and Seed yield per plant (g). Number of fruits per plant and Number of seeds per fruit showed highest positive and very high significant correlation with yield per hectare followed by 100-seed weight and plant height. Plant height and 100-seed weight showed positive and significant correlation with yield per hectare. Stem diameter showed negative and significant correlation with Number of leaves per plant, Fruit length and plant height with 100-seed weight and Seed yield per plant. Path coefficient analysis on various yield contributing characters revealed that Number of fruits per plant, Number of seeds per fruit, Plant height, Fruit length, 100-seed weight and Number of branches showed direct positive effect towards yield. The improvement in pod yield per plant will be efficient, if the selection is based on Number of fruits per plant, Number of seeds per fruit, Plant height, Fruit length, 100-seed weight and Number of branches.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In the study of the relative performance of popular maize hybrids against pink stem borer, it was observed that the genotype HISHELL gave maximum grain yield whereas genotypes IAHM-2013-26 and IAHm2013-09 showed maximum number of pinholes, leaf injury rating, dead heart per cent, stem tunneling.
Abstract: The present investigation entitled “Insect pest succession on hybrid maize and management of pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens Walker” was conducted during Kharif 2014-15 at the Research cum Instructional Farm of Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (C.G.). Regarding the insect pests succession on hybrid maize crop and their natural enemies, five insect species viz., pink stem borer (Sesamia inferens), green stink bug (Nezara virudula), maize leaf hopper (Cicadulina spp.), maize black aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis) and maize cob borer (Helicoverpa armigera) were observed as the major insects pests on maize. While, rove beetle, lady bird beetle and spider observed as major natural enemies against insects of maize. In the evaluation of the bioefficacy of granular insecticide molecules against pink stem borer, it was found that the minimum leaf injury rating was recorded with carbofuran (3.00) which was at par with flubendamide (3.23) followed by thiamethoxam (3.43), emamectin benzoate (3.57), rynaxypyr (4.03) and cartap hydrochloride (4.17) treated plots. The highest leaf injury mean was recorded 4.20 with fipronil. The minimum per cent of dead heart damage was recorded with carbofuran 36.67% which was at par with flubendamide 43.33% followed by rynaxypyr 45.50%, thiamethoxam 46.67%, emamectin benzoate 50.0%, and cartap hydrochloride 56.67% treated plots. The highest per cent dead heart damage was recorded with fipronil 60.0%. The grain yield was also significantly highly influenced by carbofuron 3 G followed by flubendamide 20 WG, thiamethoxam 25 WG, emamectin benzoate 5 SG and cartap hydrochloride 4 G, rynaxypyr 0.4% G and fipronil 0.3% G. In the study of the relative performance of popular maize hybrids against pink stem borer it was observed that the genotype HISHELL gave maximum grain yield whereas genotypes IAHM-2013-26 and IAHM-2013-09 showed maximum number of pinholes, leaf injury rating, dead heart per cent, stem tunneling and stem exit hole.

Journal Article
TL;DR: Investigations were conducted on the bioefficacy of newer insecticides against aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch on cowpea during kharif, 2016 and the insecticides viz., imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and dimethoate were found effective against the pests whereas, the azadiracthin and malathion were found least effective.
Abstract: Investigations were conducted on the “Bioefficacy of newer insecticides against aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch on cowpea”. at Agronomy farm, of S.K.N. College of agriculture, Jobner Rajasthan) during kharif, 2016. The insecticides viz., imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and dimethoate were found effective against the pests whereas, the azadiracthin and malathion were found least effective against the pest. The highest grain yield of 20.38 qha-1 was recorded in the plots treated with imidacloprid, followed by thiamethoxam (19.32 q ha-1). The minimum grain yield of 11.98 q ha-1 was obtained in the plots treated with azadirachtin (0.002) followed by the treatment malathion 0.05 percent (12.02 q ha-1) which was found statistically at par with each other. The highest B: C ratio (19.01:1) was recorded in the treatment of thiamethoxam followed by imidacloprid 0.005 percent and dimethoate 0.03 percent, which resulted in a benefit: cost ratio of 16.52 : 1 and 8.74: 1, respectively whereas, lowest benefit : cost ratio of 1.21: 1 was recorded from plots treated with chlorantraniliprole 0.005 percent.

Journal Article
TL;DR: The results of principal component analysis used in the study have revealed the high level of genetic variation and the traits contributing for the variation was identified and this population panel can be utilized for trait improvement in breeding programs for the trait contributing for major variation.
Abstract: The present study was carried out to characterize one hundred twenty four rice germplasm accessions on the basis of nineteen morphological and eleven agronomical traits. Most of the morphological characters showed variation in different accessions except leaf: ligule and leaf: shape of ligule. A significant amount of variation was displayed for most of the agronomical traits examined. After evaluation of 124 accessions for eleven quantitative characters, on the basis of mean values, top ten accessions were identified for the yield ancillary traits. Principal Component Analysis was used to analyze quantitative data. The 72.48% of the total variation. The PC1 showed first four principal components explained about 37.12%, while PC2, PC3 and PC4 exhibited 13.56, 11.04 and 10.76% variability, respectively results of PCA revealed that the traits such as No. of effective tillers, 100 grain weight were the principal discriminatory traits. Thus the results of principal component analysis used in the study have revealed the high level of genetic variation and the traits contributing for the variation was identified. Hence this population panel can be utilized for trait improvement in breeding programs for the traits contributing for major variation.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the roots and stem bark of Ceiba pentandra were subjected to hot Soxhlet extraction using solvent of different polarity, hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol and water.
Abstract: The roots and stem bark of Ceiba pentandra was subjected to hot Soxhlet extraction using solvent of different polarity, hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol and water. The methanol extracts gave the highest yield of 17.5% highest polar solvent while hexane being the lowest polar solvent gave the least percentage recovery of 1.12%. The colour and texture of each of the extract was also determined. Hexane and ethyl acetate extract showed yellow and orange colour, with the texture oily and solid. While acetone, methanol and water extracts gave brown and dark brown colour with the texture being solid and pastry. The acute toxicity of the extracts was also determined by using both the oral and intraperitoneally dosage concentration. The intraperitoneally dosage with slight modification tends to be toxic than the oral dosage.