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Showing papers in "Journal of Research in Reading in 2005"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article used eye-gaze analysis to determine the extent to which pre-school children visually attended to print when looking at two storybooks and found that children fixated more frequently on print and spent more time looking in print regions when reading a print-salient storybook.
Abstract: This study used eye-gaze analysis to determine the extent to which pre-school children visually attended to print when looking at two storybooks, to contrast visual attention to print for a print-salient versus a picture-salient storybook, and to study individual differences in pre-schoolers' visual preferences. Results indicated that pre-school children infrequently attended to print: in a traditional picture-salient storybook, 2.7% of their fixations focused on print and 2.5% of their time was spent looking in regions of print. The children fixated more frequently on print and spent more time looking in print regions when reading a print-salient storybook, within which 7% of fixations focused on print and 6% of time was spent in print zones. Effect size estimates showed this difference to be consistent with a very large effect. Little variation in visual attention to print was observed across the ten children, and children's alphabet knowledge was not associated with the variance in children's visual attention to print. Educational implications are discussed.

141 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examined several alternative explanations of the association between serial naming speed within fourth-grade children by determining the extent to which the associations between word reading and naming speed for letters and numbers is mediated by global processing speed, alphanumeric symbol processing efficiency and phonological processing ability.
Abstract: The current study examined several alternative explanations of the association between serial naming speed within fourth-grade children by determining the extent to which the association between word reading and naming speed for letters and numbers is mediated by global processing speed, alphanumeric symbol processing efficiency and phonological processing ability. Children were given multiple measures of key constructs, i.e. word-level reading, serial naming of both alphanumeric and non-alphanumeric items, phonological processing ability, articulation rate and global processing speed. The robust association between alphanumeric naming speed and reading within fourth-grade children was largely mediated by phonological processing ability. Markedly different patterns of results were observed for naming speed for letters and digits and naming speed for colours and pictures in children of this age. Relative to the latter, alphanumeric naming speed better assesses an underlying phonological processing ability that is common to word-reading ability. We argue that item identification processes contribute little to individual differences in alphanumeric naming speed within relatively proficient readers and that the extent to which alphanumeric naming speed primarily reflects phonological processing is likely to vary with the level of overlearning of letters and numbers and their names.

127 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The general population is found to have a similar prevalence of MIS to that in previous studies and a prevalence in the dyslexic group that was a little higher (odds ratio for >5% criterion: 2.6, 95% confidence limit 0.3).
Abstract: Meares-Irlen Syndrome (MIS) is characterised by symptoms of visual stress and visual perceptual distortions that are alleviated by using individually prescribed coloured filters. Coloured overlays (sheets of transparent plastic that are placed upon the page) are used to screen for the condition. MIS is diagnosed on the basis of either the sustained voluntary use of an overlay or an immediate improvement (typically of more than 5%) on the Wilkins Rate of Reading Test (WRRT). Various studies are reviewed suggesting a prevalence of 20–34% using these criteria. Stricter criteria give a lower prevalence: for example, 5% of the population read more than 25% faster with an overlay. It has been alleged that MIS is more common in dyslexia, but this has not been systematically investigated. We compared a group of 32 dyslexic with 32 control children aged 7–12 years, matched for age, gender and socio-economic background. Participants were tested with Intuitive Overlays, and those demonstrating a preference had their rate of reading tested using the WRRT with and without their preferred overlay. Both groups read faster with the overlay, and more so in the dyslexic group. ANOVA revealed no significant effect of group, but a significant improvement in WRRT with overlay (p=0.009) and a significant interaction between group and overlay (p=0.031). We found a similar prevalence of MIS in the general population to that in previous studies and a prevalence in the dyslexic group that was a little higher (odds ratio for >5% criterion: 2.6, 95% confidence limit 0.9–7.3). The difference in prevalence in the two groups did not reach statistical significance. We conclude that MIS is prevalent in the general population and possibly a little more common in dyslexia. Children with dyslexia seem to benefit more from coloured overlays than non-dyslexic children. MIS and dyslexia are separate entities and are detected and treated in different ways. If a child has both problems then they are likely to be markedly disadvantaged and they should receive prompt treatments appropriate to the two conditions. It is recommended that education professionals as well as eye-care professionals are alert to the symptoms of MIS and that children are screened for this condition, as well as for other visual anomalies.

123 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper found that the number of pauses on digit naming predicted unique variance in exception word reading and that better readers paused more strategically than poorer readers (e.g. more often at the ends of lines).
Abstract: Thirty 8–11-year-old children were administered tests of rapid naming (RAN letters and digits) and reading-related skills. Consistent with the hypothesis that RAN predicts reading because it assesses the ability to establish arbitrary mappings between visual symbols and verbal labels, RAN accounted for independent variance in exception word reading when phonological skills were controlled. Response timing analysis of different components of RAN digits and letters revealed that neither average item duration nor average pause duration were unique predictors of reading skill. However, the number of pauses on digit naming predicted unique variance in exception word reading. Moreover, better readers paused more strategically than poorer readers (e.g. more often at the ends of lines). We suggest that rapid automatised naming may in part reflect differences in strategic control that are a result of differences in reading practice and experience.

119 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper applied the SERIOL model of orthographic processing to dyslexia and found that the temporal alignment of serial orthographic and phonological representations is a key aspect of learning to read, driving the formation of a phonemic encoding.
Abstract: This article focuses on applying the SERIOL model of orthographic processing to dyslexia. The model is extended to include a phonological route and reading acquisition. We propose that the temporal alignment of serial orthographic and phonological representations is a key aspect of learning to read, driving the formation of a phonemic encoding. The phonemic encoding and the serial representations are mutually reinforcing, leading to automatic, proficient processing of letter strings. A breakdown in any component of this system leads to the failure to form stringspecific phonological and visual representations, resulting in impaired reading ability.

117 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A study predicted that across a wide range of print sizes dyslexic reading would follow the same curve shape as skilled reading, with constant reading rates across large print sizes and a sharp decline in reading rates below a critical print size, following the letter position coding deficit hypothesis.
Abstract: This article details a study which predicted that across a wide range of print sizes dyslexic reading would follow the same curve shape as skilled reading, with constant reading rates across large print sizes and a sharp decline in reading rates below a critical print size. It also predicted that dyslexic readers would require larger critical print sizes to attain their maximum reading speeds, following the letter position coding deficit hypothesis. Reading speed was measured across twelve print sizes ranging from Snellen equivalents of 20/12 to 20/200 letter sizes for a group of dyslexic readers in Grades 2 to 4 (aged 7 to 10 years), and for non-dyslexic readers in Grades 1 to 3 (aged 6 to 8 years). The groups were equated for word reading ability. Results confirmed that reading rate-by-print size curves followed the same two-limbed shape for dyslexic and non-dyslexic readers. Dyslexic reading curves showed higher critical print sizes and shallower reading rate-by-print size slopes below the critical print size, consistent with the hypothesis of a letter-position coding deficit. Non-dyslexic reading curves also showed a decrease of critical print size with age. A developmental lag model of dyslexic reading does not account for the results, since the regression of critical print size on maximum reading rate differed between groups.

101 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors review the literature on visual constraints in written word processing and show that not all letters are equally visible to the reader, and that the visibility of the other letters depends on the distance between the letters and the fixation location, whether the letters are outer or inner letters of the word, and whether they lie to the left or to the right of the fixation location.
Abstract: In this paper we review the literature on visual constraints in written word processing. We notice that not all letters are equally visible to the reader. The letter that is most visible is the letter that is fixated. The visibility of the other letters depends on the distance between the letters and the fixation location, whether the letters are outer or inner letters of the word, and whether the letters lie to the left or to the right of the fixation location. Because of these three factors, word recognition depends on the viewing position. In languages read from left to right, the optimal viewing position is situated between the beginning and the middle of the word. This optimal viewing position is the result of an interplay of four variables: the distance between the viewing position and the farthest letter, the fact that the word beginning is usually more informative than the word end, the fact that during reading words have been recognised a lot of times after fixation on this letter position and the fact that stimuli in the right visual field have direct access to the left cerebral hemisphere. For languages read from right to left, the first three variables pull the optimal viewing position towards the right side of the word (which is the word beginning), but the fourth variable counteracts these forces to some extent. Therefore, the asymmetry of the optimum viewing-position curve is less clear in Hebrew and Arabic than in French and Dutch.

98 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the prospective relationship between reading performance and reading habits among Finnish children during the first and second grades of primary school was investigated and the results showed that children's reading skills predicted their reading habits: the more competent in reading children were at the end of Grade 1, the more likely they were to engage in out-of-school reading one year later.
Abstract: This study investigated the prospective relationships between reading performance and reading habits among Finnish children during the first and second grades of primary school. One hundred and ninety-five children were examined twice during their first primary school year and once during the spring term of Grade 2. The results showed, first, that children's reading skills predicted their reading habits: the more competent in reading children were at the end of Grade 1, the more likely they were to engage in out-of-school reading one year later. Second, reading habits also predicted reading skills: the amount of out-of-school reading at the end of Grade 1 contributed to the development of word recognition skills.

93 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a longitudinal randomised trial, a randomly assigned group of exiting First-Grade children who were economically disadvantaged was enrolled in a seven-week summer reading day camp.
Abstract: During the summer vacation children who are economically disadvantaged experience declines in reading achievement, while middle- and high-income children improve. Previous research has demonstrated that the most widely implemented intervention – sending economically disadvantaged students to summer school – has not led to increases in reading achievement. In this longitudinal randomised trial, a randomly assigned group of exiting First-Grade children who were economically disadvantaged was enrolled in a seven-week summer reading day camp. The intervention students' reading achievement was then compared to control group participants at four time points. Results showed noteworthy differences for intervention students in reading comprehension.

88 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper explored whether highly effective teachers of literacy used teaching behaviours that were independent of any specific program, whether these were consistent between teachers and different literacy teaching contexts, and whether teacher perceptions corresponded with observations of their behaviour.
Abstract: There is much current interest in the identification of effective programmes for raising literacy standards. However, the effectiveness of such programmes might vary greatly according to implementation integrity and the preferred teaching styles or behaviours of teachers. This research explored whether highly effective teachers of literacy used teaching behaviours that were independent of any specific programme, whether these were consistent between teachers and different literacy teaching contexts, and whether teacher perceptions corresponded with observations of their behaviour. Five teachers were selected on the basis of high pupil literacy attainment and expert nomination, and observed during shared reading and general literacy teaching contexts. These highly effective literacy teachers tended to utilise similar teaching behaviours, but they did not utilise all behaviours thought to be associated with pupil achievement. Additionally, they utilised effective behaviours more in shared reading sessions than in general literacy sessions. Thus even these highly effective literacy teachers had room for improvement. To some extent the teachers were actually using more complex behaviours than they reported perceiving. They did not appear to perceive their behavioural variation between contexts, nor any under-use of other effective teaching behaviours. The implications for professional practice, professional development and future research are explored.

75 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The relationship between dyslexia and visual stress (known as Meares-Irlen syndrome) is uncertain this paper and the relationship between visual stress and reading performance of dyslexic and non-dyslexic adults with and without, colour was determined by means of a symptom rating scale.
Abstract: The relationship between dyslexia and visual stress (sometimes known as Meares-Irlen syndrome) is uncertain. While some theorists have hypothesised an aetiological link between the two conditions, mediated by the magnocellular visual system, at the present time the predominant theories of dyslexia and visual stress see them as distinct, unrelated conditions, a view that has received some support from studies with children. Studies of visual stress in adults are rare, yet recent reports of a high incidence of this phenomenon amongst university students with diagnosed dyslexia call for further investigation of the issue. This study sought to clarify the relationship between visual stress and dyslexia by comparing the reading performance of dyslexic and non-dyslexic adults with, and without, colour. Degree of susceptibility to visual stress was determined by means of a symptom rating scale. Optimal colour was determined using an Intuitive Colorimeter, which was also employed to assess reading speed under the two experimental conditions. Only the dyslexic students with high visual stress showed significant gains in reading speed when using optimal colour. The use of response to treatment (rather than symptomatology) as a diagnostic criterion for visual stress is questioned, especially when applied to adults, as this may give misleading findings. On the basis of reported symptomatology, students who experience high levels of visual stress are more likely to show improvements in reading rate with optimal colour if they also have dyslexia than if they do not have dyslexia. Although not establishing an aetiological link, these findings imply an interaction between the two conditions with major implications for theory, diagnosis and treatment.

Journal ArticleDOI
Clare Wood1
TL;DR: In this article, a small-scale study was conducted to investigate whether a phonic-based "talking book" could outperform one-to-one reading tuition with an adult with respect to improving beginning readers' phonological awareness over a short period.
Abstract: This paper reports on a small-scale study that considered whether a phonic-based 'talking book' could outperform one-to-one reading tuition with an adult with respect to improving beginning readers' phonological awareness over a short period. It also examined whether the children's reading strategies were affected by their use of the software. Two groups of children. one aged five years and one aged six years, used three phonic-based talking books over six 15-minute sessions and were assessed on their phonological awareness and reading strategies both before and after this intervention. Their performance was compared to that of matched comparison groups who were given one-to-one adult tutoring with the paper versions of the same books. There were no significant differences between the two groups in their phonological awareness attainment, with both groups showing equivalent gains from pre- to post-test. Use of specific features of the software was associated with gains in rhyme detection ability and with changes in the children's reading strategies.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed a hypothesis for how adequate early sensory coding may be intrinsic to phonological awareness and subsequent reading ability in dyslexic readers, based on a cortical network that incorporates the visual, auditory and phonological skills of reading.
Abstract: In addition to an intrinsic difficulty in reading and spelling, one of the defining characteristics of dyslexia is an enduring and pervasive difficulty in phonological coding, such that dyslexic readers find it particularly challenging to process and manipulate the constituent sounds of a language. Coexistent with this finding is the evidence that some dyslexic readers also demonstrate subtle sensory coding problems in the visual and auditory domains. Few theories have been proposed to unite these different findings within a coherent model of reading. Here the evidence for visual, auditory and phonological coding problems in dyslexia is briefly reviewed, and a hypothesis is proposed for how adequate early sensory coding may be intrinsic to phonological awareness and subsequent reading ability. In this hypothesis, a cortical network is assumed that incorporates the visual, auditory and phonological skills of reading. The visual sub-component of the network is mediated by the dorsal visual pathway, which is responsible for the accurate spatial encoding of letters, words and text. The auditory component of the network in pre-readers is intrinsic to the development of phonological sensitivity, and then grapheme-phoneme assimilation as reading skills develop. In this hypothesis, some of the symptoms of dyslexia may result from subtle problems in the encoding of both visual and auditory information and their role in maintaining the synchronicity of the reading network.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors provided a brief review of Ehri's influential four phases of reading development: pre-alphabetic, partial alphabetic, full alophabetic, and consolidated alphabetic.
Abstract: A theory of how children progress through different phases of reading should be an asset both to reading researchers and teachers alike. The present paper provides a brief review of Ehri’s influential four phases of reading development: pre-alphabetic, partial alphabetic, full alphabetic and consolidated alphabetic. The model is flexible enough to acknowledge that children do not necessarily progress through these phases in strict sequence. Such flexibility is perhaps both a strength and a weakness. Despite some minor problems (such as weak operational definition, little attempt to relate to underlying developing cognitive structure, a final phase that seems removed from mature skilled reading) the model has served reasonably well as a flexible framework rather than as a set of falsifiable scientific hypotheses.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Schreuder and van Bon as discussed by the authors published the first paper in the Journal of Research in Reading on the topic of phonological awareness, which appeared some fifteen years after the seminal paper by Liberman, Shankweiler, Fischer and Carter, which had demonstrated that there was a relationship between spoken word segmentation ability and reading acquisition.
Abstract: The first paper published in the Journal of Research in Reading on the topic of phonological awareness (Schreuder & van Bon, 1989) appeared some fifteen years after the seminal paper by Liberman, Shankweiler, Fischer and Carter (1974), which had demonstrated that there was a relationship between spoken word segmentation ability and reading acquisition. That the field had moved on in those fifteen years is evident in the sophistication of the questions addressed by Schreuder and van Bon. I present here a brief summary of Schreuder and van Bon's paper, and explore how some of the issues they discuss have been developed over the subsequent fifteen years.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A systematic review of the quasi-experimental literature in the field of adult literacy and numeracy, published between 1980 and 2002, is presented in this paper, which includes 27 controlled trials (CTs) that evaluated strategies and pedagogies designed to increase adult literacy.
Abstract: This paper reports a systematic review of the quasi-experimental literature in the field of adult literacy and numeracy, published between 1980 and 2002. We included 27 controlled trials (CTs) that evaluated strategies and pedagogies designed to increase adult literacy and numeracy: 18 CTs with no effect sizes (incomplete data) and 9 CTs with full data. These nine trials are examined in detail for this paper. Of these nine trials, six evaluated interventions in literacy and three evaluated interventions in literacy and numeracy. Three of the nine trials showed a positive effect for the interventions, five trials showed no difference and one trial showed a positive effect for the control treatment. The quality of the trials was variable, but many of them had some methodological problems. There was no evidence of publication bias in the review. There have been few attempts to expose common adult literacy or numeracy programmes to rigorous evaluation and therefore in terms of policy and practice it is difficult to make any recommendations as to the type of adult education that should be supported. In contrast, however, the review does provide a strong steer for the direction to be taken by educational researchers: because of the present inadequate evidence base rigorously designed randomised controlled trials and quasi-experiments are required as a matter of urgency.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors investigated the relative roles of internal and external letter features in word recognition and found that outer parts of words appear to provide more relevant information for lexical access at an earlier stage than inner fragments.
Abstract: This study investigates the relative roles of internal and external letter features in word recognition. In Experiment 1 the efficacy of outer word fragments (words with all their horizontal internal features removed) was compared with inner word fragments (words with their outer features removed) as primes in a forward masking paradigm. These forward masked primes were followed by a word to be read aloud. Outer word primes presented for longer durations produced significantly faster naming responses than inner primes. Outer parts of words appear to provide more relevant information for lexical access at an earlier stage than inner fragments. In Experiment 2 words with only external features were named correctly on 96% of occasions compared with 52% of words with only their inner features presented. This indicates much greater information content in the periphery of a word (despite having a reduced area of print available: 45% compared to 55%). Multiple regression analyses controlling for ‘guessability’ (from data in Experiment 2) still produced significantly faster reaction times in the outer relative to the inner priming condition for longer prime durations. These experiments demonstrate that first, the most informative letter features are concentrated in the peripheral region of words; and second, even controlling for this effect, readers appear to have a bias towards analysing outer features of a word before inner features.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article identified possible culturally dependent sources of literacy problems in Law and Economics students in Great Britain, France and Spain, finding that academic reading practices are more important overall in Britain, significantly less so in Spain, while France shows some characteristics of both British and Spanish approaches.
Abstract: Study-abroad students, products of their own particular academic literacy culture, face the challenge of rapidly integrating into a foreign academic literacy community. This study identifies possible culturally dependent sources of literacy problems in Law and Economics students in Great Britain, France and Spain. Nearly 600 potential European study-abroad candidates (ERASMUS programme) and 169 of their university teachers from 17 universities in the three countries completed a questionnaire on first language (L1) reading practices. Results revealed distinct academic literacy profiles within disciplines across national cultures. Academic reading practices are seen to be more important overall in Britain, significantly less so in Spain, while France shows some characteristics of both British and Spanish approaches. Summarised results of a concurrent investigation into ERASMUS students' foreign language reading skills suggest the influence of L1 literacy traditions on foreign language reading, which points to pedagogical implications and directions for further study.

Journal ArticleDOI
Ros Fisher1
TL;DR: The authors consider the importance of interaction between teacher and pupil in learning to read and argue that despite initiatives calling for high quality interaction, there is still no agreement about what high-quality interaction should look like.
Abstract: Taking as a starting point a paper published in 1981, this paper considers the importance of interaction between teacher and pupil in learning to read. Twenty-five years ago, the study of classroom language was relatively new. Research perspectives have moved from describing the process of interaction between teacher and child to considering the outcomes. At the same time a greater awareness of the sociocultural nature of language and classrooms has developed. An enduring theme in research from a variety of perspectives has been the call for more extended opportunities for exchanges about texts and more reciprocity in teacher-child dialogue. Studies of classroom practice, however, evidence persistence in the use of triadic dialogue in which the teacher controls the interaction and effectively closes down discussion. Despite initiatives calling for high-quality interaction, it is argued here that there is still no agreement about what high-quality interaction should look like.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article evaluated a computerized program for training spelling in 8- to 13-year-olds with receptive language impairments, which involved children typing words corresponding to pictured items whose names were spoken, and gave phonological and orthographic cues to build up the word's spelling.
Abstract: This study evaluated a computerised program for training spelling in 8- to 13-yearolds with receptive language impairments. The training program involved children typing words corresponding to pictured items whose names were spoken. If the child made an error or requested help, the program gave phonological and orthographic cues to build up the word’s spelling. Eleven children received this training with ordinary speech, and eleven had the same program but with speech modified to lengthen and amplify dynamic portions of the signal. Nine children were in an untrained control group. Trained children completed between 6 and 29 training sessions each of 15 minutes, at a rate of 3 to 5 sessions per week, with an average of over 1000 trials. Children were assessed before and after training. Trained children learned an average of 1.4 novel spellings per session. The trend was for children presented with modified speech to do less well than those trained with ordinary speech, regardless of whether they had auditory temporal processing impairments. Trained groups did not differ from the untrained control group in terms of gains made on standardised tests of spelling or word and nonword reading. This study confirms the difficulty of training literacy skills in children with severe language impairments. Individual words may be learned, but more general knowledge of rulebased phonological skills is harder to acquire.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article investigated the ability of the Dyslexia Adult Screening Test (DAST) to discriminate between 117 post-secondary students with carefully diagnosed SLDs and 121 comparison students.
Abstract: In Ontario, Canada, there is a demand for psychometrically robust screening tools capable of efficiently identifying students with specific learning disabilities (SLD), such as dyslexia. The present study investigated the ability of the Dyslexia Adult Screening Test (DAST) to discriminate between 117 post-secondary students with carefully diagnosed SLDs and 121 comparison students. Results indicated that the DAST correctly identified only 74% of the students with SLDs as ‘highly at risk’ for dyslexia. Although employing the cutoff for ‘mildly at risk’ correctly identified 85% of the students with SLDs, this also increased the percentage of students with no major history of learning problems identified as ‘at risk’ for dyslexia from 16% to 26%. These findings suggest that the DAST in its present form is limited in its ability to screen for SLDs. Implications for future research are discussed.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article investigated how two readers of Mandarin with differing reading-proficiency skills interacted with a narrative passage, as well as what knowledge they brought to and made use of while reading the text, and found that the skilled reader employed strategies of inferencing, summarization and synthesis during and after reading, while the less-skilled reader applied bridging inferences, paraphrasing and repetition.
Abstract: This study investigated how two readers of Mandarin with differing reading-proficiency skills interacted with a narrative passage, as well as what knowledge they brought to and made use of while reading the text. The perspectives of reading comprehension, transactional theory and social-cognitive models of reading served as this study's theoretical framework. Two Sixth-Grade participants were selected for inclusion through snowball sampling. The data in this study were obtained from interviews and think-alouds. Qualitative analysis indicated that the skilled Mandarin reader's stance moved along the efferent/aesthetic continuum, while the less-skilled Mandarin reader's was mainly efferent. The skilled reader employed strategies of inferencing, summarisation and synthesis during and after reading, while the less-skilled reader applied bridging inferences, paraphrasing and repetition. The findings of this study corroborate previous findings that proficient readers employ more sophisticated approaches to reading than less-proficient readers.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors argue that the reading of words and text is fundamentally conditioned by the splitting of the fovea and the hemispheric division of the brain, and furthermore that the equitable division of labour between the hem hemispheres is a characteristic of normal visual word recognition.
Abstract: University of EdinburghWe argue that the reading of words and text is fundamentally conditioned by thesplitting of the fovea and the hemispheric division of the brain, and, furthermore, thatthe equitable division of labour between the hemispheres is a characteristic of normalvisual word recognition. We report analyses of a representative corpus of the eyefixations of normal readers in the realistic reading of text where we comparehemispheric processing, quantified in terms of uncertainty about the orthographic,phonological and semantic representations of the words of the text. The analysesshow that normal reading is accurately understood in terms of an equitable divisionof labour in the construction of the orthographic identity of the word and that, forEnglish, a semantic division patterns closely with the orthographic division. We inferthat impaired inter-hemispheric co-ordination of orthographic information maybe best compensated for by a reliance on the inter-hemispheric co-ordination ofsemantic information, as in phonological dyslexia.

Journal ArticleDOI
Kate Nation1
TL;DR: This paper revisited some of these issues and examined how subsequent research has consolidated and extended Snowling et al.'s findings and conclusions and concluded that object-naming deficits in developmental dyslexia can be identified.
Abstract: One of the most frequently cited papers from the twenty-five years of the Journal of Research in Reading is ‘Object-naming deficits in developmental dyslexia’ by Maggie Snowling, Bente van Wagtendonk and Carolyn Stafford, published in 1988. Looking back at the paper some sixteen years after its publication, it is striking to note how topical some of the issues discussed by Snowling and colleagues remain. This commentary revisits some of these issues and examines how subsequent research has consolidated and extended Snowling et al.'s findings and conclusions.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors found that the degree of "wordlikeness" of nonwords affects young children's nonword repetition performance, and that children with poorer repetition ability were significantly poorer than the better repeaters with nonwords with few neighbours.
Abstract: Previous research has established that the degree of ‘wordlikeness’ of nonwords affects young children's nonword repetition performance. Experiment 1 examined the possibility that output processes are responsible for the wordlikeness effect by using a probed recall procedure. Wordlikeness was defined in terms of phonological neighbourhood density, although this measure was found to be related to the traditional measure of wordlikeness involving adult ratings. A significant effect of number of phonological neighbours/wordlikeness was observed in favour of nonwords with many neighbours. In Experiments 2 and 3 the wordlikeness effect was qualified by a significant interaction with nonword repetition ability. Children with poorer repetition ability were affected by number of neighbours/wordlikeness, while children with better repetition ability were not. Children with poorer repetition ability were significantly poorer than the better repeaters with nonwords with few neighbours. The results were interpreted in terms of theories of phonological development that suggest progressive segmentation of lexical representations. In Experiment 4 the relationship of children's nonword repetition ability to phonemic discrimination ability was investigated. The results demonstrated that children with better nonword repetition ability had superior phonemic discrimination performance than children with poorer nonword repetition ability.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article used the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability and Goodman's taxonomy of oral reading errors to identify dyslexic readers. But they found that dyslexics do not resemble beginning readers.
Abstract: Thomson was the first of very few researchers to have studied oral reading errors as a means of addressing the question: Are dyslexic readers different to other readers? Using the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability and Goodman's taxonomy of oral reading errors, Thomson concluded that dyslexic readers are different, but he found that they do not resemble beginning readers. Thomson's study and his use of miscue analysis is re-evaluated, both in relation to the educational and political climate of the time – which was hostile to the concept of dyslexia – and in the light of research and social developments since then. The study of oral reading still has value today, both for the teacher and the researcher, provided its limitations as a technique are fully appreciated.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that the effects of serial position and number of letters in the two visual fields are separable, and are selectively affected by task type.
Abstract: Some previous studies of visual word recognition have reported an interaction between visual field and word length (measured by number of letters), such that recognition is affected more by word length for words presented in the left than for words presented in the right visual field. However, when manipulating serial position of letters in words to measure length effects, there are also reports of symmetrical word length effects in the two visual fields. Here we report two experiments, presenting four- and seven-letter words, suggesting that the serial position and length effects in the hemispheres are separable and task dependent. For tasks that rely more heavily on letter-level processing such as letter search (Experiment 1), performance in both hemifields showed similar effects of serial position; however, when comparing four- and seven-letter words, an effect of word length was evident only in the left visual field, in line with the well-established interaction between word length and hemifield. An interaction between word length and hemifield was confirmed for the same stimuli when they were employed in a lexical decision task, which forced whole-word processing (Experiment 2). We conclude that the effects of serial position and number of letters in the two visual fields are separable, and are selectively affected by task type.