Journal of Sustainable Development
Canadian Center of Science and Education
About: Journal of Sustainable Development is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Sustainability & Sustainable development. It has an ISSN identifier of 1913-9063. It is also open access. Over the lifetime, 1631 publications have been published receiving 14467 citations.
TL;DR: This study critically examines how open source 3-D printers enable the use of designs in the public domain to fabricate open source appropriate technology (OSAT), which are easily and economically made from readily available resources by local communities to meet their needs.
Abstract: The technological evolution of the 3-D printer, widespread internet access and inexpensive computing has made a new means of open design capable of accelerating self-directed sustainable development. This study critically examines how open source 3-D printers, such as the RepRap and Fab@home, enable the use of designs in the public domain to fabricate open source appropriate technology (OSAT), which are easily and economically made from readily available resources by local communities to meet their needs. The current capabilities of open source 3-D printers is reviewed and a new classification scheme is proposed for OSATs that are technically feasible and economically viable for production. Then, a methodology for quantifying the properties of printed parts and a research trajectory is outlined to extend the existing technology to provide complete village-level fabrication of OSATs. Finally, conclusions are drawn on the potential for open source 3-D printers to assist in driving sustainable development.
TL;DR: The role of small and medium enterprises in the economic and social development of the country is well established as discussed by the authors and the major advantage of the sector is its employment potential at low capital cost.
Abstract: Small and medium enterprises have been considered as the engine of economic growth and for promoting equitable development. The major advantage of the sector is its employment potential at low capital cost. The labour intensity of the SME sector is much higher than that of the large enterprises. The role of small and medium enterprises in the economic and social development of the country is well established. The sector is a nursery of entrepreneurship, often driven by individual creativity and innovation. The paper concludes that besides the growth potential of the sector and its critical role in the manufacturing and value chains. There wide spread in Nigeria and the multiplier effects they have on the rest of the economy enable them to be the engine of economic progress. It was also noted that the SME sector is the main driving force behind job creation, poverty reduction, wealth creation, income distribution and reduction in income disparities. Most of the government interventions failed to create a much needed transformation due to poor coordination and monitoring and policy inconsistencies. SME sector also formed the vanguard of the modern enterprise sector and presents the propelling force of economic modernization and growth in Nigeria. They are important sector that need to be adequately factored into policy making and programme implementation in Nigeria.
TL;DR: In this paper, a study of smallholder farmers' perceptions of climate change and conservation agriculture was conducted, which indicated existence of other important reasons for practicing conservation agriculture than adaptation to climate change.
Abstract: Actors involved in promoting conservation agriculture have often not taken into account perceptions of smallholder farmers of climate change and CA as an adaptation strategy. This study documents smallholder farmers’ perceptions of climate change and conservation agriculture. Most farmers attributed climate change to supernatural forces. Smallholder farmers’ perceptions related to floods and droughts were significantly associated with adoption of conservation agriculture. Extent to which smallholder farmers perceived conservation agriculture as a climate change adaptation strategy was very low. This suggests existence of other important reasons for practicing conservation agriculture than adaptation to climate change. Policy implications of the study are: conservation agriculture projects should not only focus on technical approaches to increase adoption rates but also consider social aspects such as perceptions that are equally important in conservation agriculture. Inclusion of climate change communication to facilitate exchange of climatic information that would enable smallholder farmers relate to conservation agriculture as an adaptation strategy is essential.
TL;DR: In this article, a review article on the impacts of technology adoption on agricultural productivity in smallholder agriculture in the sub-Saharan African region is presented, where the authors identify the factors affecting technology adoption are assets, income, institutions, vulnerability, awareness, labour, and innovativeness by smallholder farmers.
Abstract: This paper is a review article on the impacts of technology adoption on agricultural productivity in smallholder agriculture in the sub-Saharan African region. The use of agricultural technologies determines how the increase in agricultural output impacts on poverty levels and environmental degradation. Experience and evidence from countries within and around the sub-Saharan African region indicate that returns to agricultural technology development could be very high and far reaching. The factors affecting technology adoption are assets, income, institutions, vulnerability, awareness, labour, and innovativeness by smallholder farmers. Technologies that require few assets, have a lower risk premium, and are less expensive have a higher chance of being adopted by smallholder farmers. There are certain traditional smallholder agricultural technologies in sub-Saharan Africa that also have their own merits. Some of these technologies are more efficient in their use of scarce production resources than modern technologies. Modern researchers should therefore seek to understand the rationale behind traditional smallholder farmer behaviour in technology use. This will make their future technological interventions in smallholder agriculture more effective.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examine aspects of additive manufacturing from a sustainable design perspective, and propose a tool in the arsenal to bring about the sustainable design of consumer products, which could become a useful tool for sustainable design.
Abstract: The advent of additive manufacturing technologies presents a number of opportunities that have the potential to greatly benefit designers, and contribute to the sustainability of products. Additive manufacturing technologies have removed many of the manufacturing restrictions that may previously have compromised a designer’s ability to make the product they imagined, which can increase product desirability, pleasure and attachment. Products can also be extensively customized to the user thus, once again, potentially increasing their desirability, pleasure and attachment and therefore their longevity. As additive manufacturing technologies evolve, and more new materials become available, and multiple material technologies are further developed, the field of product design has the potential to greatly change.This paper examines aspects of additive manufacturing from a sustainable design perspective could become a useful tool in the arsenal to bring about the sustainable design of consumer products.
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