Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
About: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Substance abuse & Poison control. It has an ISSN identifier of 0279-1072. Over the lifetime, 2344 publication(s) have been published receiving 56085 citation(s).
Topics: Substance abuse, Poison control, Population, Addiction, Methadone
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In order to explain the breakdown of the reward cascade due to both multiple genes and environmental stimuli (pleiotropism) and resultant aberrant behaviors, Blum united this hypodopaminergic trait under the rubric of a reward deficiency syndrome.
Abstract: The dopaminergic system, and in particular the dopamine D2 receptor, has been implicated in reward mechanisms. The net effect of neurotransmitter interaction at the mesolimbic brain region induces “reward” when dopamine (DA) is released from the neuron at the nucleus accumbens and interacts with a dopamine D2 receptor. “The reward cascade” involves the release of serotonin, which in turn at the hypothalmus stimulates enkephalin, which in turn inhibits GABA at the substania nigra, which in turn fine tunes the amount of DA released at the nucleus accumbens or “reward site.” It is well known that under normal conditions in the reward site DA works to maintain our normal drives. In fact, DA has become to be known as the “pleasure molecule” and/or the “antistress molecule.” When DA is released into the synapse, it stimulates a number a DA receptors (D1-D5) which results in increased feelings of well-being and stress reduction. A consensus of the literature suggests that when there is a dysfunction in ...
TL;DR: The history of opiate withdrawal scales is reviewed and a template version of the COWS that can be copied and used clinically is appended.
Abstract: The clinical opiate withdrawal scale (COWS) is a clinician-administered, pen and paper instrument that rates eleven common opiate withdrawal signs or symptoms. The summed score of the eleven items can be used to assess a patient's level of opiate withdrawal and to make inferences about their level of physical dependence on opioids. With increasing use of opioids for treatment of pain and the availability of sublingual buprenorphine in the United States for treatment of opioid dependence, clinical assessment of opiate withdrawal intensity has received renewed interest. Buprenorphine, a partial opiate agonist at the mu receptor, can precipitate opiate withdrawal in patients with a high level of opioid dependence who are not experiencing opioid withdrawal. Since development of the first opiate withdrawal scale in the mid-1930s, many different opioid withdrawal scales have been used in clinical and research settings. This article reviews the history of opiate withdrawal scales and the context of their initial use. A template version of the COWS that can be copied and used clinically is appended. PDF formatted versions of the COWS are also available from the websites of the American Society of Addiction Medicine, the California Society of Addiction Medicine, the UCLA Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, and AlcoholMD.com.
TL;DR: Historical trauma (HT) is cumulative emotional and psychological wounding over the lifespan and across generations, emanating from massive group trauma experiences; the historical trauma response (HTR) is the constellation of features in reaction to this trauma as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Historical trauma (HT) is cumulative emotional and psychological wounding over the lifespan and across generations, emanating from massive group trauma experiences; the historical trauma response (HTR) is the constellation of features in reaction to this trauma The HTR often includes depression, self-destructive behavior, suicidal thoughts and gestures, anxiety, low self-esteem, anger, and difficulty recognizing and expressing emotions It may include substance abuse, often an attempt to avoid painful feelings through self-medication Historical unresolved grief is the associated affect that accompanies HTR; this grief may be considered fixated, impaired, delayed, and/or disenfranchised This article will explain HT theory and the HTR, delineate the features of the HTR and its grounding in the literature, offer specific Native examples of HT and HTR, and will suggest ways to incorporate HT theory in treatment, research and evaluation The article will conclude with implications for all massively traumatized populations
TL;DR: The widc,pre of psychedelic drug • ,>uch a Iy t:rgic acid dit:lh) IJmide (LSD), dunng Ihe 1960's and 1970' led 10 ev re reaclion by govern menIal agencies and pro criplion~ a '.lin~1 Iheir u e.
Abstract: (1986). Differences Between the Mechanism of Action of MDMA, MBDB, and the Classic Hallucinogens. Identification of a New Therapeutic Class: Entactogens. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs: Vol. 18, MDMA: Proceedings of the Conference, pp. 305-313.
TL;DR: Assessment of historical trauma and implications for research and clinical as well as community interventions, andRecommendations are concluded on ways of alleviating psychological suffering and unresolved grief among Indigenous Peoples of the Americas.
Abstract: Indigenous Peoples of the Americas have experienced devastating collective, intergenerational massive group trauma and compounding discrimination, racism, and oppression. There is increasing evidence of emotional responses to collective trauma and losses among Indigenous Peoples, which may help to inform ways of alleviating psychological suffering and unresolved grief. Tribal cultural and regional differences exist which may impact how the wounding across generations and within an individual's lifespan are experienced and addressed. This article will review the conceptual framework of historical trauma, current efforts to measure the impact of historical trauma upon emotional distress, and research as well as clinical innovations aimed at addressing historical trauma among American Indians/Alaska Natives and other Indigenous Peoples of the Americas. We will discuss assessment of historical trauma and implications for research and clinical as well as community interventions, and conclude with recommendations.
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