Journal of Sedimentary Research
About: Journal of Sedimentary Research is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Sedimentary rock & Sedimentary depositional environment. It has an ISSN identifier of 1527-1404. Over the lifetime, 7097 publication(s) have been published receiving 283567 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, a bar on the Brazos River near Calvert, Texas, has been analyzed in order to determine the geologic meaning of certain grain size parameters and to study the behavior of the size fractions with transport.
Abstract: A bar on the Brazos River near Calvert, Texas, has been analyzed in order to determine the geologic meaning of certain grain size parameters and to study the behavior of the size fractions with transport. The bar consists of a strongly bimodal mixture of pebble gravel and medium to fine sand; there is a lack of material in the range of 0.5 to 2 mm, because the source does not supply particles of this size. The size distributions of the two modes, which were established in the parent deposits, are nearly invariant over the bar because the present environment of deposition only affects the relative proportions of the two modes, not the grain size properties of the modes themselves. Two proportions are most common; the sediment either contains no gravel or else contains about 60% gravel. Three sediment types with characteristic bedding features occur on the bar in constant stratigraphic order, with the coarsest at the base. Statistical analysis of the data is based on a series of grain size parameters modified from those of Inman (1952) to provide a more detailed coverage of non-normal size curves. Unimodal sediments have nearly normal curves as defined by their skewness and kurtosis. Non-normal kurtosis and skewness values are held to be the identifying characteristics of bimodal sediments even where such modes are not evident in frequency curves. The relative proportions of each mode define a systematic series of changes in numerical properties; mean size, standard deviation and skewness are shown to be linked in a helical trend, which is believed to be applicable to many other sedimentary suites. The equations of the helix may be characteristic of certain environments. Kurtosis values show rhythmic pulsations along the helix and are diagnostic of two-generation sediments.
TL;DR: In this article, a modified ignition loss method is described for determining organic and carbonate carbon in calcareous sedimentary materials using equipment found in most laboratories and has been found to equal or excel the accuracy and precision of other methods tested and has the advantage of being considerably faster if large numbers of samples are to be analyzed.
Abstract: A modified ignition loss method is described for determining organic and carbonate carbon in calcareous sedimentary materials using equipment found in most laboratories. The method has been found to equal or excel the accuracy and precision of other methods tested and has the advantage of being considerably faster if large numbers of samples are to be analyzed.
TL;DR: In this article, sediment deposition from individual sediment flows commonly involves more than one of these mechanisms acting either serially as the flow evolves or simultaneously on different grain populations, and the effects of hindered settling, dispersive pressure, and matrix buoyant lift are con entration dependent.
Abstract: Four principal mechanisms of deposition are effective in the formation of sediment gravity flow deposits. Grains deposited by traction sedimentation and suspension sedimentation respond individually and accumulate directly from bed and suspended loads, respectively. Those deposited by frictional freezing and cohesive freezing interact through either frictional contact or cohesive forces, respectively, and are deposited collectively, usually by plug formation. Sediment deposition from individual sediment flows commonly involves more than one of these mechanisms acting either serially as the flow evolves or simultaneously on different grain populations. Deposition from turbidity currents is treated in terms of three dynamic grain populations: 1) clay- to medium-grained sand-sized particles that can be fully suspended as individual grains by flow turbulence, 2) coarse-grained sand to small-pebble-sized gravel that can be fully suspended in large amounts mainly in highly concentrated turbulent suspensions where grain fall velocity is substantially reduced by hindered settling, and 3) pebble- and cobble-sized clasts having concentrations greater than 10 percent to 15 percent that will be supported largely by dispersive pressure resulting from clast collisions and by buoyant lift provided by the interstitial mixture of water and finer-grained sediment. The effects of hindered settling, dispersive pressure, and matrix buoyant lift are con entration dependent, and grain populations 2 and 3 are likely to be transported in large amounts only within flows having high particle concentrations, probably in excess of 20 percent solids by volume. Low-density turbidity currents, made up largely of grains of population 1, typically show an initial period of traction sedimentation, forming Bouma (Tb) and Tc) divisions, followed by one of mixed traction and suspension sedimentation (Td), and a terminal period of fine-grained suspension sedimentation (Te). The sediment loads of high-density turbidity currents commonly include grains belonging to populations 1, 2, and 3. Consequently, deposition often occurs as a series of discrete sedimentation waves as flows decelerate and individual grain populations can no longer be maintained in transport. Each sedimentation wave tends to show increasing unsteadiness and accelerating sedimentation rate as it evolves, passing from an initial stage of traction sedimentation, to one of mixed frictional freezing and suspension sedimentation within traction carpets, to a final stage of direct suspension sedimentation. Sequences of sedimentary structure divisions representing this succession of depositional stages are here termed the ecoR1-3) sequence, representing population 3 grains, and the S1-3) sequence, representing population 2. Deposition of the high-density suspended load leaves behind a residual low-density turbidity current composed largely of population 1 grains. At their distal ends, high-density turbidity currents deposit mainly by suspension sedimentation, forming thin (S3) divisions. These (S3) divisions are the same as Bouma (Ta) and, if subsequently capped by (Tb-e) deposited by the residual low-density flows, become the basal divisions of normal turbidities. Liquefied flows deposit by direct high-density suspension sedimentation. Grain flows of sand are characterized by frictional freezing and their deposits are limited mainly to angle-of-repose slipface units. Density-modified grain flows, in which larger clasts are partially supported by matrix buoyancy, and traction carpets, in which a dense frictional grain dispersion is driven by an overlying turbulent flow, are important in the buildup of natural deposits on submarine slopes. Cohesive debris flows depost sediment mainly by cohesive freezing, commonly modified by suspension sedimentation of the largest clasts.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used scanning electron microscopy to characterize the pore system in the Barnett Shale of the Fort Worth Basin, Texas, showing that the pores in these rocks are dominantly nanometer in scale (nanopores).
Abstract: Research on mudrock attributes has increased dramatically since shale-gas systems have become commercial hydrocarbon production targets. One of the most significant research questions now being asked focuses on the nature of the pore system in these mudrocks. Our work on siliceous mudstones from the Mississippian Barnett Shale of the Fort Worth Basin, Texas, shows that the pores in these rocks are dominantly nanometer in scale (nanopores). We used scanning electron microscopy to characterize Barnett pores from a number of cores and have imaged pores as small as 5 nm. Key to our success in imaging these nanopores is the use of Ar-ion-beam milling; this methodology provides flat surfaces that lack topography related to differential hardness and are fundamental for high-magnification imaging. Nanopores are observed in three main modes of occurrence. Most pores are found in grains of organic matter as intraparticle pores; many of these grains contain hundreds of pores. Intraparticle organic nanopores most commonly have irregular, bubblelike, elliptical cross sections and range between 5 and 750 nm with the median nanopore size for all grains being approximately 100 nm. Internal porosities of up to 20.2% have been measured for whole grains of organic matter based on point-count data from scanning electron microscopy analysis. These nanopores in the organic matter are the predominant pore type in the Barnett mudstones and they are related to thermal maturation. Nanopores are also found in bedding-parallel, wispy, organic-rich laminae as intraparticle pores in organic grains and as interparticle pores between organic matter, but this mode is not common. Although less abundant, nanopores are also locally present in fine-grained matrix areas unassociated with organic matter and as nano- to microintercrystalline pores in pyrite framboids. Intraparticle organic nanopores and pyrite-framboid intercrystalline pores contribute to gas storage in Barnett mudstones. We postulate that permeability pathways within the Barnett mudstones are along bedding-parallel layers of organic matter or a mesh network of organic matter flakes because this material contains the most pores.
TL;DR: In this paper, an attempt is made to standardize nomenclature of sediment types relative to sand, silt, and clay content, and a triangle diagram with boundaries between types is submitted and compared with other systems which have been used for the purpose.
Abstract: Following a canvassing of sedimentationists an attempt is made to standardize nomenclature of sediment types relative to sand, silt, and clay content. A triangle diagram with boundaries between types, which met with general approval, is submitted and compared with other systems which have been used for the purpose. The new system uses old well established names and has a simplicity and symmetry which make it easily remembered. The boundaries appear to be well located for description of sediments such as those that have been analyzed in large volume from the investigations of the northern Gulf of Mexico (API Project 51), but it is inadequate in describing well sorted sediments with median diameters near the boundaries of sand and silt or silt and clay. The nomenclature suggested applie only to sediment grade sizes so that other names should be used depending on other characteristics of the sediments. Furthermore, the nomenclature should not be applied to sediments containing large percentages of gravel.
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